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Kevin Jones' Steam Index

Locomotive Magazine & Railway & Carriage Review
Volume 22 (1916)

Number 281 (15 January 1916)

Rebuilt four-cylinder six-coupled express engine, London & South Western Railway. 1. illustration., diagram (side elevation)
Urie rebuild of Drummond Paddlebox 4-6-0

Midland Ry. 1.
4-2-2 singles being used to pilot goods trains: Nos. 601, 630, 633 and 647.

Victorian Rys. 1
62 locomotives were on order to be fitted with Robinson superheaters.

Superheater tank locomotive, North British Ry. 2. illustration
Built by North Brtish Locomotive Co, to design of Reid, with Robinson superheaters: Nos. 438 and 439 had been supplied: former illustrated 

2-8-0-0-8-2 locomotive, Serbian Government Rys. 4. illustration.
American Locomotive Co. Mallet compound for 2ft 6in gauge with 3ft diameter coupled wheels; 13 x 20in high pressure and 20½ x 20in low pressure cylinders; 1331.5ft2 total heating surface and 23.2ft2 grate area.

Caledonian Ry. 4.
Several Great Central Railway 0-6-0 type were working on the Caledonian Railway, including Nos. 801, 809, 826 and 830.

The Snowdon Mountain Tramroad. 5-7. 4 illustrations.
Construction began in December 1894 and opened in 1896. The engineers were Sir Douglas Fox and Francis Fox and the contractors were Holme & King. The Abt rack system was used.. The locomotivees wwer built by the Swiss Locomotive & Engine Works at Winterthur. Illustrations include No. 4 Snowdon. See also page 17.

The use of white metal in bearings. 7-8.
The bearings and other working parts of a locomotive are required to be of ample proportions for the weight they have to carry, or other work they have to do, if good results are looked for in service. The provision of ample surfaces alone, however, will not always be sufficient to command entire success. The materials, of which the rubbing surfaces are made, have to be taken into account for the best results to be obtained. Thus, some metals run together well, and will keep cool, others will not. Some again are more susceptible than others to the soothing action of the lubricating medium used to reduce friction, and knowledge of these facts will form a very necessary part of the designer's stock of information. It is well known, for instance, that gun metal works well on iron or steel, but that steel on steel is generally to be avoided, especially for large work. For small pins such as in the motion of the engine, hard metals are very successful.
Cast iron on cast iron gives good results, if care be taken to keep the parts well lubricated and cool, otherwise fracture will very soon ensue, as this metal breaks very short if the rubbing surfaces begin to seize. The best combination for bearings is to make one of the wearing parts of a material softer than the other. No doubt the good effects resulting are due to the fact that the softer material yields somewhat to the inequalities of the harder metal, and this giving way of one of the metals permits of easy running. Conversely, the hard, unyielding surfaces of steel on steel have exactly the opposite effect, as neither will give in to the other, and friction naturally follows, causing heating, which again increases the friction until failure occurs.
Within certain limits, the softer the soft bearing, the better the result obtained, and tho material generally employed is that which is usually known as "white metal" from its appearance, and sometimes, particularly in America, as "Babbit" from the name of its originator. This white metal is an alloy of several metals, the proportions varying according to the results wished for. Nearly every railway has its own formula for the mixture, but a typical one may be taken as 73 parts of tin, 10 parts of antimony, and 4½ parts of copper. This will be melted up in the foundry, and supplied in blocks to the white metallers, who heat it to a molten state for use, and add 12½ parts of zinc to it before use. All the parts mentioned are by weight.
It is very important that the white metal should be well supported by another metal possessing more strength as, unless reinforced in some way, white metal alone would be crushed and deformed. For instance, in locomotive axle boxes it will usually be found good practice to cast the bearing area with recesses in the face, into which the white metal is run, and then turned up with the axlebox so that the actual bearing face is partly gun metal, but more largely white metal. In some cases it is possible to make one of the wearing faces entirely of white metal, in which a very thin layer is attached to the harder metal. Even in such cases, however, it will be found best to provide for the harder metal to project all round the softer white metal, to prevent the edges breaking off. At least some form of "key" will be necessary, such as serrations in the hard metal or holes in which the white metal can penetrate and get a grip. Tender bearings, for instance, are often made with practically their whole bearing area of white metal, and they give excellent results if care be taken to make the white metal adhere firmly to the axlebox proper.
The problem of attaching the two metals together is one that the white metaller has to overcome, as on the success of his workmanship rests the whole responsibility for good results to be obtained in the after work of the engine in running. The article to be white metalled has first to be thoroughly cleaned from scale or rust at those parts which are required to be lined up. This cleaning is done, either by mechanical means such as turning, or filing or, chipping or by chemical means by immersion in an acid bath. The latter method is preferable, but not always possible, so the former is often met with in service. It depends also upon the metal of the part to be lined up, as if this is cast iron it is more difficult to make the white metal adhere to it, than if it is a metal more nearly akin to the white metal, such as gun metal.
When the surfaces are thoroughly clean, the article is heated to a temperature sufficient to make tin melt freely, say 450°F. Then a stick of tin is dipped into sal ammoniac and rubbed on to the parts to be metalled, and a very thin coating will be deposited. This operation has to be carried on until the whole surface is covered with a layer of tin. This is necessary in order to ensure that the white metal is in firm metallic contact with the article to which it is required to be attached.
If no previous tinning were done, the white metal might stick or it might not, and failure would be probable in the after working processes or in service.
The white metal is now poured on to the tinned parts, and guided and pressed into position by means of a hard smooth stick of wood. Whilst in a plastic state the white metal is easily controlled, and a layer of almost any thickness can be spread on to the skin of tin, to which it will firmly adhere.
If a large number of articles, such as carriage or wagon brasses are to be white-metalled up, it will be found better .to dip them into the white metal itself to " tin " them. Then place the brass, while still hot, into a suitable mould, which is constructed^ to open to receive the brass, and is then keyed up so as to leave only room for the required thickness of white metal, which is poured from a ladle into a proper shaped funnel or runner. The mould is, of course, heated to about the same temperature as the brass, so that there may be no " blowing out " of the metal being poured in.
Before dipping the brasses into the white metal all the parts that are not required to be tinned, are painted over with whiting, which resists the action of the metal. When cooled off a little, the mould, is opened  and the brass taken out and laid aside to get cold, and the mould used again as often as necessary. Usually about six moulds can be kept going by one metaller.
When cold and before passing the brass to the fitters, each is tested by "ringing" it. That is, it is held loosely and struck smartly with a'hand hammer in various parts, and by the sound, it can be easily known whether the metals are in firm metallic contact, as if not, the sound will be cracked.
Carriage and wagon brasses, with their entire wearing surfaces of white metal, put on in this way, have been proved to give excellent results in running.

Great Eastern Ry.  8
No. 1304, 2-4-2 tank, had been equipped for working auto-trains on the Cheshunt line, and the old 0-4-0 saddle tank, No. 229, was fitted with Westinghouse pump, etc.., for testing purposes in the carriage shops, and shunting.

Notes on the working of superheater locomotives. 9-10.
Use of dampers and proper type of oil for lubrication with superheted steam.

The Rhymney Railway and its engines. 10-12. 6 diagrams (side elevations)
Nos. 10 and 11 were Vulcan Foundry WN 422/1858 and 423/1858 0-6-0ST with all wheels in front of the firebox with a wheelbase of only 10ft 5in. The outside cylinders were 16 x 24in. The total heating surface was 1128 ft2. No. 10 was rebuilt in 1886 and 1903; and No. 11 in 1878 and 1894. They received cabs: No. 10 was totally enclosed; No.11 was open at the rear. They were replaced in 1910.  Figures 8-10 show these various states. Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson supplied four 0-6-0: WN 705-8 of 1859; running numbers 12-15. They were double framed and had 16 x 24in cylinders. They had 4ft 3in wheels; 13,.8ft2 grate area and a total heating surface of 1104.6ft2. No. 12 was rebuilt in 1882 and Nos. 13 and 14 in 1883. These were replaced in 1910 and 1911, but No. 13 lasted until 1913. No. 15 was converted into a saddle tank in 1884 and was still extant in 1916 (Fig. 13).

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 12-13.
Boiler, tubes and firebox, tyres and cylinders renewal accounts. Notes on spare wheels

Anti-collision buffers and fenders Great Central Ry. 13-14. 2 illustrations, diagram

Great Western Ry. 14
Due to the shortage of painters at Swindon through enlistment that during the war all locomotives, other than the principal express engines, should be painted a dark khaki colour, with unlined black for the underframes. Some of the old 0-6-0 goods were painted in the above style and their appearance was not at all displeasing, although, of course, they do not look so smart as in their old polished green livery. The coat of arms had been removed from the tenders, but the words " Great Western " are still retained. Of the 80 7-ft. 8-in. singles No. 3074 was the only one remaining in traffic, being stationed at Taunton. New engines of the 4301 class (2-6-0) were Nos. 4376 to 4380.

P.P. Hlggins. 14
Appointed Superintendent of Railways of the Cameroons, West Africa, with control of the Locomotive, Traffic and Engineers' Departments. Higgins served as a pupil in the Inchicore Works of the Great Southern & Western Ry. from 1898 to 1901, and was Chief Draughtsman of the Loco. Dept. of the Dublin and South-Eastem Ry. from 1901 to 1903. He was appointed Locomotive Superintendent of the Tralee & Dingle Ry. in 1903, but left in 1004 to take up the position of Locomotive Engineer of the Cyprus Government Rys., which he now leaves to take charge of the railways of the territory captured from the Germans in West Africa.

Indian Ry. Conference Association. 14
The Locomotive and Carriage and Wagon Superintendent's Committee of the above, met for their annual conference at Bangalore on 1 November 1915. No meeting was held in 1914., owing to the abnormal conditions prevailing on the Indian Rys., due to the war. Mr. Biernacki, Loco. Supt. North Western State Ry presided, and was re-elected for the coming year. Among the subjects brought forward and on which resolutions were carried, were the advantages of superheater locomotives,' modifications of certain details in the standard locomotives adopted for the Indian Rys., improved fire-hole rings , train tablet apparatus better ejectors for the vacuum brake, etc., etc. The conference recommended the addition of certain new details of rolling stock for standardization

Retirement of Mr. J.J. Richardson, L.B.&S.C.R. locomotive department. 15
John James Richardson retired on 29 December 1915 having attained the age of sixty years.
Richardson was the son of Albany Richardson, who was at one time employed on the London & Croydon Atmospheric Ry., and subsequently became district loco. supt. of the L.B. & S.C. Ry. at Battersea from 1860 to 1898. J. J. Richardson commenced his career on the L.B. & S.C. Ry. forty-eight and a half years ago. He was appointed locomotive foremanat Battersea in 1878, later assistant district locomotive superintendent, and in 1898 succeeded his father. In 1901 he became outdoor locomotive superintendent, with offices at Brighton. Richardson was hon. secretary to the George Stephenson Centenary Festival at the Crystal Palace on  9 June 1881; he was also secretary to the London & Suburban Railway Officials Association for ten years.
Richardson had charge of most of the Royal Train engines on the L.B. & S.C. system since 1876, and was presented with the Coronation Medal by His Majesty King George. Richardson travelled on the footplate, when the trial run on Sunday 26 July 1903, was made between Victoria and Brighton in a few seconds over 48 minutes. The train was equal in weight to the Sunday Pullman, and was headed by the engine Holyrood..

Oil fuel equipment for locomotives and principles of application. Alfred H. Gibbings, London: Constable & Co., Ltd.
Oil has been used as fuel on locomotives for many years, but often with very crude and primitive equipment, especially in the vicinity of oilfields where the supplies are unlimited. The perfection of the appliances has therefore been due largely to the experiments made in countries in'o which the oil has had to be imported. Especially is this the case in England, where the cost of fuel oil is high and that of coal low, and thus the incentive has been to obtain the'best results from the calorific value of the oil.
The writer deals first with the composition and calorific values of the various fuel oils, and the general advantages of oils as fuel for locomotives. He then discusses the principles of efficient combustion, and the three systems which have been adopted to attain this end, viz., the steam-jet system, the compressed air-jet system, and the pressure-jet system. These systems are described, putting forward the points claimed, and examined from the efficiency point of view. Each is treated on its merits, and comparisons made. Examples and descriptions are given of various typical burners as illustrative of the principles embodied in the three systems. Practical notes are given for carrying out tests and taking records with oil-burning engines, as well as specification clauses for locomotive equipment.
A rather novel application on a locomotive firebox has been devised by the author, and is illustrated. The burners are arranged at the front of the firebox, projecting into a cylindrical, or nearly cylindrical, chamber of firebrick. About nine inches from the front of the firebox is built a firebrick wall, and the space thus formed acts as an air chamber, cold air being admitted by the ash-pan damper through a perforated metal r plate at the base. The burners are introduced through the water space and air chamber to a point just flush with the inside face of the wall. Air is admitted through openings in the wall, circular and concentric with each burner and rectangular with all of them. Briefly, the arrangement may be said to be the introduction into the locomotive firebox of the cylindrical furnace of the Lancashire boilen The design seems sound, and we should be interested to hear the results in service.

Painting by immersion and by compressed air. A. Seymour Jennings. London: The Managing Engineer
The purpose of the present work is the description of methods and appliances for the application of paint, by either total immersion of the article to be painted in a tank, or by spraying the paint on to the surface with the aid of compressed air. An immense saving of time and labour is effected by either process. Both methods are successfully employed in practically every branch of the engineering, metal and many other trades. Heavy steel sheets may be dipped, or they may be sprayed without much difficulty. A hundred or so small iron castings may be placed in a wire basket and dipped together in a few seconds. In this book many plants are described and illustrated, and some lengthy explanations given of the requirements of different trades, with details of the systems adopted for handling and conveying the articles. The Pennsylvania Railroad use the spray process for painting their freight cars, and find the method very satisfactory, and also economical. Drawings of the apparatus are given. Some interesting notes are also given on spraying molten metal at high pressure.

Life in a railway factory, Alfred Williams. London: Duckworth & Co. 16
Firsthand account of life in the railway workshops at Swindon, the author being both a forgeman and a writer of repute.
The book deals first with the subject of labour unrest and its causes, with some suggestions as to its remedies. A description of the various departments, their inmates and work then follows, together with some excellent character sketches of different personalities. A realistic chapter is that dealing with the night shift, the author noting the various physical phases through which the workmen pass during the night.
Several other matters are discussed, such as methods of administration, the interpretation of moods and feelings during the day and week, the physchology of fat and lean workmen, remedy, tragedy, short time and overtime, concluding with a review of the industrial situation as it was before the war, and remarks upon the future outlook.
There are always two sides to a question, and Mr. Williams treats his subject in an unbiassed manner from the workers' standpoint. The book is ably written, and should appeal to all who are interested in industrial matters and who have the welfare of their workmen at heart.

The  Locomotive Engineer's Pocket Book and Diary for 1916. 16
Issued by the Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd. It contains, like the former editions, a very large amount of useful information, data and formulae, for the use of locomotive engineers. A new section which should be of considerable service, is devoted to a dictionary of Locomotive terms in four languages.

Eskdale railway post cards. 16
The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd., issued an attractive set of coloured post cards of this interesting miniature railway in Cumberland. The series includes reproductions of a relief map of the Cumberland Lake District, showing the location of the Eskdale line, two picturesque views showing trains which give some idea of the fine scenery, while the remainder show the rolling stock. Two views are of the miniature Atlantic type loco. Sanspareil attached to trains of open and closed cars respectively, while another is of the Pacific type tender engine Gigantic, which was shortly to be in service on this little railway.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 16
On 18 December a paper was read at Caxton Hall, Westminster, E.J.H. South, member. The chair was taken at 2 30 p.m. by A.R. Bennett, M.I.E.E.. a vice-president. On the conclusion of the reading the chairman opened the discussion, which was continued at great length by Messrs. Sanderson (Baldwin Loco. Works), Graham (District Loco. Supt. G.W. Ry. of Brazil), Lelean, Mannering, Geer, Gairns, and Dearberg. On Saturday, 29 January, at 3 p.m., the Annual General Meeting will be held at Caxton Hall. The secretary and treasurer will present the balance sheet and financial report for 1915. The presentation of awards for best par/ers read during 1915, will be made, to be followed by an address by the President Elect, RE.L. Maunsell, chief mechanical engineer, S.E. & C. Ry. Visitors will be welcome, and can obtain tickets of admission by writing to the Institution's registered office (pro tern} at 46, Mailing Street, Lewes. Commencing in January the Institution will publish a regular monthly journal, containing papers read and selected, and other information of interest to members.

Railway Club. 16
The next meeting will be held at 92, Victoria Street, S.W., on Tuesday, 8 February, at 7.30 p.m., when G.W.J. Potter will read a paper on the "Colours of Railway Signals."

Number 282 (15 February 1916)

Rebuilt 0-6-2 tank loco., Gt. Central Ry. 17. illustration
Illustration shows No.  771, a rebuilt 0-6-2 tank engine, which had been turned out from the shops at Gorton. The engine was built in the 1890s to the designs of T. Parker, then loco. supt. of the M.S. & L. Ry. As rebuilt by J.G. Robinson, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Great Central Ry., a superheater was added and the tank capacity is increased from 1,360 to 2,000 gallons, and the bunker capacity from 126 cubic feet to 184 cubic feet. The trailing radial axleboxes had been replaced by a two-wheeled pony truck, the curved guides being removed and a radial arm substituted. The weight on the coupled wheels had been increased from 48 tons 17 cwt. to 54 tons 5 cwt., and the weight on the trailing reduced from 13 tons 15 cwt. to 11 tons 15 cwt., so that the total weight in working order is in creased from 60 tons 12 cwt. to 66 tons. The cylinders, wheels, boiler, firebox, and length over frame and buffers were unaltered. The principal dimensions are: Cylinders, 18-in. diameter by 26-in. stroke; coupled wheels, 5-ft. 1-in. diameter.; trailing wheels, 3-ft. 6-in. diameter. Robinson superheater of 15 elements, 1¾-in. outside diameter; 15 large tubes, 5¼-in. diameter outside, provided 227 ft2. of heating insurface, and 102 small tubes of 17/8-in. diameter outside 554 ft2., while the firebox furnished 99 ft2., making a total evaporative surface of 880 ft2. The inside superheater surface was 113 ft2 , so that the total heating surface was 993 ft2. The grate area was 18.4 ft2., and the working pressure 160 psi.

Snowdon Mountain Tramroad. 17
In the description of these engines on page 6, first column, a line was dropped out, which alters the meaning of the sentence. It should read as follows : " They are all of the same type, having the 0-4-2 wheel arrangement, and there are two pairs of driving pinions on each coupled axle, the wheels being loose on the axles, and carrying the weight of the engine only." No. 5 engine was delivered at the same time as No. 4, and is numbered 989 in the makers' books.

Decapod locomotives for the Russian State Railways. 18. illustration
Baldwin Locomotive Works built 250 decapod 2-10-0 locomotives for the Russian State Rys. As these engines were urgently wanted for service in hauling military stores over the Trans-Siberian Ry., they were constructed in record time. While the general design followed American practice, many of the details were in accordance with Russian standards, notably the wide footplate with a railing around the outer edge. The couplings and side buffers are to Russian patterns. The gauge is 5-ft. The fuel used is an inferior grade of bitumenous coal, and this is burned on a rocking grate, having an area of 64.5 ft2. The firebox is of copper, with the front end of the crown supported by three rows of expansion stays, of a new design.

H.D. Earl, 18
Carnage Superintendentt of the L. & N. W. Ry., had retired, and been succeeded at Wolverton by A.R. Trevithick, of Earlestown. W.W. Warneford, Works Manager, Crewe, succeeded Trevithick as Wagon Superintendent.

Rebuilt 2-4-0 passenger engines, North British Ry. 19. diagram (side elevation)
Wheatley, when Locomotive Superintendent of the North British Ry., built two classes of 2-4-0 passenger engines. Two only of the earlier type were built at Cowlairs Works in 1869, Nos. 141 and 164, renumbered then 1158 and 1160. These had driving wheels 6-ft. 6-in. diameter and cylinders 17-in. by 24-in. stroke. The second class had only 6-ft. driving'wheels and cylinders 16-in. by 22-in., and eight of these were built at Cowlairs in 1873, their numbers being 418, 419, and 424 to 429. These engines were rebuilt for the first time in 1890, with 17-in. by 24-in. cylinders, when M. Holmes was Locomotive Supt. of the N.B.R. Some of these were named by D. Drummond, No. 418, Bonnybridge, No. 419 Gogar, .No. 424 Dunfermline, No. 427 Linlithgow, and No. 428 Ratho. The others were never named. These useful little engines have again been rebuilt by W.P. Reid, Locomotive Superintendent of the N. B. R., with new boilers and large square cabs. By his courtesy we are able to reproduce a dimensioned diagram of one of the class. Their numbers were now 429, 1239, 1240 (formerly 418-9), and 1245 to 1249 (formerly 424-8). The coupled wheels were 6-ft. 1-in. diameter, and the leading 4-ft. 2½-in. diameter. The heating surface of the new boiler is 1,061 ft2, of which the 202 1¾-in. tubes contribute 959 ft2 and the firebox 102 ft2. The grate area was 16.75 ft2 The weight of the engine empty is 33 tons I cwt., but with water 4¾-in. above the centre of the bottom cock, and allowing for 6 cwt. of coal in the firebox, 2 cwt. of sand, 5 cwt. for the brick, arch and 3 cwt. -for the men, the weight in working order is 37 tons 2 cwt. I qr. The tender held 1,652 gallons of water and 3 tons of coal, and weight in running order 26 tons 2 cwt. Total weight of engine and tender in working order, 63 tons 4 cwt. 1 qr

4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, Victorian Government Rys. 19-20, illustration
Illustration of the first two locomotives built by Thompson & Co., Ltd., of Castlemaine

No. 978 class express engines, Lncashire and Yorkshire Railway. 20. illustration

G.F. Tyas. Old goods engines of the Western Railway of France. 21. illustration
Class of engine brought out in 1866 and constructed by various French locomotive builders. The engine illustrated, No. 2244, was supplied by the Societe Anonyme Franco-Beige, Raismes (Nord), France.

Converted tank loco., Cambrian Rys. 21-3. illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
No. 34, 4-4-0T bought from the Metropolitan Ry. in 1905, rebuilt as a passenger tender engine.

E.L. Ahrons. Early Great Western standard gauge engines. 23-5.
Figs. 130-4.

North British Ry.  25
Two of the Atlantics, Nos. 868 Aberdonian and 873 Saint Mungo, had been rebuilt at Cowlairs Works, and fitted with Robinson superheaters and Wakefield lubricators. The cylinders have been increased in diameter from 20-in. to 21-in., the stroke being 28-in. Five new superheater 0-6-0 goods engines had been built at Cowlairs, Nos. 263, 429, 430, 431, 432. They were similar to No. 8, except that the superheater was of the Robinson type. Holmes' standard six coupled goods engines rebuilt during 1915 were Nos. 181, 183, 605, 607, 609, 613, 628, 631, 648, 650, 661, 673, 676, 682, 683, 687, 689, and 690.

No. 1001 claass engine, North Eastern Ry. 25. illustration
No. 1289 illustrated, one of the few engines of this type then in traffic on the NER. This engine was one of the series of 20 built by outside firms in 1874-1875 for use on the Stockton and Darlington section. Nos. 1271-1280 were built by Dubs & Co., Glasgow WN 704-713, whilst Nos. 1281-1290 were built by the Avonside Engine Co., Bristol, WN 1003-1012. Then there were 6 engines of this type still in active service in the North Yorkshire District.





Where Stationed


Darlington Noith Road Works




Hopkins, Gilkes & Co





Dubs & Co





Avonside Engine Co.





Avonside Engine Co.





Avonside Engine Co.




These engines had been extremely economical, both in fuel and repairs, and done exceedingly good work, their short wheelbase enabling them to traverse the sharp curves on the North Yorkshire & South Durham branches with the greatest freedom. The chief dimensions are:
Cylinders, 17-in. by 26-in.
Six wheels coupled, 5-ft. 0½-in. diairieter.
Rigid wheelbase, 11-ft. 10-in.; total wheelbase of engine and tender, 34-ft. 6-in.
Heating surface (as originally built): tubes, 1151 ft2.; firebox, 118.5 ft2; total, 1269.5 ft2 Grate area, 12.6 ft2. Tender: tank capacity, 1,500 gallons; coal space, 104 ft3; 6 wheels, 3-ft. 9-in. diameter. Weight of engine and tender in working order, with present boiler and mountings, 62 tons. Although, of course, these engines were rebuilt while T.W. Worsdell was Locomotive Superintendent of the North Eastern Ry., there had been only a few alterations, such as the chimneys, safety valves, and the new boilers

London & South Western Ry. electrification. 40
The electrical service on the Kingston loop and the Shepperton branch was brought into use on 30 January. The trains ran at regular intervals, the Kingston trains via Wimbledon leaving Waterloo at 3 minutes past the hour and then at 10 minute intervals, while the trains via Richmond leave at 14, 34 and 54 minutes past the hour.

London & North Western Ry. 40
A new series of 4-6-0 passenger engines Prince of Wales class was in hand at Crewe, the first five of which would bear Nos. 606 Castor, 745 Pluto, 1352 The Nile, 1379 Witch, and 1484 Smeaton. In the twenty similar engines under construction at Glasgow would be included the following: Nos. 2063 Hibernia, 2175 Loadstone, 2203 Falstaff, 2300 Hotspur, and 2392 Caliban. The output of new engines from the Crewe Works during 1915 totalled 30 in all, comprising ten 6-ft. Prince of Wales class, ten 6-ft. 6-in. George the Fifth class, and ten 4-ft. 3-in. eight-wheels coupled shunters. Only eight of the thirty Webb four-cylinder compound goods engines (1400 class) were running, viz., Nos. 170, 504, 511, 545, 675, 1113, 1407 and 2059.

Obituary. 40
Death of Mr. William McLaren, at his residence, Blackdown, Woking, on 14 January aged 62 years. He was chairman of G.D. Peters & Co., Ltd., of Moorfields; The Superheater Corporation, Ltd., Westminster, and the Patent Impermeable Millboard Co., Sunbury-on-Thames.
Alex. S. Douglas, a director of James McIlwraith & Co., Ltd., died on 31 December after a sudden illness of two days, at Oakleigh, Sheen, at the age of 47, Douglas was buried at Helensburgh, on 5 January.

Number 283 (15 March 1916)

The last of the Great Northern 8ft bogie singles. 41. illustration
Miserable vision on scrap road.

Highland Ry. 41
Five new engines were  under construction. Three are of the 4-6-0 type, almost identical with the Castle class, and the remaining two will be similar to the Lochs, 4-4-0 type, but heavier. The 2-4-0 L. & N. W. loco., which had been working trains in the Inverness district was No. 1173 The Auditor, built 1878, Precedent class. 6-ft. 9-in. driving wheels.

Caledonian Ry. 44
The 4-6-0 engines originally built for the Highland Ry. were numbered 938 to 943 inclusive, and were at work on passenger and fast goods trains.

North British Ry. 44
The new 4-4-2 superheater tanks were numbered from 438 to 446 inclusive.

Electric battery locomotive, Midland Railway. 45. illustration

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 46-8.

The old locomotives of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry. 48-52. 7 illus.
Following renumbering in 1850 early 2-2-2 with 14 x 18in inside cylinders, double frames and 5ft 6in driving wheels:

17, 18, 24, 25 Rothwell 1840
19, 26 Laird & Kitson 1840
20, 21 Sharp, Roberts 1840
22, 23 Nasmyth, Gaskell 1840
27 W. Fairbairn & Sons 1840
28, 29, 30, 32 Sharp, Roberts 1841
31 W. Fairbairn & Sons 1841
33, 34, 35 Stephenson 1842
36 Laird & Kitson 1842

The East Lancashire Railway, amlgamated with the LYR in 1859 contributed some 2-2-2. The following were Hawkshaw singles rebuilt as 2-4-0s (LYR numbers): 610 Diomed, 665 Giraffe, 666 Antelope, 676 Theseus and 677 Ariadne. All passenger locomotives were painted dark green with black bands with numbers in brass figures on buffer plank.
The 0-4-2 tender engme illustrated in Fig. 4 shows one of the Hawkshaw goods engines of 1849 to 1856, which, during the late 1870s, were almost exclusively used for local passenger trains. They had 4-.ft. 9-in. coupled wheels, increased later to 4-ft. 10-in., with 15-in. by 24-in. cylinders. Hirst subsequently increased the diameter of the cylinders of several ,of them to 16-in, These engines were as follows:-

W. Fairbairn & Sons 1849 164, 165, 167
W. Fairbairn & Sons 1850 168 to 174.
L. & Y.R.(Miles Platting) 1849 163, 166.
L. & Y.R.(Miles Platting) 1850 175 to 182
L. & Y.R.(Miles Platting) 1852 128, 132
L. & Y.R.(Miles Platting) 1853 126, 133, 136, 137, 138.
L. & Y.R.(Miles Platting) 1854 122, 123*, 140, 222
L. & Y.R.(Miles Platting) 1856 124.

*123 and 176 were later converted to 0-6-0 engmes.
These engines had the early standard copper domes over raised fireboxes, and were painted dead black unrelieved by any lining out. Most of them had plain splashers, without the holes shown in the illustration. The coupling rods were of circular section. Hirst rebuilt many of them between 1869 and 1873 with domeless boilers, and one of them, No. 171, was rebuilt by Barton W right in 1877 with a domed boiler and Ramsbottom safety valves. They disappeared between 1880 and 1885.

There had been a large number of 0-4-0 goods engines by Fairbairn and Bury, built 1845-9, also with 4-ft; 9-in. wheels and 15in. by 24-in. cylinders. Of these Bury built Nos. l47-149, 153, 160, 183 to 185, 188 to 196 and 216. W. Fairbairn & Sons constructed Nos. 161, 162, 186, 187, and 197 to 215. Most of these were broken up by Hirst before 1875, but Nos. 148, 149, 194, 196, 197, 204 and 207 were rebuilt by , him in 1869-70 as 0-4-2 engines almost similar to the rebuilt 164 class with domeless boilers. The cylinders were, however, lower down and the motion was inclined upwards.
The classes previously described performed the whole .of the passenger work until Jenkins built his passenger engines of 1861-7. These were 2-4-0 engines with inside cylinders and frames (Fig. 5), and large polished brass domes and safety valve covers. The coupled wheels had a diameter of 5-ft. 9-in., and the cylinders were 15-in. by 22-in.. The wheelbase was 14-ft. 4-in., the total heating surface, 893 ft2., and the weight in working order just over 27 tons. There were twenty-two of the class, all built at the L & Y. Ry.Miles Platting Works as under:-

286 Marshall 1861 290 Atkinson 1861
287 Audus 1861 291 Wilson 1861
288 Stuart 1861 300 Wickham 1861
289 Anderton 1861 301 Barnes 1861
302 Hare 1861 334 Pilkington 1865
321 Hatton 1864
325 to 341 1865 had no names
13, 15, 16 and 21 1867 .

These engines performed a lot of work on the various sections of the L&YR  and they were broken up .only after Aspinall took charge of the locomotive department.
No. 289 Anderton was rebuilt in 1875 (by Hirst) with 16-in. by 22-in. cylinders. In outward appearance it was then almost the same as Hirsts' No. 4 class, to be described later. Several of the others were rebuilt by Barton Wright with domed flush boilers, Ramsbottom valves, and
Illustrations (photographs): 2-4-0 passwenger engine of 1861 286 class; 2-4-0 passwenger engine as rebuilt by Barton Wright 286 class; 2-4-0 passenger engine 286 class as rebuilt in 1887.

Rebuilt four-wheeled goods engine No. 1010 N.B. Ry. 52-3. illus.
Reid rebuild of Wheatley locomotive: 4ft 3in coupled wheels; 15 x 24jn cylinders; 13.6ft2 grate area and 858.4ft2 total heating surface.

The Rhymney Railway and its engines. 53-4.

Some past and present Russian locos.. 55-6
Continued from Page 248, Vol. 21
SINCE the appearance of the last instalment of this article in our November issue we have been furnished with some additional particulars of the engines illustrated by Figs. 8 to 12.

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 60-2. plan.

The Pekin Kalgan Ry. 59-63.
Locomotives included Mallet and Shay types to cope with 1 in 30 gradients through Nankow Pass. Map.

Number 284 (15 April 1916)

Narrow gauge locomotives for the Russian War Department. 63. illustration.
15 750mm gauge 2-6-0 tender locomotives order from Baldwin Locomotive Works for the Peter the Great Fortress at Reval.

The "Balkan Express". 63.
International Sleeping Car Co. name and coat of arms obliterated from rolling stock

Great Central Ry. 63.
No. 1134 fitted with  a smoke consumer (J.G. Robinson invention). Nos. 200, 521, 530, 771, 861, 963, 964, 969, 973, 1010, 1019, 1030, 1044, 1045 and 1174 fitted with superheaters. No. 340 (2-6-4T) fitted with Wakefield mechanical lubricator.

Canton-Kowloon Ry. 63
Ingham Sutcliffe had been appointed Assistant Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent; formerly Locomotive Superintendent of the Londonderry and Lough Swilly Ry.

Canadian Decapod locomotives for the Russian State Rys. 64. illustration.
First locomotives exported from Canada; 50 built by Canadian Locomotive Works. Exported via Vladivostock.

Six-coupled raadial tank locomotive, Glasgow and South Western Ry. 65-6. illustration.
No. 45 illustrated. See also pp. 140-1.

E.L. Ahrons. Early Great Western standard gauge engines. 67.

Central Provinces Railways (India). 68-9; 70. illustration, 3 diagrams (side elevations), 2 plans
2ft 6in gauge linking Murtajapur with Yeotmal and Ellichpur. Four Hudswell, Clarke & Co. 2-8-4T locomotives with Belpaire boilers. Passenger rolling stock built at Jhansi

The lubrication of locomotives. 70-2. 3 diagrams
Friction of lubricated surfacesthe bearing. The most important experiments on the friction of journals were made by Beauchamp Tower (Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs., 1883 and 1885).

Superheater tank locos. Matropolitan Ry. 73-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation, section)
Lord Aberconway

High speed electric locomotive, Italian State Rys. 75-8. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation) 
1-C-1 with Zara trucks

Dust shields for axleboxes. 78-0. illustration, 5 diagrams

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 79-80.
Carriage trimming

Cambrian Rys. 80
Another of the ex-Metropolitan Ry. tank engines was being converted into a tender engine, similar to No. 34, illustrated in our February issue, while the question of converting a third is under consideration.

Redhill. 80
Great Western locomotives were working regularly goods and mineral trains to Red Hill [Redhill] over the S.E. & C. line from Reading. L. & N. W. locos, also worked there on goods trains.

Davis & Lloyd, 80
of 26, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W., had been appointed sole representatives of the Pressed Steel Car Co., Pittsburg, Pa., U.S.A. for the United Kingdom, the Colonies other than Canada and Newfoundland, and Europe, except Russia. The Pressed Steel Car Co. are builders of freight and passenger cars.

Personal. 80
A.C. Clark, M. Inst. Loco. Eng., late Loco. Supt. of the Brazil North Eastern Ry., is now associated with M.J. Helmes, M.A.I.M.E., of Caxton House, Westminster, S.W.

Small workshop appliances. 81-2. 2 diagrams
Apparatus known as the Rapidor, and whilst primarily intended as a cutting off machine, its construction also permits of its being employed as a forming tool. A distinct advantage that the Rapidor possesses is its ease of application to almost any class of lathe without interfering with special features. It may be fitted by means, of a bracket either to the saddle or the bed of a lathe, as circumstances require.

Southwold Ry. 82
W. G. Jackson, who had been in charge of the rolling stock of this line since its opening, was retiring very shortly. Previous to taking charge at Southwold, Jackson went to the Far East for Ransomes & Rapier, to erect the engines for the Woosung Ry., the first railway in China. This line was taken up and the whole of the stock was lost in the wreck of steamer taking it to Formosa. J.R. Belcher, of the Loco. Dept. of the Selsey Tramway, succeeded Jackson.

North British Ry. 82.
New locomotive sheds have been erected at Polmont Junction on the Edinburgh and Glasgow main line, about three miles east of Falkirk. About 40 engines are stationed here. This depot supersedes that formerly located at Bo'ness, about two miles nearer Edinburgh.

Obituary. 82
Death of William Samuel Laycock, of Sheffield, on 2 March, there has passed away one who was well known in railway circles as the inventor and manufacturer of a multitude of clever devices for the improvement of railway carriages, which have come to be essentials for present day safe and luxurious travelling. Laycock was the first to introduce the storage system of steam heating in this country. Other specialities he introduced were the torpedo ventilator, either side wagon brakes, elastic axlebox packing, the " Buckeye " centre coupler and vestibule, a wagon door controller, etc. The firm of W.S. Laycock, Ltd., were responsible for the equipment of the famous Pullman Southern Belle train. Laycock was Chairman of Cravens, Ltd., of Darnall, Sheffield, railway carriage and wagon builders. Laycock was in his 74-th year.

Great Eastern Ry. 82
Owing to shortage of labour the Company announce that on and from 1 May the following stations will be closed: Barkingside, Bethnal Green, Bradfield (Essex), Buckenham (Norfolk), Cambridge Heath, Chigwell Lane, Coborn Road, Earsham (Norfolk), Geldeston (Norfolk), Globe Road, Leman Street, London Fields, Mardock (Herts), Shadwell, Stanhoe (Norfolk), and West Mill (Herts). Bishopsgate, Maldon West (Essex), and Trowse (Norfolk), will remain open for goods traffic only.

Correspondence. 82

[Reading type 4-4-4]. William T. Hoecker. 82
Re statement page 270 in Volume 21 the description of the 4-4-4 type engines for the "Reading," the statement is made that the "boiler is the largest in service on the Philadelphia and Reading Ry." This is correct in so far as passenger engines are concerned, but the Reading has some Mikados with much larger boilers. One of these engines was built at the Company's shops in 1913, and was then, and 1 think still is, the largest 2-8-2 type locomotive in this country. The Baldwin Works has also built several of these engines with Schmidt superheaters. They have the following dimensions : Cylinders, 24-in. x 32-in. ; drivers, 61½-in.; steam pressure, 225 lb.; maximum tractive power, 57,300 lb.; weight on drivers, 249,000 lb.; total weight of engine, 331,000 lb. Boiler dimensions: outside diameter first ring, 84-in.; outside diameter maximum, 9-in.; tubes, 504 2¼-in. dia., 17-ft. 8-in. long; heating surface, tubes, 5,210.sq.ft.; firebox, 298 sq. ft.; total, 5,508 sq.ft. The firebox is of the Wootten type, arranged to burn anthracite coal, and is 144-in. long by 108-in. wide, giving a grate area of 108 sq. ft. The combustion chamber is 43-in. long. The superheater engines have 4,224 sq. ft. of evaporating heating surface, and 993 sq. ft. of superheating surface. I have received recently some of your charts, postcards, and souvenir No. 25. The charts and postcards are unexcelled by any that I have seen. The souvenir fully illustrates and describes the work turned out by Baldwins, and is a publication of which you may be justly proud.

Reply to correspondent. 82
The Walschaert and Baker valve gears are alike in that the motion of the valve is derived from the combined action of a return crank on the main crank pin and from the cross-head ; this latter giving the lead, which as in the case of the former gear, is constant for all degrees of admission. The difference is that the radial link of the Walschaerts gear is replaced in the Baker gear by a radius bar supported by a link or yoke from the reversing arm and connected to the valve rod through a bell crank Reversing and cut-off are controlled by the movement of the radius bar. The advantages claimed for the Baker gear are chiefly the following: A quick opening and closing of the valve ports, so that the losses from "wire-drawing'' and back pressure ire very small; all the connections being mechanically positive, lost motion is reduced to a minimum, and any wear can be easily and cheaply rectified by renewing the pins and bushings ; the power required, to work the gear is slight, and the control easy. The gear is equally applicable to either inside or outside admission valves.

Rerviews. 83

Locomotive engine running and management. Angus Sinclair, London: Chapman & Hall Ltd. 83
The first edition of this instructive American text book was published as long ago as 1885, and the present is the twenty-third. The author has now thoroughly revised and practically re-written the book, as, although the fundamental principles of locomotive design and operation have not changed materially during the past 30 years, development in some directions has been enormous, articularly in regard to modern air-brake mechanism. A complete catechism on modern American air-brake operation and practice, as well as a new chapter on that subject, are therefore included. A section on electric locomotives has been added, also a special chapter on the operation of superheater locomotives, as well as one on the operation of Mallet articulated locomotives. The information is practical, written in a simple and brief manner, no attempt being made to convey instruction beyond elementary problems in mechanics.

Field engineering: a handbook of the theory and practice of railway surveying, location and construction. William H. Searles, London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd.
The present is the seventeenth edition, completely revised and with about 150 pages of new matter added. This pocket book should be in the possession cf every civil engineer employed on railway work. The setting out of curves is dealt with fully and in a practical way. It is not in any sense an elementary treatise. In the section on construction a few outline drawings showing the details described would be an improvement. The second half of the book is devoted to mathematical tables. An important omission is a table of weights and measures.

Elements of railroad track and construction. Winter L. Wilson. Second edition. New York ; John Wiley & Sons. London : Chapman & Hall, Ltd.
The first edition of this work has been completely revised, and additional matter, amounting to 70 pages in all inserted. Written by an American, and intended primarily for the use of American railroad engineers, it naturally deals chiefly with American practice. Much of this, however, is of general application, and the British engineer will find a good deal of useful information conveniently set out. The style of the book is one of its most useful features, each paragraph being headed in large clear type, which renders reference to any particular subject extremely easy. The illustrations also are both numerous and distinct. Whilst the subject is dealt with in a thoroughly practical manner, theory is not by any means neglected, especially with reference to turnouts. In addition to the construction of the track, there is also a lengthy chapter dealing with its maintenance.

Locomotive operation and train control. A.J. Wood. London: McGraw Hill Book Co. 83
In this treatise the author describes the latest developments in locomotive design and construction in America, and includes a study of the air brake. The principles of combustion with coal and oil fuel, with the problem of securing the best results with economy, are discussed at some length, while considerable space is devoted to superheated steam, with various comparisons of tests of American superheater locomotives. A very compact table of average ratios for the leading data of a locomotive to fulfil present day conditions is given, and an outline for road tests with the location for the various instruments. A short chapter is given on the electrification of steam railways, with a comparison of the various systems, as well as some useful tables.

The practical engineer pocket book and diary, 1916 (Mechanical). London: Technical Publishing Co., Ltd.
This contains not only the usual engineer's formulae and data, but also many illuminative and readable articles on special subjects, those on machine tools and air compressors being especially fully treated. The Pocket Book deals almost entirely with general engineering, and the locomotive information is very scanty, and no mention is made in the article on " Superheating" of the now so largely used systems of superheating on locomotives. A full bibliography of books dealing with engineering subjects is incorporated in the Pocket Book, and should prove a useful guide to those seeking this information.

The practical engineer pocket book and diary for 1916 (Electrical).
Contains regulations prescribed by Acts of Parliament and the Board of Trade, for the use of electricity, very fully set out. Also articles dealing with matters electrical, such as the Dynamo

Queensland Rys. 84
Two of the latest express locomotives had been named Sir William MacGregor and Ladv MacGregor, in honour of the late Governor of the Colony and his wife.

Railway Club. 84
E.J. Miller to read a Paper at 92, Victoria Street, Westminster, on 8 May at 7.30 p.m., entitled "The Effect of the War on the Northern and Eastern Railways of France."

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 84
Next meeting to be held on 29 April at 2.30 p.m., at Caxton Hall, Westminster, when H.W. Dearberg will read a paper on the " Garratt Locomotive." The President will be in the Chair (circumstances permitting).

Number 285 (15 May 1916)

New express passenger locomotive, Caledonian Ry. 85. illustration
No. 144 illustrated: Pickersgill 4-4-0 with 20 x 26in cylinders and 9in diameter piston valves

Midland Railway. 85.
All 4-4-0 locomotives being fitted with tender cabs to protect enginemen and as an air raid precaution. 4-2-2 No. 691 also so fitted

Rebuilt express locomotive, Great Central Ry. 86. illustration
Robinson 4-4-0 No. 1021 Queen Mary rebuilt with larger boiler and cylinders

Caledonian Railway. 86
Yorkshire Engine Co. of Sheffield repairing two 4-4-0; two 0-4-4T and one 0-6-0T

Passenger locomotives, Buenos Ayres Great Southern Ry. 86-7. illustration
Built by Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd.: 4-6-0 with 6ft coupled wheels, 22 x 26in outside cylinders, Belpaire boiler with 1339.5ft2 total heating surface plus superheater; 25ft2 grate area and 160 psi boiler pressure. Specification and inspection Livesey, Son & Henderson.

Tank locomotive, Central Uruguay Eastern Extension Ry. 87. illustration
Small 0-4-0T to inspection Livesey, Son & Henderson

The Rhymney Railway and its engines. 88.
Figures 18-19.

The Pekin-Kalgan Ry. 89-93.

Locomotive classification in 1915. 94; 95. table

Furness Ry. 94
Four new engines had been supplied to this railway by the Vulcan Foundry Limited, Newton-le-Willows, built to the specification of W F. Pettigrew, Locomotive Superintendent. The engines are duplicate to those delivered last year by Kitson & Co., Ltd., Leeds, Nos. 51 and 52 and Nos. 38 and 39. The new engines are Nos. 40 and 41, which are 4-4-2 side tanks and Nos. 53 and 54 0-6-0 tanks. The former [KPJ latter?] are for shunting purposes and the latter for passenger work on the branch lines, etc.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 94
As the new 0-6-0 side tanks were being numbered 105 to 109, the Stroudley engines bearing these numbers were now 697 and 606 to 609 respectively.

Classification table of locomotives on British railways 1915. 95
Divided by railwaay and by Whyte notation with tender and tank varieties separated

Some past and present Russian locomotives. 96-
Continued from Page 56. BY an oversight, two slight errors occur in our last instalment, which we now rectify. The locomotive for the Bologi-Briensk Railway, Fig. 19, is described as having been built by Cail & Cie. This is incorrect; for though that firm was responsible for a great number of similar machines, the locomotive illustrated was built by the Cie. de Fives-Lille. The other mistake is in the title to Fig. 18, which should of course read " Jaroslav-Vologda-Archangel Ry." instead of " Imperial Livny Ry." as given. The description in the text, however, is correct, and we therefore trust no confusion has arisen. Whilst on the subject of the Archangel Railway, it will be convenient to (jonclude our remarks on the engines for this railway, although somewhat interrupting the chronological sequence of these notes. The line itself has several peculiarities, not the least being the gauge of 3-ft. 6-in., now unique in Russia. We are unable to say why -this was adopted instead of the more usual metre gauge, for, of course, the narrowest gauge deemed practicable was imposed from motives of economy. Being originally constructed by private enterprise Tit is now under Stats control) and anticipating but a limited volume of traffic, the expenses had to be kept down to a strict minimum, and it was for this reason also that the track is comparatively light, the rails weighing only -*8-5 kgs. per metre (37.2 Ibs. per yard). The line is single, 850 kms. in length between the Port of Archangel and Vologda, the point of junction with the standard gauge system. For the greater part of the distance the line traverses forest land and " tundra," or semi-frozen marsh, but is fairly easy in the matter of gradients, and there are no curves of less than 350 metres radius. It would therefore seem, at first sight, a little strange that the modern locomotive stock is of the Mallet articulated type; but this design is found very satisfactory on account of the large number of coupled axles it admits, and consequently high tractive force, without incurring heavy wheel loads which the light track renders inadmissible. In 1895 a number of Mallet articulated locomotives were imported from abroad for service on the Archangel Railway, and others of similar design were subsequently built in Russia at the Poutiloff works. As seen in the illustration, Fig. 20, they are four cylinder compound engines with two groups of six coupled wheels.

The old locomotives of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry. 97-9. 5 illustrations
Figs. 8-11

Great Northern Ry. 97

The Southern locomotive valve gear.  99-102. illustration, 3 diagrams

The effect of the War on electric train lighting. 106-7.
Reduced lighting

Number 286 (15 June 1916)

New 4-6-2 locomotives, New Zealand Government Ry. 107-8. illustration.
Baldwin Locomotive Co.

Consolidation locomotive, Trans-Continental Ry. of Australia. 108-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
2-8-0 built North British Locomotive Co. to inspection of John Coates & Co., Consulting Engineers

London & North Western Ry. 109
The new series of  0-8-0 mineral engines (Schmidt superheater), which was referred to in the May Locomotive is now in hand at Crewe. Of these the first six bore Nos. 170, 545, 885, 942, 982 and 1167. These engines are provided with the vacuum brake throughout. No. 889, a 4-ft. 6-in. passenger tank had been adapted for working motor trains. Nos. 1930 Ramillies and 1959 Revenge, four-cylinder compounds, had been converted to simple, Renown class, and were temporarily stationed at Crewe. No. 1930 had been provided with a new boiler and ordinary firebox, in place of the old one with Belpaire firebox

Highland Ry. 109
Several Highland Ry. locomotives had been repaired at the Gateshead shops of the North Eastern Ry., amongst them being Nos. 67 Cromartie, 94 Strath Tay, and 129 Loch Maree, all 4-4-0 passenger engines, also No. 112, 4-6-0 goods engine.

British built locomotives for the French State Rys. 109-10. illustration,  diagram (side elevation)
Several leading British locomotive building firms had under construction 90 Pacific express locomotives (illustration) and 150 Consolidation (2-8-0) goods engines (side elevation diagram)to the order of the French Government, which, by the courtesy of the State Railways Administration, we now illustrate by the annexed diagrams. It will be noticed that the designs adhere strictly to classical French practice. The passenger engines are four-cylinder De Glehn-Du Bousquet compounds with superheaters, while the freight locomotives are also superheated, but have two simple cylinders only. Principal dimensions listed.

Obituary. 110
The death took place on 15 May. of John F. Wolff, senior partner and managing director of the firm of J.F. Wolff & Co., Ltd., of Tothill Street, Westminster. Mr. Wolff, who was 64 years of age, died at his home at Wandsworth Common. He was chairman and managing director of the Railway Signal Co. Ltd.,  and director of the Horsehay Co., Ltd., the Globe Pneumatic Engineering Co. and Ransomes & Rapier,

North British Ry. 110
The new 4-4-2 superheater tanks, built by the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd., were all at work. The the numbers run from 438 to 452 inclusive.

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 111-13. 3 illustrations
William Barclay period on Inverness & Nairn and Irnverness & Aberdeen Junction Railways. Crewe type 2-2-2 with outside cylindeers and straight link motion. Two separate safety valves: one above firebox, other on the boiler barrel. Explanation of locomotive names, many of which were domains of the directors. The majority were convereted to 2-4-0.

Number Name Builder WN Date new
28 Genbarry Hawthorn, Leith

September 1863
29 Highlander Hawthorn, Leith

October 1863
30 Prince Neilson & Co.


October 1863
31 Princess Neilson & Co.


October 1863
32 Sutherland Neilson & Co.


October 1863
33 Atholl Neilson & Co.


October 1863
34 Seafield Neilson & Co.


Nov. 1863
35 Kingsmills Neilson & Co.


Nov. 1863
46 Clachnacuddin Neilson & Co.


June 1864
47 Lovat Neilson & Co.


June 1864
48 Cadboll Neilson & Co.


June 1864
49 Belladrum Neilson & Co.


July 1864
50 Aultnaskiah Neilson & Co.


July 1864
51 Caithness Neilson & Co.


July 1864
52 Dunphail Neilson & Co.


Sept. 1864
53 Stafford Neilson & Co.


Sept. 1864
54 Macduff Neilson & Co.


Oct. 1864
55 Cluny Neilson & Co.


Oct. 1864

List of Continental locomotive builders. 113-14.
France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Russia, Sweden and Austria Hungary

The Summer Time Act. 114
On 21 May 1914 at 02.00 al clocks in Great Britain were advanced by one hour: care had to be taken to make arrangemnts for connecting trains

Old locomotives, Western Ry. of France. 114; 115-16. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
2-4-0 freight engine built by Allcard, Buddicom et Cie at Chartreux Works. Modified "Crewe" layout in that rear coupled wheels driven and slide valves above cylinders driven through rocking shafts, Also La Petite, a very small 2-2-2 illustrated. See also letteer from F.  Achard page

The lubrication of locomotives. 116-20. 2 illustrations,  2 diagrams

Great Western Ry. 120
Latest 43XX No. 4381; latest 42XX Nos. 4249, 4250 and 4251. All locomotives leaving Swindon Works ditted with a steam cockn outsigr the smokebox for blowing tubes with a stea m jet.

The engines of the Southwold Ry. 120-1. 5 illoustrations
3 foot gauge line opened in 1879 with three Sharp Stewart & Co. 2-4-0T locomotives: 1 Southwold WN 2848; 2 Halesworth WN 2849 and 3 Blyth WN 2850.  As traffic failed to materialise No. 1 was returned to the makers, but in 1893 a third locomotive was acquired with generally similar dimensions, but a 2-4-2T WN 3913 and took the number 1 and its name Southwold. Number 4 Wenhaston, an 0-6-2T  was acquired from Manning Wardle (1845/1916). The final acquistion, the extension to the harbour and the picture of the swing bridge were strange inclusions during a period of war and when the noted Scottish architect was hounded out of the area for being a "spy". J.R. Belcher was in charge of motive power in 1916. The carriages and wagons had the Cleminson six-wheel arrangement. The locomotives were painted dark blue.

Great Northern Ry. 121.
Several locomotives painted slate colour including 2-4-0 Nos. 998 and 1068

Notes on setting locomotive slide valves. 122-3. 5 diagrams.

Number 287 (15 July 1916)

4-6-0 superheated express locomotive, Victorian State Rys. 129-30. illustration
Constructed at the State workshops at Newport to the designs of W.M. Shannon, chief mechanical engineer. These locomotives could haul loads of 325 tons up a bank of 1 in 40, and there was sufficient side play on the bogie to allow them to pass round five chain curves while shunting in the yards

4-8-0 locomotive, Central Argentine Ry. 130. illustration
Constructed by the North British Locomotive Co. 4-ft. 7½-in. in diameter coupled wheels, The boiler was of large capacity, fitted with a Robinson superheater. The heating surface in all was 1746 ft2., of which the tubes contribute 1557 ft2 and the firebox 189 ft2. The grate area was 32.5 ft2. The 5-ft 6-in. gauge is very favourable for large fireboxes, as a considerable area is practicable without recourse to special fprms. The superheater elements were 24 in number, the steam tubes having a diameter of 1½-in. which, measuring on the inside surface, give a superheating surface of 365 ft2 . The working pressure was 160 psi. The cylinders were 21-in. in diameter by 26-in. stroke, with piston valves driven by Walschaerts valve gear.

4-8-2 express passenger locomotives, Canadian Pacific Ry. 130; 131. diagram (side elevation)
For dealing with heavy express trains on severe gradients, the 4-8-2 type was originated, we believe, on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, and is known in America as the Mountain type. The engines under notice are designated Class H1a built at the Angus Shops, Montreal, of the C.P.R. in August, 1914. The first two engines of the series differ slightly with regard to the boilers, H1a, No. 2900, being fitted with a Gaines combustion chamber and arch firebox; while the companion locomotive, H1b, No. 2901, had a firebox of standard construction. Both were provided with the Vaughan-Horsey superheater. In the mechanical details the two engines are identical, many parts being interchangeable with the 2-8-0 and 2-8-2 C.P.R. locomotives. The unusually short connecting rods were due to the drive being taken to the second coupled axle. The steam was distributed by piston valves driven by Walschaerts valve motion controlled by wheel and screw hand reversing gear.

Mixed traffic locomotive, Great Central Ry. 131-2. illustration
Indebted to A.M.H. Solomon for photograph, which shows G.C.R. 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive No. 279, Lord Kitchener Of Khartoum, built in 1914, at the Company's Gorton shops to the designs of J.G. Robinson, Chief Mechanical Engineer. The cylinders are 21¼-in diameter by 26-in. stroke, and are provided with piston valves and pressure release valves. With the exception of the driving wheels, which were 5-ft. 7-in. diameter, the dimensions are similar to those of the Sir Sam Fay class express engines. The .casing seen upon the boiler barrel between the dome and chimney is the top feed applied to several G.C.R. locomotives. A melancholy interest attaches to this engine in that it is named after the late Secretary of State for War; the name was given prior to Earl Kitchener's lamented decease.

The Pittsburg Express, Pennsylvania Railroad. 132. illustration
The most important train services of the Pennsylvania Railroad were those connecting New York and Philadelphia in the East with Pittsburg, Chicago, Columbus, Burlington, Indianapolis, Terre Haute, St. Louis, and Cincinnati in the West. Unlike most American railroads the Pennsylvania built most of its own locomotives at its Junita workshops. The crack train of the line is the 18-hour New York-Chicago special, which is booked at almost exactly 50 miles per hour over the 906 miles between the Atlantic and Lake Michigan. The striking photograph we reproduce shows the heavy Pittsburg day express on its run between Broad Street, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, 354 miles, headed by one of the latest Pacific type locomotives. These huge engines had ample boiler power for the 24-in. by 26-in. cylinders, with a heating surface of 3453 ft2., firebox heating surface, including arch tubes, 208 ft2, and a superheater surface of 989 ft2. The working pressure was 205 psi.

Caledonian Ry. 132.
At Polmadie Sheds, Glasgow, some N.E.R. 0-6-0 goods engines of the 398 class are stationed, among them being Nos. 292, 308, and 1378. Several G.C.R. goods engines are also working on this line.

The old locomotives of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry. 133-6.  6 illustrations
Continued from Page 99.The passenger engines of the East Lancashire Railway, amalgamated with the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in 1870 were, with the exception of the few Hawkshaw's singles and the 607 class already described, totally different from those of the L. & Y. Ry. The East Lancashire engines had double frames, polished brass domes and safety valve covers, and were much neater machines. The majority had 5-ft. 6-in. coupled wheels with I5~in. by 20-in. cylinders, and in their original condition were as shown in Fig. 13, which represents E.L. Ry. Aeolus No. 15, afterwards L. & Y. Ry. No. 615. They were rebuilt at Bury between 1864 and 1873, and in their later days were mostly similar to No. 616 Pegasus (Fig. 14), with neat cabs of the L. & N. W. Ry. pattern. These engines were as follows:































Sharp Bros.




Sharp Bros.




Sharp Bros.




Sharp Bros.




Sharp Bros.








Walker Bros. (Bury)




Walker Bros. (Bury)




Sharp Bros.


Fire King


Walker Bros. (Bury)




Walker Bros. (Bury)




Walker Bros. (Bury)




Sharp Bros.




Sharp Bros.




Sharp Bros.




Sharp Bros.














All with the exception of No. 673 (and possibly No. 680) had polished brass domes close to the chimney. No. 673 (rebuilt at Bury in 1873), had a polished brass dome over the firebox with spring balance safety valves on it. A very similar but somewhat larger class was built in 1875-6 at the East Lancashire Works at Bury. These had 16-in. by 20-in. cylinders, and 5-ft. 6-in. coupled wheels with somewhat stronger frames. The brass domes in these engines were placed on the middle ring of the boiler barrrel (Fig. 15). There were four of tihis class, viz. :







Bury Works (ELR)




Bury Works (ELR)




Bury Works (ELR)




Bury Works (ELR)


Finally there were two somewhat larger engines, very similar in appearance, but with painted instead of polished brass domes. These were built at Bury works in 1877, and were the last new engines to be built there. These two engines, Nos. 662 and 680, had no names. The coupled wheels were 5-ft. 6-in. in diameter, and the cylinders were 16-in. by 24-in. They were originally constructed as saddle tanks, but a few months afterwards they were converted to tender engines.
The East Lancashire engines were painted dark green with underframes of a red-brown colour though several of them were subsequently painted dark green throughout.
Tank engines for passenger traffic were used on the Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. from comparatively early times. The first appear to have been built by W. Fairbairn & Sons in 1855 for the Manchester and Oldham line. These were 2-4-0 well tanks with 5-ft. coupled wheels and 15-in. by 22-in. cylinders. In 1856 the first six coupled tanks built expressly for passenger traffic were constructed at Miles Platting Works. These were somewhat after the style of the engine illustrated in Fig. 16 with 5-ft. 6-in. coupled wheels, but instead of polished brass domes, they had round-topped copper domes over the raised fireboxes. The coupling rods were of circular section. Of these Nos. 130, 134 and 139 were built in 1856, and No. 156 in 1857. They had six coupled wheels 5-ft. diameter and cylinders 15-in. by 24-in.
Jenkins's later standard tank engines, of which there were eighteen (Fig. 16), were improvements on the 130 class. Like the latter the saddle tanks extended to the front of the smokebox, but terminated at the front of the firebox. The dimensions as to wheels and cylinders were as in the 130 class, but the coupling rods were of rectangular section, and the engines had large polished brass domes over the fireboxes. These engines were built by the L.& Y. Ry. Co. as follows: 1860, Nos. 269 to 272; 1861, Nos. 298 and 299; 1864, Nos. 315 to 319; 1866, Nos. 357 to 362; 1867, No. 5.
Of the above engines, Nos. 271 and 298 were scrapped in 1887 with the original boilers, and Nos. 270 and 299 were rebuilt by Hirst in 1874 with new domeless boilers, when the saddle tanks were moved backwards to extend from the back of the smokebox to the cab front. These were the most useful passenger tank engines that the L. &Y. Ry. possessed, so that Barton Wright rebuilt most of them as follows : 1877, No. 318; 1879, Nos. 269, 272 and 362; 1881, Nos. 315, 316 and 359; 1882, Nos. 317, 357, 358, and 361; 1883, No. 5; 1884, No. 319. No. 360 was also rebuilt, but the date is unknown to the writer. In some of the engines the cylinders were increased to 16-in by 24-in. As rebuilt they were extremely neat. The saddle tanks extended from the back of the smokebox to the cab, which was of a modern and more shapely design. The domes were of the usual modern round topped form on the centre of the barrels, and Ramsbottom safety valves were fixed over the firebox.
Hirst also constructed a number of 0-6-0 passenger saddle tanks with 5-ft. wheels, 15-in. by 24-in. cylinders, and domeless boilers. Of these No. 10, built in 1871, was almost identical with the two rebuilt engines Nos. 270 and 299 mentioned above, but the others were in reality partial rebuilds of old Bury and Fairbairn goods engines, from which old motion, wheels, and cylinders were used. The wheels had large bosses of an old-fashioned pattern. These engines were Nos. 162 (1868), 188 (1870), and 203 (1870).
Hirst's standard tank engines were, however, smaller 2-4-0 saddle tanks: (Fig. 17), with 5-ft. coupled wheels, 3-ft. 6-in. leading wheels, and cylinders only 15-in. by 20~in. These engines were all. built at Miles Plattmg as under: 1868, No. 52?; 1869, Nos. 17, 18, 19, 20, 28, 29, 31, 35; 1870, Nos. 6, 617 (Ajax), 623 (Elk); 1871, Nos. 2, 7, 12; 1873, Nos. 3, 8, 9, 614 (Aurora) 625 (Venus 637 (Sunbeam); 1874, Nos. 209, 480, 481.
They were too small to be of much service on  the heavy L. & Y.R. road, and nearly all of them were broken up with their original boilers in 1885 to 1887. Nos. 32 and 135 lasted a few years longer on light piloting duties, and No. 31was converted into a semi-tender engine, when the saddle tank was removed. As converted it was used for some years for the conveyance of officials, and the saloon carriage for this purpose was carried on the back portion of the six-wheeled tender.
Hirst also constructed six heavier saddle tank engines of the 0-6-0 type for the Manchester and Oldham line. These had 5-ft. wheels, 17-in. by 24-in. cylinders, and the usual domeless boilers. In reality they were the same as the standard (Hirst) goods engines, modified by the substitution of saddle tanks for tenders. Three of them were built in 1873, Nos. 191, 195, and 199, and the other three Nos. 184, 193, and 198 in 1874, all at Miles Platting Works. They were never rebuilt and were broken up by Aspinall.
Three 2-4-0 side tank engines, built by Beyer Peacock & Co., in 1873, were purchased in 1875 by the L. & Y. Ry. from the East and West Junction Ry. These had inside frames, 5-f t. coupled wheels, and 15-in. by 20-in. cylinders, and the boilers had large polished brass domes, with spring balance safety valves. They were numbered 517 to 519 by the L. & Y. Ry., and one of them rebuilt was a Works engine at Horwich.
Finally, there were two East Lancashire Ry. 2-4-0 side tanks (FIg. 18) Nos: 644 John Bull and 645 Caliban. These had 5-ft. 2-in. wheels and 16-in. by 20-in. cylinders. Originally they had been constructed in 1849 by Walker Bros., of Bury, as tender engines, but appear to have been converted to side tank engines, when they were rebuilt at Bury works in December, 1864. In their later years they were generally to be seen shunting at Blackburn.

Some practical notes on firing. 136-8
Learned on the job; some railways provided guidance. Not too much; not too little. Coal, route and train or job type dictated

0-8-0 tank locomotives for Switzerland. 138-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Swiss Locomotive Works of Winterthur powerful tank engines to the Swiss Federal Railways, intended for heavy service on fairly steep gradients, and required to develop considerable tractive power. Some of this class, known as Series E 4/4, were provided with superheaters of the usual smoke tube pattern, but except for minor differences in heating surface and weight, were identical with those not so fitted. The wheels, all coupled, were 1230 mm. in diameter, with a wheelbase of 4650 mm. The suspension was by flat laminated springs with compensating beams between the first and second, third and fourth pairs of coupled wheels. The cylinders had a diameter of 470 mm. 600 mm. stroke, driving the third axle. Steam was distributed by piston valves actuated by Walschaert's valve gear. The mechanism, whilst very strong, with ample wearing surfaces, is of light and elegant design, and is situated entirely outside

New 0-6-2 tank locomotive for the Glasgow & South Western Ry. 140-1. diagram (sectionalised side elevation)
See also page 65. Radial tank engine, No. 45, designed for goods service by Peter Drummond, the locomotive superintendent.

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 141-3. diagram (facsimile form)

E.L. Ahrons. Early Great Western standard gauge engines. Section X, Great Western Railway, 1865-1866. 143
Concluded from Page 68.) DURING April to June, 1866, Mr. Armstrong built at Swindon the first of his design -of six coupled goods engines with double frames, Nos. 360 to 371, but about a year afterwards Nos. 370 and 371 became 1001 and 1015. These twelve engines (Fig. 138) differed from the subsequent 388 class, which were standard for many years on the G.W.R. in having a wheel base two inches shorter and also a different form of framing. In the 360 class the frame was slotted out to form solid tie pieces between the horn plates, and all the rivets were countersunk. The cylinders were 17-in. diameter by 24-in. stroke, FIG. 138. and the coupled wheels 5-ft. diameter. The wheel base was L to D, 7-ft. 4-in.; and D to T, 8-ft. 2-in. The boiler, which had a small painted dome, contained 182 tubes, of which 166 were 2-in. diameter and 16 if-in. diameter. The heating surface of the tubes was 1058! sq. ft., and of the firebox, Qif sq. ft.; total, 1150^ sq. ft.; and the pressure was 140 Ib. These engines, with the exception of No. 362, worked in the Northern division, between Birmingham, Wolverhampton and Chester, and

The Mount Tamalpais and Muir Woods Ry., California. 145-7. 2 illustrartions, 3 diagrams

A chapter in screw couplings. 147-8
Screw coupling

New restaurant car, Stockholm-Vasteras-Bergslagens Ry. 148-50. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation & plan).
T. George Betts, the Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent of the S.V.B. Ry. Lighting was by acetylene gas, furnished by generators on the Dalen system.

Obituary. 149
Death on 29 June, at Arnside, near Carnforth, in his 79th year, of Thos. W. Worsdell. Worsdell was born at Liverpool, 14 January 1838, his father being Carriage Superintendent ot the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. After leaving school he spent some time in the L. &  N. W. Works at Crewe, but left to serve an apprenticeship in Birmingham under his uncle, who was an engineer and machine maker. He then went back to the Locomotive Drawing Office at Crewe under John Ramsbottom. After two years he undertook the management of an engineering works in Birmingham, but left in 1865 to join the staff of the Pennsylvania Railroad, U.S.A., to take charge of the Altoona Locomotive Shops, and was appointed Master Mechanic. Worsdell remained with the P. R. R. until 1871, when he was appointed manager of the Crewe Works of the L. & N. W. R. He held this position until February, 1882, when he took the position of Locomotive Superintendent of the Great Eastern Ry. While at Stratford he patented his two-cylinder compound locomotive, in conjunction with Mr. A. von. Borries, of the Hanover State Rys. In 1885 ne accepted the appointment of Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent of the North Eastern Railway, and remained until September, 1890. He acted as consulting engineer for the mechanical department of the N.E.R. until he finally retired at the beginning of 1893.

Correspondence. 150

[Old locomotives of the Ch. de F. de 1'Ouest. Locomotive No. 255]. F. Achard
Re some old locomotives of the Ch. de F. de 1'Ouest. Locomotive No. 255. There were in all ten engines of this type, Nos. 251-260, which were put into service between April, 184^, and February, 1845. No. 255 was, in the 'nineties, the only survivor of this class, and was ihrn used as a shunting engine in the yards of St. Malo 1'arbour. The weights and dimensions given apply to 'the original engine, as depicted in Fig. ;, with a boiler pressure of only 5*5 kg. cm 2 . The engines were subsequently fitted \\ith new boilers with a pressure of y^ or 8'5 kg./cm-., and were consequently heavier, with slight alterations Locomotive No. 500. In the list of the locomotives for the C. de F. de 1'Ouest for 1865 there is a locomotive, No. 96, named " Piccola," built by Buddicom, and put into service in June, 1856. There is every reason to believe that this engine is the same as " La Petite," No. 500. For the latter, it is known that she was rather considered as a toy, and was never used for active service, which corresponds with what could be expected of " La Petite." That neither name nor number is the same is no real objection. Both names are, in fact, exactly synonymous. Also the change of the No. 500 to another became necessary about the end of 1856, when the totality pf the engines of the 471 -512 class were put into service, as it became some years later for other isolated engines, which were similarly transferred from numbers in the 6oo's and 700*5 to numbers between 91 and 100. Unfortunately the above-mentioned list for 1865 does not contain more particulars of the engine " Piccola." The assumption that "Piccola" and "La Petite" are two names for a unique engine seems very probable, for there is Very little likelihood that the Western company had built two engines of so small practical use, whilst trace can be found in the books of only one such engine. Hoping these particulars may be of some interest to you, I remain, dear Sir, yours very truly, Belfort, France.______________F. ACHARD.

W. M. CHRISTIE. Although the amalgamation of the Edinburgh @ Glasgow and N.B. Rys. took place in 1865, the loco. dept. of the former was carried on separately until several years later.

The rise of rail power in war and conquest, 1833-1914." By Edwin A. Pratt. London: P. S. King @ Sons, Ltd., Orchard House, Westminster. 7/6 net.
In this interesting work is recorded in detail the invaluable uses of railways in the principal military operations of modern times in all parts of the world. In 1833 the first suggestions in regard to such use were made in Germany, and a detailed scheme was published in 18*2 to enable her to t;onduct war on the French and Russian fronts simultaneously. The little line built during the Crimean War is described, and considerable space is devoted to an interesting account of the part played by the railways in the American Civil Wv (1862-4), and the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1). Lord Kitchener's construction of the railway through the Soudan as the means of conquering that country is also included. The work deals with the evolution of the armoured train and the hospital train, discusses the fundamental principles applying to the use of railways for military purposes, as well as the railway organisation for military purposes in Germany, France aud England, and deals in particular with the strategical lines built by Germany on Jhe Dutch and Belgian frontiers. The designs of Germany in regard to South Africa, Egypt arid India, as well as the Belgian Congo, with the help of militaryrailways, are revealed, while the striking part which the Bagdad Ry. was to play in furthering Germany's aims against Egypt and India is explained. The concluding section describes the Indian frontier railways and the " Defence of Australia." A good bibliography of the subject adds to the value of the book.

Eastern Ry. Mr. H. W. C. Drury has been appointed superintendent of operation of the Northern Division, while Mr. L. Parker will have charge of the Norwich Loco. Shops.

Number 288 (15 August 1916)

2-4-0+0-4-2 Garratt locomotive, Sao Paulo Ry. 151-2. illustration
Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd. locomotive for 5ft 3in gauge in Brazil

North London Railway electrification. 152.
Broad Street to Richmond services to start on 1 October

4-6-0 type 4-cylinder express engine, Great Southern & Western Ry. 152; 153. illustration
E.A. Watson design built at Inchicore Works for Dublin to Cork services.

2-8-2 locomotive, Gwalior Light Rys. 153-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Kerr Stuart & Co. locomotive for 2ft gauge

London & North Western Ry. 154
Five new Claughton class 4-6-0: Nos. 511 George Macpherson; 695 Sir Arthur Lawley; 968 Lord Kenyon; 1093 Guy Calthrop and 1345 James Bishop. One of the four remaing 5ft compound goods No. 1407 had been under repair at Crewe: at that time stationed at Nuneaton.

Early South Eastern tank engines for suburban service. 155-6. illustration.
Cudworth coke-burning 0-4-2 tank engines with various arrangements for the trailing axle: Nos. 14 and 15 had radial axles; 40 and 41 two-wheeled bogies and 10 and 73 a fixed arrangement with limited amount of play. Used on Charing Cross to Greenwich services; and once tunnel under Greenwich Park completed on London to Woolwich servces.

The Rhymney Railway and its engines. 156-7. 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Figures 20-2. 0-6-2ST designs built by Vulcan Foundry (WN 1284-8/1890; 1329-34/1891): Sharp Stewart (WN 4037-43/1894; 4257-66/1897: Hudswell Clarke 510-15/1899; 547-9/1900: Neilson WN 5711-20/1900)

Great Eastern Ry. 157
Superheated goods locomotives Nos. 1140 and 1141 completed. Fitted with vacuum brake, but lacked tail rods.

The lubrication of locomotives. 158-62. 8 diagrams
Belgian State Railways lubricator, Great Western locomotive driving axlebox, Midland Railway llocomotive axlebox, Geach's patent syphon lubrication, Midland Railway sight feed lubricator, Iracier axlebox.

Shrinking tyres. 162-3. diagram
Apparatus for heating tyres by burning gas

The Government Railways of North China. The Pekin-Mukden Ry. 163-6.  3 illustrations, 4 diagrams (side elevations), map

Modern systems of welding and metal cutting.  167-8. 2 illustrations
Photographs of plate frames being prepared at works of Andrew Barclay & Co. Ltd

Electrification of the Rocky Mountain Section of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. 169-70. illustration.

No. 289 (15 September 1916)

British-built locomotives, French State Rys. 173-5. 2 illustrations.
North British Locomotive Co. four-cylinder compound 4-6-2 andc 2-8-0 simple locomotives wirh Zara truck

0-6-0 goods locomotive, Great Eastern Railway. 175. illustration.
No. 1140 illustrated

British built industrial loccomotives for Russia. 175-6. illustration.
Hunslet Engine Co. narrow gauge 0-6-4T

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 177-80. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation).
Departure of Stroudley and appointment of David Jones as Locomotive Superintendents. Names given to locomotives tended to reflect the directorate's domains. Shows accident whih occurred at Killiecrankie on 28 November 1893 when a freight double-headed by Nos. 68 and 71 hit an ash tree and became completely derailed.

The locomotive drawing office. 180-4. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams (forms)
Photographs of draughtsmen and lady tracers in North British Locomotive Company's Works

Great Eastern Ry. 184.
Caledonian Railway 0-6-0 locomotives repaired at Stratford (Nos. 561, 713, 736 and 755 painted grey instaed of blue)

Russian 2-10-0 locomotives. 185.
Built by American Locomotive Co. and imported into Russia via Vladivostock and assembled in Harbin, Manchuria.

The Governm,ment Rys. of North China. The Pekin-Mukden Ry. 185-8. 3 illustrations, 7 diagrams (side elevations).
Mainly 2-6-0, but also 4-6-0 and 2-8-0 and 2-6-2T: suppliers included North British Locomotive Co. and Baldwin

The old locomotives of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry. 188
Addenda from George Bradshaw of Manchester

Presentation to Mr. William Forsyth. 189. illustration (portrait)
Retirement of NBL foreman erector

Midland Ry. 189.
In connection with the recent appointment of Mr. Robert W. Reid as Manager of the Carriage and Wagon Works of the Midland Ry. at Derby, it is interesting to note that he represents the third generation of his family in this sphere of railway work. His father is Mr. W.P. Reid, Locomotive and Carriage Superintendent of the North British Ry., while his uncle, Mr. G.W. Reid, was Locomotive and Carriage Superintendent of the Natal Govern- ment Rys., and his grandfather, Mr. Robert Reid, was the Carriage and Wagon Superintendent of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Ry.(now N.B.R.) It was Mr. Robert Reid who introduced the centre cradle continuous drawgear for wagons. This originated through the trouble experienced on the Cowlairs incline with the loaded brake wagons, which were fitted with draw hooks acting on the head stocks. On several occasions a wagon was actually pulled asunder. To avoid this, the centre cradle arrangement, with 'long drawbars, was designed to take the stress off the body. Mr. Stroudley took the idea with him when he left the Edinburgh and Glasgow Ry. to join the Highland Ry., and thereafter the design became standard practice for British Rys

Kowloon Canton Ry., British Section. 189.
Ingham Sutcliffe, M.I.M.E. was Acting Loco., Carriage and Wagon Supt. of this line in the absence of the Loco. Supt., C.D. Lambert, who had obtained a commission in the .Army.

Locomotive exports. 189.
The value of the locomotives shipped in June was £59,209, as compared with £227,372 in June, 1915, and £308,349 in June, 1914. The value of the engines exported in the first half of this year was only £586,598, as compared with £1,226,970 in the first half of 1915 and £2,083,751 in the first half of 1914.

Swiss Federal Rys. 189.
At the Olten workshops of the Swiss Federal Rys. an electric shunting locomotive, driven by secondary batteries, is provided with electro-magnetic side buffers, controlled from the footplate, no couplings being needed. The motor is only 5 h.p., and a load up to 45 tons can be moved.

Sao Paulo Ry. Garratt locomotive. 189.
When describing this locomotive in our last month's issue, we omitted to mention the lubricating apparatus employed. This, we learn, is effected by mechanical lubricators supplied by Messrs. C.C. Wakeheld & Co., Ltd.

Narrow gauge high capacity wagon, Public Works Department Ry., Delhi. 190. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Built by Kerr Stuart & Co. to design and specification of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. See letter on page 216 from G.H. Sheffield

New hopper wagons for coal traffic, Bengal Nagpur Ry. 191. illustration
To serve Tata Steel Works at Kalimate

Car for heating apparatus, Bulgarian State Rys. 191. illustration
Boiler cars located at front and rear of trains

Radial drilling machine, Horwich Works, Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 192. illustration
William Asquith was supplier

Caledonian Ry. 192-3
4-4-0 Nos. 928-937 completed at Atlas Works of North British Locomotive Co. WN 21442-31.  Same type built at St. Rollox Nos. 113-16; 121; 123-5. No. 121 was replacement for locomotive lost in the Gretna accident. Nos. 938 and 940 were working fast freight services between Glasgow and Carlisle

Number 290 (14 October 1916)

Articulated locomotives. 195-6. 2 illustrations
Proposes that Horatio Allen's South Carolina built in 1831 at the West Point Foundry for the Charleston Railway in 1831 was probably the earliest articulated locomotive. In 1871 Cail & Co. of Fives-Lille constructed an 0-4-0+0-4-0 for the Luxemburg Railway. It was named L'Avenir. In 1872 a larger 0-6-0+0-6-0 was constructed by Société St. Léonard of Liège for the Grand Central Raiway of Belgium and exhbited at the Vienna Exposition of 1873. This and the next to be described are illustrated. A 2-6-6-2T Kitson Meyer was supplied to the 3ft 6in gauge Manila Railway in the Phillipine Islands. This was to the specification of R.D. Deacon, the Locomotiuve Superintendent under the supervision of D.M. Fox & Son, Consulting Engineers.

4-6-0 compound locomotives, Roumanian State Rys. 196-7. 2 diagrams (side elevation & section)
Differed from de Glehn layout in having low pressure cylindders outside the frames. M.M. Wagner reported that No. 8005 worked a 255 ton train from Bucharest to Ploesti, 59 km in 61 minutes with stops about every 8 km.

Caledonian Ry. 197.
Nos. 321 (0-6-0) and three 0-4-4Ts (Nos. 244, 426 and 786 sent to Stratford for repair.

Highland Railway. 197
Locomotives sent to Meadow Hall Works of Yorkshire Engine Co. for repair: 4-6-0 goods engines Nos. 109 and 115; 4-4-0 tender engines Nos. 60 Ben Bhreac Mhor, 89 Sir George, 97 Glenmore, 99 Glentromie and 125 Loch Tay and 0-6-4T No. 69.

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry, 198.
2-4-2T No. 661 returned to service. It had been standing on Penistone Viaduct in December 1915 when it collapsed and had to be carefully cut up into pieces and loaded onto wagons for trasfer to Horwich Works where it was reassembled using standard parts ex-store where necessary before return to Lowmoor shed.

Women engine cleaners at King's Cross shed, Great Northern Ry. 198. illustration
2-8-0 No.1654 hidden behind large number of suitably clad ladies on running board, on buffer beam, in cab and in front of wheels.

Metropolitan Ry. 198
Former Metropolitan Ry. 4-4-0T employed at North Wales Granite Co. between Conway and Penmaenmawr and named Conway. Locomotive had been purchased from Bradford Corporation which had used it on the Nidd Valley Light Railwaay where it had been No. 2 Milner. It had been No. 34 on the Metropolitan Ry.

A.C. Crighton. 198
A.C. Crighton, Deputy Locomotive Superintendent, North Western State Railway of India granted leave prior to retirement. A.H. Jocelyne to officiate on temporary basis.

H.W. Hanbury. 198
Died in action when serving as Second Lieut in Middlesex Regiment: was only son of J.J.Hanbury, one time locomotive superintendent of the Metropolitan Ry. Son contributed to Locomotive Mag.

Rack-rail locomotives: Mt. Wasington Ry. 199-200. 3 illustrations
Both vertical and horizontal boilered locomotives shown. Track mainly built on wooden trestles.

The old locomotives of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry. 200-2.
Figs. 19-23: illustrations of 0-6-0 Nos. 656 Agamemnon (former East Lancashire Railway built by R. Walker & Bros of Bury of long boiler type; No. 660 Sphinx (built for East Lancashire Railway by Stothert, Slaughter & Co. with haystack firebox); No. 668 Bucephalus and No. 252 in rebuilt form with a cab. Continued in Volume 23 p. 5.

The lubrrication of locomotives. 202-5. diagram.
Mechanical lubrication for axleboxes. Taff Vale Railway system designed by T. Hurry Riches (see Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1908). Tiilstone system,. Elsdon and Galle patent 16539/1912. Use of graphite: experiments by Goss.

Passenger tank engines, Taff Vale Ry. 205-6.
4-4-0T similar in design to NLR type, built at Cardiff Waorks with 16 x 24in cylinders, 5ft 3in coupled wheels, 956.14ft2 total heating surface and 16ft2 grate area: Nos. 67-9. 4-4-2T built Vulcan Foundry in 1888 WN 1229-31; RN 170-2 and 1891 WN 1312-14; RN 173-5. 5ft 3in coupled wheels, 17½ x 26in cylinders, 1042ft2 total heating surface, 19ft2 grate area and 160 psi boiler pressure.

The effect of the War on electric train lighting. 206-7.
Need to reduce illumination either achieved by reducing number of bulbs or by painting bulbs whivh reduced their life

Military trains in India. 207. illustration
Great Indian Peninsula Ry. corridor trains for officers (with restaurant cars) and men (water, ice and some food from rear of train)

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 207-9.
Carriage and wagon lifters with air hoists. Axlebox cleaning and brass replacement

Simplon Tunnel locomotives. 209
Three phase alternating current 2800 hp

The "Newton" class 2-4-0 passenger engine L&NWR. 210. illustration
No. 1679 Bunsen. See also letter from W.B. Thompson on p. 238

The Government Rys. of North China. The Pekin-Mukden  Ry. 210-13. 8 diagrams (side & end elevations & plans)
Third class corridor coaches, bogie luggage vans, second class corridor coaches, sleeping cars, brake vans with heating boilers and bogie open and covered freight wagons. F.A. Jamieso was Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent; J.C. Anderson was assistant locomotive superintendent at Kaopantzu

Blast pipe nozzles, Pennsylvania RR. 213. diagram

Great Western Ry. 213-14
John Armstrong entered Swindon Works in 1864 and completed his training in 1878. Former district locomotive superintendent at Swindon; then in South Wales, then South Devon; then London Division from 1883. Retired 30 September 1916Entered Swindon Works in 1864 and completed his training in 1878. Former district locomotive superintendent at Swindon; then in South Wales, then South Devon; then London Division from 1883. Retired 30 September 1916

New 70ft electric traverser for railway carriages. 214-15. 2 illustrations, diagram
Manufactured by Ransome & Rapier Ltd. of Ipswich. Photographs of installed on Great Indian Peninsula Rly

Bradshaw's Guide, No. 1000.  215
Oni 1st November will be published No. 1000 of Bradshaw's General Railway and Steam Navigation Guide for Great Britain and Ireland, and the present opportunity is taken briefly to review the long career of this indispensible railway time table.
The first issue of Bradshaw was dated December 1841, thus it has been in existence for 75 years, and has outlived many similar productions, It was preceded in October, 1839, by Bradshaw's Railway Time Tables," issued quarterly. A reprint of- the first number of the latter was made in 1901, and sold at 1/-. Consisting of 24 pages, 3-in. by 4½-in., it contained two railway maps of Yorkshire and Lancashire respectively, and plans of Liverpool, Manchester and Leeds, besides time tables and other in- formation.
Whilst not strictly an official railway publication, "Bradshaw is recognised by the British Rail- way Companies, who regularly send particulars of their train alterations for inclusion in its pages, and its accurate information has made It the universal resource of the railway traveller. Although theN ovember, 1916, issue will be numbered 1,000, actually it will be the 900th num- ber puhlished, as in its early days an error of 100 was made in the numbering and was never rectified.
George Bradshaw was a Quaker, and his Guides were dated in the Quaker style, a practice which survives to this day; the current issue (No. 999) bearing the date "10th Mo. (October) 1916." Contrasted with the first number, which contained but 32 pages, the present day Bradshaw consists of some 1,200 pages, 44 of which are devoted to the index of stations, and 170 to advertisements. Time tables of 112 railways are included, such little known lines as the South Shields, Marsden and Whitburn Colliery, and the Giant's Causeway, Portrush and Bush Valley, finding a place in its pages. A large folding railway map of the British Isles and half a dozen smaller maps of separate railways are also inserted. In the early days of the telegraph, the telegraph and railway lines were shown in different colours in Bradshaw; later, it was the practice to distinguish the former by means of lines with a series of ticks, railways being indicated by plain lines.

Reviews. 216

Electrical tables arid engineerikg data. Horstmann & Tousley. (Fredk. J. Drake Co., Chicago). .
This is an American electrical engineer's and contractor's pocket book, and contains a number of useful data and tables. The sections on conduits, meters, motors and knife switches are good, and that on panels would be so if the diagrams were .larger and more distinct. There are many data dismissed with too little explanation, while much space is expended upon matter which could well be omitted. We may hope that in a future edition this may be rectified, as in this way the utility of the book would be greatly increased.

The indicator handbook. C.N. Pickworth. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
The fifth edition of this handbook contains some new matter regarding external spring indicators. To anyone about to purchase an indicator we cannot do better than recommend a perusal of this book, which contains much information of value in making the best choice of instrument. In addition to the indicators, various reducing gears are illustrated and particulars given, regarding their relative accuracy. There is a chapter on the errors of the indicator and another on the errors of indicator connections, The information throughout the book is of a. practical kind, and should be found useful to all in charge of steam, gas or oil , engines.

Correspondence. 216

Narrow gauge high capacity wagon. Public works department, Delhi. G.H. Sheffield
In your September issue, on page 190, under the ahove heading, the body of the wagon illus- trated is that of the Sheffield-Twinberrow patented type and to my design. A number of these wagons have during recent years, been constructed by the Leeds Forge.Company, Ltd., for the Kalka Simla and Kalabagh Bannu Rys. Evidently the wagon body shewn in your Magazine has been built to the original contract drawings.

Old French locomotives. 216
We desire to call the attention of our readers to the list of photographs of old French locomotives appearing on page xxviii. of our advertisements. Manv of these possess great historical interest, the striking differences of type and detail of the older engines being in marked contrast to the .uniformity of modern French practice. In response. to numerous requests we hope in the near future to pubhsh full lists of our extensive collection of French locomotive photographs.

Railway Club. 216
On Saturday 16 September a party of members visited the new G.N.R. line from Langley, near Stevenage, to Hertford. A locomotive and covered van, provided with seats, was used. for the party, stops being made at the intermediate stations of Watton and Stapleford, as well as at the high embankment crossing Waterford Marsh, where a subsidence rendered the temporary track unsafe. The party alizhted at the south end of the Hertford tunnel, 364 yards long. The courtesy.of Mr. Chas. J. Brown, chief engineer of the G.N.R., im allowing the visit to be made, is appreciated by the members of the club. On 10 September A.W. Bartlett, read a paper on the North London Ry. The next meetmg will be held at 92, Victoria Street, S.W., at 7 p.m., on 14 November 14th, when G.W.J. Potter will read paper on Railway Time Table Maps, Summer, 1916.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 216
The first meeting of the Winter Session took place on 30 September at Caxton Hall, Westminster, when a paper was read on "Smokeboxes and fittings" by V. E. Barnes (graduate), of the locomotive department L. & S. W. R., Eastleigh, this being the first occasion a graduate member of the Institution has presented a paper. The President, R.E.L. Maunsell, took the chair at 14.30, and was supported by Vice-Presidents R.W. Burnett, M.LE.E., and W. A. Lelean, M.LM.E. On the conclusion of the reading, the President opened the discussion, and congratulated the author on his paper, which was also commented on by both Vice-Presidents. Messrs. Rodgers (L.B.S.C.), Clayton (S.E. & C.R.), Gairns, and Fullagar (Birmingham) continued the discussion.
The next meeting will be held at 14.30 p.m. on 28 October z Sth at Caxton Hall, when Mr. A. T. Houldcroft. late carriage superintendent of the North Western Ry. of India and now manager of the steel car department of the Leeds Forge, will read a paper on "Steel carriage design and construction."

Number 291 (15 November 1916)

Highgate Station in 1868, GNR. 217 + colour plate facing page.
F. Moore painting based on photograph supplied by E.R. Notter, Divisional Locomotive Superintendent, GNR whose father W.G.H. Notter was first station master at Highgate until 1869 when he left to become Assistant General Manager of the Ulster Railway.

2-8-2 tank goods locomotive, Uppsala-Gafle Ry., Sweden. 218; illustration p. 217
Built by MotalaVerkstads to design of H. Collberg, Chief Mechanical Engineer

Swedish State Railways. 218
Order for Aga lighting equipment for tenty express locomotives

4-6-2 compound superheater locomotive, Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Ry. 218-20; 228-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation: centre spread)
Maréchal tests conducted on superheated four-cylinder simple versus compound locomotives: 6201-6285 series

The quadrupling of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. main line. 221-4. 7 illustrations
Thana to Kalyan Junction: new stations at Parel, Currey Road, Kurla and at Kalyan. New bridge over Thana Creek. Start of works for Paarsik Tunnel

The lubrication of locomotives. 225-7. 7 diagrams
Crank pin journals and connecting rod big ends; needle lubricators introduced on Great Central Railway

The Rhymney Railway and its engines. 230-1. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-2T with side tanks: Jenkins/ R. Stephenson & Co. design Nos. 106-110 WN 3125-9 and No. 16 (WN 3130): Figure 23 shows No. 108. C.T. Hurry Riches succeeded Jenkins in 1906 designed a larger version, supplied by R. Stephenson & Co. from 1907, Fig, 24 shows No. 2 (WN 3289). Further batches were supplied in 1909..

Train lighting notes. 231-2. diagram (facsimile of form)
Reporting failures in electric lighting

The Pearn-Richards patent combined surfacing, boring, milling, drilling and tapping machine. 232-6. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams

The design and construction of steel railway coacches. 236-7.

The Locomotive Magazine Souvenir" No. 26: Locomotives fitted with the Robinson Superheater. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.  237
This  consists 36 collotype photographic reproductions of interesting locomotives in use on railways in all parts of the world, the feature common to all being the provision of the Robinson Superheater. Locomotives of many types and various capacities, adapted to every kind of service. are here. represented; and it is gratifying to note the unequivocal testimony as to the value of this British superheater offered by the ubiquity of its employment. This Souvenir is also issued in French and Spanish editions, the dimensions, etc., in these latter being given in metric units. The book is handsomely bound in an artistic cover, and makes an effective appeal to the general reader as well as to the professional locomotive engineer.

Correspondence. 238

L.N.W.R. "Newton" Class. W.B. Thompson
Referring to your article on p. 210 of the October number of the "Locomotive Magazine," the weight in working which you give (and which totals 32 tons 15 cwt. and not 31 tons 15 cwt. as stated in the article), appears' to be that of the Precedent class, into which these engines were rebuilt. The weight of the Newtons in their original state as shown in your illustration was considerably less.
(The weights in the original state should be leading 9 tons 9 cwt., driving 11 tons, trailing 8 tons 15 cwt. ; total, 29 tons 4 cwt.-Ed., L.M.)

Pekin-Mukden Ry. 238
In describing the special coaches for this line, in our October issue, we omitted to mention that they are "fitted with patent frameless windows, with special silent channels and balances, supplied by Beckett, Laycock & Watkinson, Ltd of Willesden, N.W. This firm also supplied the vestibules complete at each 'end.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 238.
Meeting to be held on 9 December at 14.30 at Caxton . Hall, Westminster, when Smith Mannering, member, Brighton, will read a Paper on  Locomotive Fireboxes..

The Railway Club. 238
C.J. Allen to read a paper on Minimum Gauge Railways at the next meeting of the Club, to held on Tuesday, 12 December.

Number 292 (15 December 1916)

Superheater passenger engine, Midland Great Western Ry. of Ireland. 239. illustration.
Photograph of No. 124 Mercuric built at Broadstone under Morton's supervision.

Tank locomotive, Felixstowe Ry. 240. illustration.
Three outside cylinder 2-4-0T locomotives were obtained by the Felixstowe Railwsay & Dock Company from the Yorkshire Engine Co. in 1877 (WN 328-30). They were named Orwell, Tomline and Felixstowe (last illustrated) and had 4ft 6in cupled wheels, 14 x 20in cylinders, 604ft2 total heating  surface and 8.25ft2 grate area. The line was incorporated on 19 July 1875, opened on 1 May 1877, and taken over by the Great Eastern from 1 September 1879.

London & South Western Ry. 240
Electric trains between Waterloo and Claygate started on 20 November 1916 with a half-hourly service taking 29 minutes. Hourly steam rail motor connection to Guildford.

Obituary. 240
W.W. Tomlinson died at Monkseaton on 29 November 1916.

North London Ry electrification. 240.
The rolling stock used on the Ricmond and Kew services had large side windows which could be opened in an emergency by cutting through a narrow leather strap. The coaches were vestibuled like main line corridor trains.

Underground Electric Rys of London. 240
Trial running of Bakerloo Tube trains had taken place between Willesden Junction and Watford: 38 mile/h had been achieved between stations. Closed end platforms were being fitted to some Central London Ry. for working to Ealing.

Our supplement: a road and rail alliance. 241 + colour plate facing page.
GNR 2-6-0 No. 1653 in green livery flanked by Napier War service lorries

Furness Ry tank engine No. 100A. 241. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Line drawing of Fletcher Jennings 0-6-0ST  No. 4 Keekle for Whitehaven Cleator & Egremont Railway and photograph of what it had become

Great Western Railway. 241-2.
Box Tunnel closed for relining: trains to be diverted either via Badminton route or via Melksham. Bulkldog 4-4-0 No. 3417 named Francis Mildmay. Two 0-6-0STs Nos. 746 and 1282 fitted with large chimneys (similar to Russian wood-burning locomotives) for working at creosoting works at Hayes. New 43XX class: 4382-4399 into service.

An early locomotive. 242. illustration (drawing)
Early George Stephenson design (1820-5) 10 x 24in cylinders set at a steep angle at rear of engine driving leading axle via sun & planet gear. Text notes Theodore West's chart. See also letter from E.A. Forward in 23, p. 61

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 243-5
Previous part pp- 177-80 2-4-0 No. 1 Raigmore (illustrated), 2-4-0T No. 59 Highlander and 4-4-0T No. 58; 4-4-0 Nos. 88 and 32.

4-6-2 compound superheated express locomotive, Paris, Lyons and Mediterannaen Ry. 245-9. diagrams
Detailed working drawings, plans and sections.

Train lighting notes: N.E.R. train lighting department, York. 250-3. 4 illustrations, plan
At York Carriage Works: shops for servicing accumlators (batteries) and dynamos

Great Northern Ry. 253.
2-6-0 Nos. 1655 and 1656 were new from Doncaster. 2-8-0 No. 459 had been fitted with a top feed arrangement with a large dome cover. 0-6-0 No. 1136 had been fitted with a large boiler.

State saloon for the Rana of Dholpur. 253-6. 5 illustrations, plan.
Built at the Matunga workshops of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway to the design of A.M. Bell, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent: ran on six wheel bogies and was lavishly furnished.

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 256-8.
Saw mill and woodworking machine shop

Pressing the bottom arch bars of diamond framed bogies. 258-9. 3 diagrams

Small workshop details. 259. illustration
Hand-screwing machine manufactured by James N. Durie & Co. of Leeds

The "Skatoskalo" pneumatic boiler scaling tool. 259-60
Manufactured by Frank Gilman of Birmingham

Correspondence. 260

Bradshaw's Guide, No. 1,000."  H.T. Thorpe
Re Issue 14 October, 1916: state that the first issue of Bradshaw was dated December, 1841, and also that, that this was preceded in October; 1839, by "Bradshaw's Railway Timetables," issued quarterly. I have in my possession a "Bradshaw's Railway Companion (price 1/-) dated 1840, printed and published by Bradshaw & Blacklock, 27, Brown Street,' Manchester, and sold by Charles Tilt, Fleet Street, London. It is stated on the first inside cover that it contains the times of departure, fares, etc., of the' Railways in England, and also Hackney Coach fares and plans of London, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool, and Manchester. There are several interesting notes, the following-" No Smoking is allowed at the Stations or in the Company's Carriages "-" After the doors are closed no passengers can be adimitted."-" A passenger may claim the seat corresponding to the number" on his ticket."-" No gratuity is allowed to be taken by any servant Of the Company."-"'Trains from Manchester at 30 minutes past 3 a.m."-" Trains every half' hour (London & Croydon Railway) from 10 minutes before 2 to 20 minutes after 9 in the afternoon." _"" Fares Inside 4/-, Outside 3/-.'.'-" A market train for passengers and 'cattle," etc.-" Half an hour is allowed at Derby for refreshment." Etc., etc. The book contains 30 pages, and if about 3½-in. by 2½,in., brown cloth and green and gilt label.

Light Railways, Ltd.  260
A new company, "Light Railways, Ltd. " (registered offices, 2, London Wall Buildings, London, E.C.), had been formed to deal with the export of all materials connected with light railways, the special object being to supplant the enormous quantities of light and portable rail way materials of German origin which have reached. the Colonies during recent years,

Canadian Northern Ry. 260
Wm. Phillips, formerly European Railway and Steamship Manager, who recently returned to Canada, has been appointed Freight, Traffic Manager (Eastern Lines), and Mr. Geo. Stephen, hitherto Assistant Freight Traffic Manager, is now Freight Traffic Manager (Western Lines).

Railway Club. 260
Annual General Meeting of the Club to take place at 92,' Victoria Street, Westminster, on 9 January at 7 p.m. B. M. Bazley will afterwards read a paper on "The Cheshire Lines. Committee."

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