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Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 39 (1933)

Number 485 (14 January 1933)

The steam locomotive in 1932. 1
Higher boiler pressures, three cylinder designs, boosters, water tube boilers, feed water heating and water treatment. Threat of diesel traction

[L. & N.E. Ry.] appointments. 1
F.W. Carr, formerly works manager Darlington moved to be works manager Gorton in succession to J.W. Smith. L. Farr, former assistant works manager Darlington to be works manager.

London, Brighton and Worthing electrification. 1.
Came into operation on 1 January 1933 with service based on multiple units and an intensive, but not very fast (no faster than that provided by steam) service.

The "Queen of Scots" Pullman train at Edinburgh, London & North Eastern Ry. 2 + colour plate
Plate missing from copy seen: showed Reid Atlantic No. 9877 Liddesdale approaching Waverley from Glasgow Queen Street on up train.

Indian railway affairs. 2.
Review of rolling stock: due to curtailment of orders it was considered that there was a shortage of 25,000 broad gauge wagons.

London & North Eastern Ry. 2.
A8 (rebuilt from 4-4-4T) No. 1528 was in service with bumker modified to suit Leeds coaling plant. New Sentinel railcars No. 246 Royal Sovereign and 248 Tantivy were in service between Scarborough and Saltburn. 4-4-0 Nos. 8848 and 8900 Claud Hamilton had been rebuilt at Stratford with J39 round-top boilers.

Southern Ry. Pupils and Premiums Dinner. 2.
To be held at the Charing Cross Hotel on 3 February 1933.

Southern Ry. 2
Exhibitions at Victoria Station No. 17 platform new six-coach electric corridor train and Southern Belle train and at Brighton No. 7 platform a new six-coach electric train, a full size replica of Stephenson's Rocket, Stroudley 0-4-2 No. 2172 (orginally 172 Littlehampton) and No. 853 Lord Rodney.

Three-Cylinder "Mountain" type express locomotive, French State Rys. 3. illustration.
Constructed by Compagnie Fives-Lille. Fitted with mechanical stokers and Serve tubes. Operating pressure 290 psi. Total evapourative heating surface 2890 + 997 s/h. Ga 54. Renaud poppet valves. Outside cylinders 20¾ x 30 in and inside cylinder 22½ x 25½. Coupled wheels 6ft 4¾.. Intended for Paris to Cherbourg Transatlantic services.

Beyer-Garratt locomotive for the U.S.S. Rys. 4-8. 2 illustrations., 2 diagrams. (including side elevation)
4-8-2+2-8-4: 4ft 11in coupled wheels. Over 17ft tall to top of chimney aand 109ft over buffers.

Queen Victoria's railway saloon — to be preserved at Derby. 8.

Retirement of J.W. Smith. 8.
Works Manager Gorton for 26 years; 47 years of railway service. Gresley prsentation 16 December 1932.

Oil-engined rail-car, Clogher Valley Ry. 8-9. illustration
Supplied by Walker Bros. of Wigan in collaboration with D.N. McClure, general manger CVR. Gardner diesel engine

0-4-2 light auto tank enginess, 4800 class, Great Western Ry. 9-10. illustration
Replacement for Armstrong 517 class: notes drum-head front tube plate and Belpaire firebox. Cab roomy and well lighted

British main line electrification. 10.
Abstract of paper by F. Lydall to the Institute of Transport presented on 12 December 1932. Frank Pick chaired the Meeting. Argued that Parshall and Darley patented multiple unit control in 1893 and produced a system used by the South Side Elevated Railroad in Chicago for over thirty years. This preceded the Spague patents of 1898. High speed tests had been conducted on the Euston to Watford line and an the Netherlands Railways to ensure that the continuous fast running anticipated on the London to Brighton electrification would not be injurious. Tests had been conducted up to 76.5 mile/h. William Whitelaw considered that the lack of continuous brakes invalidated electrification of freight traffic in Britain. C.J.H. Trutch considered that diesel electric traction was much cheaper than full electrification.

Tank locomotive for steel works at Portardawe. 10-11. 2 illustrations
Powerful outside cylinder 0-4-0ST with outside valve gear supplied to W. Gilbertson & Co. Ltd by Beyer Peacock. Had 16 x 24in cylinders; 3ft 10in coupled wheels; 830ft2 total heating surface and 14.7ft2 grate area.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. 11-13.
Continued from previous Volume pp. 439-41. Lubrication of valves and cylinders.

Metropolitan Ry. Stanmore extension. 13
Opened on Friday 9 December 1932. Walter Scott & Middleton were the main contractor. An increase in generating capacity was required at Neasden power station.

Views of a locomotive engineer on home railway operation under present conditions. 14-15.
Passenger fares needed to be simplified. Restrictions on other than excursion tickets needed to be removed. Day, week and tourist tickets should be abolished. Third class was unsuitable term to apply to the bulk of the passengers. Train times needed to meet customer requirements. Transport of cars by rail should be considered. Aim to increase train loadings. Freight rates needed to be simplified. Continued p. 43..

Electric locomotive design — VI. 16-18. illus., 2 diagrs., 2 tables.
Effect of motor disposition upon weight distribtion. Considered 1200 h.p. South African Rys. Bo+Bo; adhesion loss at speed and on striking sharp gradients;  the effect of frontal air pressure (the LNER 2-Co-2 was considered) and American Illinois Central RR shunting locomotives.

Diesel-electric power units, Buenos Ayres Great Southern Ry. 18-22. 3 diagrams. (including. side. & front. elevstions and plans)
Three 1700 h.p. mobile power units supplied by Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth to power eight coach electric multiple units built in Argentina. Saggaccio couplings were fitted. A 1700 h.p. diesel electric locomotive was also supplied. The designs were prepared by the chief mechanical engineer P.C. Saccaggio with the assistance of the consulting engineers Livesey, Son & Henderson. 

Paris-Orleans Ry. 22.
New design of electrically powered snowplough for use onthe section between Toulouse and the Spanish frontier. Snow-plough had two rotary scoops.

[Flying Hamburger record run]. 22
On Thursday 29 December 1932 run between Berlin and Hamburg completed in 138 minutes.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 22.
AGM and annual inner at the Midland Grand Hotel on 10 December 1932.

Fireless shunting locomotives for Huntley & Palmers Ltd. 22-3. illustration
Two locomotives supplied by W.G. Bagnall Ltd. to the Reading biscuit factory with 18½ x 18 cylinders and 80 psi working pressure

New "Monarch" air extractor ventilator for railway rolling stock, etc. 23-4. illustration
Designed without moving parts and tested at Imperial College of Science & Technology.

New Pullman cars for the Brighton and Worthing services. 24-8. 6 illustrations., 4 plans.
Coaches for inclusion in the multiple units used on the express services and to form the three Southern Belle sets. Vehicles included composite cars, third-class Pullman motor brakes and first-class Pullman kitchen cars. The names of the fisrt class cars are listed and the forms of internal decoration are described at great length.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers: the locomotive blastpipe and chimney. 28.
Abstract of Paper No. 300 by W.F. McDermid read on 5 January 1933.

Obituary. 29

Lord Congleton. 29
Death in London on December 21, at the early age of forty. Lord Congleton was a director of G.D. Peters & Co. Ltd., the Consolidated Brake and Engineering Co. Ltd., the British Power Railway Signal Co. Ltd., and the British Air Brake Co. Ltd. He was a B.Sc. of McGill University, Montreal, and a Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Lord Congleton was a vice-president of the Railway Students' Association.

F.J. Page, O.B.E., M.I.Mech.E., M.lust.Loco.E.  29. illustration (portrait)
As the result of a motor accident near Bristol the death occurred on December 20 of Mr. Frederick James Page, O.B.E., late Director Mcchanical Engineering of the Railway Board, Delhi. Mr. Page served his time in the G.N. Ry, works at Doncaster, and was appointed district locomotive superintendent on the South Indian R. In 1910 he took charge of the locomotive, carriage, and wagon department of the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Ry. (broad gauge) at Pare1, Bombay. During his period of office he was the victim of a shooting outrage by a mentally-deranged engine driver, and for some time was in a very precarious condition. Page was a consistent advocate of standardisation, although he always contended each railway required adjustments to meet local conditions, hence the special types of locomotives he designed for the BB. & CIR., which have been illustrated in these pages. In 1926 he was temporarily attached to the Railway Board on special duty in connection with the standardisation of locomotives and rolling- stock, and in 1929 was appointed Director of Mechanical Engineering vice Mr. J. F. Chase, retired. Last year Mr. Page retired, under Government rules, from the Railway Board, and was e1ected a Director of the Nizam's State Ry. Administration in London.

Bowman Malcolm, M.LC.E., M.LMech.E. 29.
Death on 3 January 1933 of Mr. Bowman Malcolm, M.LC.E., M.LMech.E., formerly chief engineer and locomotive superintendent of the Northern Counties Com., L.M.S. Ry. MaIcolm began his career as a pupil in the locomotive engineer's office of the Belfast and Northern Counties Ry. in 1870, and six years later, when only 22 years of age, was appointed locomotive engineer. The appointment to this responsible position at such an early age is unique in railway annals. In 1903 the B. & N.C. system was acquired by the Midland Ry., and so satisfied were the directors with Mr. Malcolm's executive ability that they appointed him civil engineer as well as head of the locomotive department. At the same time he became civil engineer of the County Donegal Rys. Mr. Malcolm was responsible for the design and construction of the large bridge over the River Bann, at Coleraine, on the Belfast and Londonderry line. He was an advocate of the two-cylinder compound system, which gave very satisfactory results on his line, due no doubt to the adoption of the Walschaert valve gear in connection therewith. He was also the first British railway engineer to use high- capacity wagon stock, some 30-ton bogie wagons being put into service on the Northern Counties line in 1891. Mr. Malcolm died at Ashley Park, Belfast, and was 76 years of age. He had spent 46 years of his life in the service of the railway.

Reviews. 29.

The early years of modern civil engineering. R.S. Kirby and P.G. Laurson, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.,
The scope of this work, as will be gathered from its title, is a fairly comprehensive one, and to adequately deal with even the earlier period of the various branches into which it is subdivided in a volume of 324 pages, needs an optimistic outlook. To better appreciate this it may be mentioned that the work is divided into ten subsections :-Surveying; Canals; Roads and Pavements; Railroads; Bridges; Tunnels and Subways; Waterworks and Water Power; Sewers; River and Harbour Irnprovement : Materials; and Biographical Outlines. evertheless, it must be admitted that each of these subjects has been fairly treated, and the' salient facts put before the reader in a concise and convenient form, and although written by Americans for American readers, whilst it naturally deals fully with the history of the profession in that country, does not stress the American position unduly. A large number of illus- trations, many quaint and little known, are included, whilst at the end of each section is given a bibliographica1 list, setting forth the principal works that have been published' on the subject in all countries. The biographical outlines will be found very useful, and to these are added a large- number of portraits of well-known engineers. One of the most interesting of the illustrations is one described as "Doubtless the first illustration of a railway. It brought blocks of building stone. by gravity, from a quarry in England in 1754." This line was apparently constructed by Ralph Allen, one of the leading citizens of Bath in the' middle of the eighteenth century, who did much to introduce the famous Bath stone, of which he had extensive quarries, for building purposes. His residence at Prior Park was' built of this stone, and the line in question was doubtless made to bring down the material from the quarries. It would be interesting to know if any trace of it now remains. In such a work some errors are practically unavoidable, but as far as can be noticed these are few and of small account. It may, however, be noted that the Tanfield branch was not a part of the Stockton & Darlington Ry., the Woodhead Tunnels were not on the Manchester. Sheffield and Birmingham Ry., and the Metropolitan District was not the first underground railway. These blemishes not withstanding, the book can be recommended as a useful addition to a reference library.

Erhaltungs wirtschaft bei der Deutschen Reichsbahn. Peter Kuehne. Verkehrswissenschaftliche Lehrmittel GmbH. bei der Deutschen Reichsbahn, Berlin. 538 pages, 238 illustrations.  29-30.
The task of re-conditioning and renewing the dilapidated railway equipment after the Great War was rendered particularly difficult in Germany owing to her obligation to surrender practically the best part of her roIling stock including 9400 locomotives, to the allies. The fusion of seven form~rly autonomous state railways into the German State Ry. Co. in 1921, the inflation period, and the general need of the early post-war days, were further factors pressing for a revolutionary reorganisation of railway operation.
The reconstruction on modern and scientific lines of the whole maintenance service, which latter absorbs one-seventh of the total expenditure and employs one-sixth of the staff, is fully described in this work on .Maintenance Organisation. The author a director of the Reichsbahn, deals m runeteen chapters with all aspects of the reconditioning and. main- tenance of both roIling stock and permanent way equipment. The system adopted has been developed in ten years of incessant studies and planning, and is based upon the division of the whole administrative area of the German State Rys. into ten regional directorates, each controlling a certain number of running sheds and repair shops. The latter are highly specialised, each being allotted a certain class of vehicle only, e.g., passenger or goods steam locomotives, electric locomotives, electric motor coaches, passenger carriages, postal and luggage vans, and special freight cars. Similar arrangements have been evolved for the mainten- ance of trucks and vans, whilst special works deal with points and crossings, signalling equipment, road vehicles, and various office machines. This complete specialisation of the work carried out by each repair shop has made possible the introduction of flow work in general and the series production of small parts, with a corresponding quickening and cheapening of the operations and a marked improvement in the repairs. It is interesting to note, in this connection, that the better maintenance of the steam locomotives has increased their mileage between two complete overhauls from 40,000 to 70,000 miles. The centralisa- tion of the repair shops, although adding to the waste mileage of vehicles, does not influence the cost of the repairs in a detrimental manner. On the other hand, the specialisation of the work has fostered the collection of valuable data and has been helpful towards the standardisation of various component parts, thereby facilitating their interchange- ability, which is the primary condition for the economical execution of any repair work. Moreover, the information gained in the systematic maintenance service will also influence the design of new equipment.
The merits of various lay-outs of railway repair shops, such as the rectangular, square, and horse-shoe shapes, and the arrangement of the bays, dismantling and assembling stands, and auxiliary workshops, are fully described, and the advisability of double or partially double shifts is dealt with at some length. Special attention is paid to cranes, turn-tables, traversers, and other equipment for the rapid transportation of locomotives and heavy vehicles within the works. The extensive use of electric platform trucks for moving various component parts is advocated, and the chapter on special measuring instruments and methods employed for checking the wear of parts or the distortion of frames provides much interesting reading. The book contains exhaustive information also on such matters as the preparation of work schedules, sequence of operations, team work, and the clerical organisation of the repair shop. The proper storage and assortment of both raw and semi-manu- factured materials, spare parts, re-conditioned components, is a matter of vital importance for the economical manage- ment of the maintenance service. Standardisation has enabled the German railways to reduce the number of requisite materials from 15,000 to 6,000, and attempts are being made at restricting also the number of special tools, devices, and auxiliary machinery. Special attention is drawn to the storage of waste and scrap materials. Certain stores, such as gun-metal castings, brake shoes, tyres, etc., are kept at central warehouses, which supply the repair shops at regular intervals. Both the railway economist and accoun- tant are well catered for in the book, which includes numerous diagrams, charts, and facsimile reproductions of forms employed nor costing and statistical uses. .

Trade Notes and Publications. 30
In this country [UK], by the new Ministry of Transport regulations which came into force in January last year, all new private or commercial motor vehicles must have safety glass windscreens and, by 1937, all motor vehicles, whatever age or type, must be so equipped. Many corporations have also fitted safety glass in the drivers' compartments of their tramcars, and the Underground Ry. have equipped the drivers' cabs of their trains with Triplex.

Hydraulic buffer stop (tension type). 30
Particulars are to hand of a patent long-stroke hydraulic buffer stop from Ransomes & Rapier Ltd., of Ipswich. In this new type of buffer, instead of the piston. rod acting in compression, it is used in tension, the piston being drawn out of the cylinder instead of being forced into it. The stroke is only limited by the length of cylinder that can conveniently be manufac- tured. This cylinder is located between the track rails. The example shown on the leaflet has a stroke of 25 ft. The impact of the train is received by a buffing structure ar- ranged to slide along the track rails, and connected to the end of the piston. To resist any turning over moment due to the impact, the structure is provided with two members which engage with the flanges of the leading wheels of the locomotive; the turning moment is therefore resisted by the weight of the locomotive itself. Trains of 1,000 tons travelling at 12 m.p.h., or 500 tons at 16 m.p.h, can be brought to a standstill without undue shock or damage to the stock.
Resetting the buffer after it has been in operation can be effected by the train itself, a connecting link on the buffer beam automatically engaging with the draw hook of the locomotive when the buffers make contact, and becoming disconnected automatically when the buffing structure has been drawn to the position in which the piston rod is corn- pletely housed in the cylinder. It can be operated either with water or oil. Due to the low rate of resistance offered by this buffer, owing to the long stroke, the foundations are not costly.

Oil-engine locomotives. 30
John Fowler & Co. Ltd. have issued a detailed description of their 70-h.p. oil engined shunting locomotive for the standard gauge. Starting of the engine is by an electric motor or, if preferred by a small petrol engine.

Number 486 (15 February 1933)

Institution of Locomotive Engineers: new President. 31. illustration. (portrait)
Major C.E. Williams of the Crown Agents for the Colonies.

Trevithick Centenary commemoration. 31-2.
Future events planned: memorial service at Dartford and exhibition at Science Museum.

Three-cylinder "Mountain" type express locomotive, French State Rys. 32-3. diagram (side & front elevations.)
Renaud design with poppet valves: see also previous Issue.

0-4-0 saddle tank locomotives, L.M. & S. Ry.  33. illustration., diagram (side elevation)
One locomotive (WN 1544) fitted with smoke eliminating apparatus see p. 94.

London Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. and N.W. Section). 33.
New 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines recently turned out at Crewe bore Nos. 13238-44, completing the order for ten engines, all of which had been allocated for service on the Western division. A further ten Claughtons were being converted at Crewe into three-cylinder engines of the Baby Scot class (5X). Of these the first out would be No. 5952. Ten others of the same type were also undergoing conversion at thc Derby shops. New type 0-4-4T's ex Derby bore Nos. 6405-8, of which the first three were stationed at Birkenhead (shed 18). These engines were fitted with stove-pipe chimney and were Power Class 2. Engines recently fitted with standard Belpaire boilers included: 4-4-0 George the Fifth class Nos. 5323 and 5336; 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class No. 5841; 4-6-0 19in. goods class No. 8703; and 0-8-0 G1 class No. 9273. No. 9117 had been converted from class G to class G1 (superheater), and was now provided with a standard Belpaire boiler, also with the vacuum brake throughout. Of the same type, Nos. 9047 and 9184 were adapted to work over the Midland division. During 1932 the following 5 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 passenger tank ngines were fitted for working push and pull trains: Nos. 6652, 6663, 6681, 6682, 6690, 6692, 6701, 6718. 6742, and 6743; bringing the total of that type so fitted up to 42. 0-6-0 standard shunting tanks Nos. 7125-33, formerly attached to the Northern division, were allocated to the Western division, and most had been noted at work in the Barrow district. Two additional Princes had been transferred to the Central division. Nos. 5714 and 5724. No. 1602, ex N.S. Ry. 0-6-0T. built by Kerr, Stuart & Co. in 1919, had been withdrawn for scrapping.

Hangchow-Kingshan Ry., China. 33.
Six locomotives of the 2-8-0 type, with tenders. are to be ordered for the Hangchow-Kingshan Ry. of China.

4-8-4 tender locomotive, New Zealand Government Rys. 34; 35. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
K class for 3ft 6in gauge with 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 20 x 26in cylinders; 1931ft2 total evapourative sutface; 484ft2 superheater; 47.7ft2 grate area and 200 psi working pressure. Built in the Auckland workshops.

New railway museum in Cairo. 34-5.
Opened by King Fuad I on 15 January 1933. Notes models of Khedival train and of the Robert Stephenson locomotive which hauled the earliest version. A section deals with the overland mail transport in Egypt, immediately preceding the railways. As early as 1777 mails and goods went through Egypt by camel between Rosetta and Alexandria, by sailing boats up the Nile to Boulac, and by camel between Cairo and Suez. Later, canals were made, and a special carriage road constructed between Cairo and Suez. Photographs, maps and diagrams relating to this route, and its promoter, Thos. Waghorn, were on view, and there is a second illuminated map showing the routes at different dates. The section dealing with bridges includes a model of the Kantara Bridge over the Suez Canal, removed in 1921.
There were models of the railway stations at Tantah and Edfu and the railway workshops at Abu Zabal. In the adjoining annexe are exhibited the actual combined locomotive and saloon built for the private use of Said Pasha by Robert Stephenson and Co. in 1862. It is "gorgeously painted", with plenty of bright brass work. Other full size exhibits are a six-coupled goods engine built by Stephenson's in the 1860s and a section of a standard "Atlantic" type express engine.
The organisation and arrangement of the museum has been accomplished in record time by Major E.W. Slaughter, assistant mechanical engineer of the Egyptian State Rys.

Southern Ry. 35.
Five of the new series of Schools class three-cylinder 4-4-O engines completed at Eastleigh before the end of December: Nos. 910 Merchant Taylors, 911 Dover, 912 Downside, 913 Christ's Hospital, and 914 Eastbourne,

Brussels-Antwerp line Belgian National Rys to be electrified. 35.
The work was expected to be completed by the beginning of 1935.

Limavady branch. 35
Northern Counties Committee, L.M. & S. Ry., closed for passenger traffic as from 3 January 1933.

Botley-Bishops WaItham branch. 35.
On 31 December 1932 the branch of the Southern Ry. closed for passenger traffic. It was 3¾ miles long and had an intermediate halt at Durley crossing. The branch was still used for goods traffic.

Besses o' th' Barn railway station. 35.
A railway station named Besses-o' th' Barn after the famous band opened for traffic by the on 1 February 1933. It is on the L.M. & S. Ry. electrified line from Manchester to Bury, between Whitefield and Prestwich. All electric trains (weekdays and Sundays) for Whitefield and beyond, and from Bury (Bolton Street), Radcliffe, and Whitefield, call at Besses-o' -th' -Barn.

International Limited. 35.
The fastest train on the American Continent is the Canadian National Rys.' International Limited, which covered 334 miles between Montreal and Toronto at an average speed of 55.6 miles an hour, including five stops. From Toronto the train goes on to Chicago. En route, it made fourteen more stops, and completed a journey of 848 miles from Montreal in 17 hours 30 minutes. Besides stops. a factor which militated against the total performance was the necessity for changing to an electric locomotive at. the international boundary to pull the tram through the river tunnel between Sarnia, Ontario, and Port Huron, Michigan.

Platelayers' motor-driven trucks and inspection cars. 36. 2 illus.
Built by Robel & Co. of Munich with petrol engines.

4-6-2 type passenger locomotives for the Burma Rys. 37. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
Three YC class metre gauge locomotives built by Vulcan Foundry under supervision of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. 4ft 9in coupled wheels; 17½ x 24in cylinders; 1448ft2 total heating surface; 322ft2 superheat; 31ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure.

2-4-4 tank locomotive for the Lithuanian State Rys. 38. illus.
Built by Skoda with Krauss-Helmholtz articulation on front axles. Cylinders 500mm x 630mm with Heusinger valve gear. Total heating surface 1546ft2.

San Paulo Railway (Brazil). 38.
Diesel-electric train set supplied by Sir W.G. Armstrong to operate express trains between Santos and San Paulo.

London & North Eastern Ry. 38.
First of new series of B17 Sandringham class 4-6-0 completed at Darlington works, namely No. 2837 Thorpe Hall. 4-4-4T No. 2155 rebuilt as A8 4-6-2T and was working in Newcastle area. No. 1839, G5 0-4-4T, had been fitted with improved bunker rails and was working Pateley Bridge branch. G class 4-4-0 tender engines to be reconditioned for working Tebay line.

E.C. Poultney. Large 2-10-4 type locomotive, Atcheson, Topeka and Santa Fe R.R. 39-41. illus., diagr., table
The railway introduced ten-coupled locomotives in 1902 with tandem compounds supplied by Baldwin and this developed into the 2-10-2 Santa Fe type and ultimately the 2-10-4 type. Superheating was introduced in 1912. The boiler had evolved until 300 psi was accepted with a nickel steel wrapper, welded seams and Nicholson thermic syphons. The grate area had reached 121.5ft2. Cylinder dimensions were 30 x 34in. The valve gear was modified to increase valve travel and to improve starting Chapman Lanning starting valves were fitted. Cast steel frames were incorporated. 5250 indicated h.p. and 4300 drawbar h,p. had been achieved. See also letter from W.T. Hoecker p. 164. See also letter from Charles R. Danforth on p. 135.

Tests of a Hunslet Engine Co.'s heavy oil locomotive. 41.
150 h.p. direct drive shunting locomotive assessed on haulage of 400 ton trains in a colliery and in Hunslet Lane goods yard of the LMS. The locomotive was shown to be capable of working continuously for extended periods.

A successful diesel locomotive. 42. illus.
Introduced in 1924 and used on steeeply graded lines (6%) in Calabria in Southern Italy. The Bo-Bo locomotive used a F.I.A.T. two-stroke 440 b.h.p. diesel engine with Brown Boveri electric transmission

Chimney deflectors, L.M. & S. Ry. locomotives. 42. illus.
No. 6161 King's Own was fitted with a stove pipe chimney, cut away smokebox and a more rounded smokebox door.

Views of a locomotive engineer on home railway operation under present conditions. 43-5.
Continued from pp. 14-15. Need to accelerate train services — far too many all-stations stopping services averaged 25-30 mile/h. Road coaches provided door-to-door service and similar speeds. There was a need to reduce station times, to abolish parcels barrows and substitute light containers for parcels traffic. Higher rates of acceleration were needed. Punctuality needed improving: colour light signals helped. Railcars and urban electrification were required, but author disagreed with Weir proposals for main line electrification, but then requested higher cleanliness of rolling stock and improved train lighting and heating.

Roderick Hedley. Recent developments in the design of tank wagons. 45-6. 4 illus.
Manufactured by Eisenbahn Verkehrsmittel AG for transport of molasses from sugar beet via Zeebrugge to Harwich train ferry; conveying olive oil, formaldehde in aluminium tanks, and hydrochloride acid in demi-johns (earthenware vessels)

Sakhalin Island (Russia). 46.
First railway connecting Ohinsk oilfields with Moscalevo Bay.

New Pullman and motor cars dor the Brighton electrific extension of the Southern Ry. 46
Thirty new cars suppied by Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage Wagon & Finance Co.; design collaboration between W.J. Sedcole, engineer of the Pullman Car Co. and R.E.L. Maunsell.

Railway Club. 46
J. MacNab spoke about the Liverpool Overhead Railway at the January meeting.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. 47-9.
Grease lubrication in USA, Canada and to some extent in India.

L.M. & S. Ry. Northern Counties Committee. 49
Four 2-6-0 tender locomotives "are under construction at Crewe Works" [sic] and will be ompleted in time for the summer services to deal with heavy trains over the stiff gradients of the new White Abbey loop line.

High speed electric locomotives for France. 49. illus.
2-Do-Do-2 for Midi Railway built by Cie Constructions Electriques de France. 1500 V d.c. 3200 horse power. Capable of working Sud Express from Paris to Dax at average speed of 56 mile/h over 451 miles. Capable of 81 mile/h, but in excess of legal limit.

Petrol engined rail-car, Buenos Aires & Pacific Ry. 50-2. illustration
M.F. Ryan: four wheel car built at Junin Workshops with Leyland E11 type engine. Seating for 34 passengers.

Joynt, E.E. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. 52-3.

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 53-4. 3 diagrams (side elevation drawings)

Six-wheeled passenger vans, L.M. & S. Ry. 54-5. illustration
Stanier design with flush steel sides and gangways.

Electric locomotive design. VII. Driving bogie design. 55-6. diagr.
Outside frames essential with nose-suspended motors. Design of pivots and side bearers. Stiffening.

South African Rys. 56
W.A.J. Day, late advisor to the High Commissioner in London, had been appointed Mechanical Engineer at the Chief Mechanical Engineer's headquarters at Pretoria. T.C. Swallow succeeded Day in London.

[F.V. Russell retirement]. 56.
F.V. Russell, C.B.E., formerly Superintendent of Operation on the Great Eastern Ry., retired from L. and N.E. Ry. service at the end of 1932. As chief draughtsman at Stratford under Jas. Holden, Russell prepared the designs of the famous Claud Hamilton locomotive which was awarded a Grande Prix at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. Mr. RusselI was mainly responsible for the accelerated services between Liverpool Street and Enfield and Chingford, introduced in 1920. Of late years he has been engaged in preparing electrification schemes for the LNER in the London district, which have had to be held up owing to the economic position.

[Harold S. Aspinall]. 56.
Harold S. Aspinall had resigned his position as London Director of Petters Ltd. and joined the English Electric Co. Ltd. as Manager of Diesel-Engine Sales. From 1923 to 1928 Mr. Aspinall was director and general manager of Vickers-Petters Ltd., Ipswich.

[E.E. Lucy retirement]. 56.
E.E. Lucy had retired from the post of chief  mechanical engineer of the New South Wales Rys.

An Italian articulated rail-car. 56. illus.
Since 1926 there had been in service on the Fidenza-Salsomaggiore tramway line of standard gauge, connected with the Italian State Rys., an articulated train, comprising two units on three bogies, the centre bogie carrying the motor. Each carriage was 35 ft. 9 in. long and had a driving compartment at the outer end. One car accommodated 72 second-class passengers, and the other a luggage compartment and 18 first-class seats. Power was transmitted to one pair of wheels on the articulated bogie by an internal combustion engine made by the Continental Motor Co., of Detroit. Direct hydrodynamical control from either end and special four-speed change gears in constant mesh in either direction and easy to operate, were installed. These railcars were built by A. Laviosa, of Piacenza, Italy, who specialised in the construction of motor vehicles for rail and road.

[Locomotive Running Department (Eastern Division), Southern Ry. annual dinner]. 56.
D. Sheppy, Eastern Divisional Locomotive Superintendent, presided at the eighth annual dinner of the Locomotive Running Department (Eastern Division), Southern Ry., which was held on Wednesday, January 18, at the Strand Palace Hotel. The attendance numbered about 200. A musical programme followed the dinner with brief speeches. The chairman proposed the "Southern Ry. and its Officers," to which A.D. Jones, O.B.E., M.V.O, responded. T. Chrimes proposed the toast of the "Ladies, Guests, and Visitors," to which Mrs. Richford replied.

Bishop's Castle Ry. 56.
Since 8 December 1932 only one train per day ran between Bishop's Castle and Craven Arms, with an extra evening train on Fridays, There were three bus trips daily.

Notes on autogenous welding. 57-8.

[Soviet Union railways during 1932]. 58.
During 1932 the USSR opened its first electrified rack railway, completed the first Russian main-line electrification scheme, and took delivery of one 1,200 h.p. and one 1,500 h.p. diesel-electric locomotives, in addition to a 300-h.p. diesel-mechanical unit, all of these machines being built in Germany. Further, a number of Diesel loco-tractors were placed in service, and an order given out for ten 1,200-h.p. oil-electric goods locomotives several of which had been delivered. Almost coincident with the completion by Krupp of two gigantic 2-14-4 locomotives weighing over 300 tons with tender, the largest Beyer-Garratt locomotive in the world was shipped from Manchester, both types being intended for the Donetz basin coal traffic. A batch of 2-10-2 and 2-10-4 locomotives were constructed at the Lugansk and Kolomna establishments, while the year's activities were completed by placing of an order with Beyer-Peacock for a number of 0-6-0 tank engines with an axle load of 22 tons, these being similar to that supplied by Henschel in 1931.

London Midland & Scottish Ry.: station and signalling improvements on the Watford Line. 58.
Installation of automatic colour-light signalling for a distance of 16¼ miles between Camden and Watford had been completed. The system employed 124 colour-light signals, 77 repeater signals, and 306 track circuits, and would increase the number of trains over the Watford electric lines. This section, in addition to handling the L. M. & S. electric trains, also carries the intensive service of Bakerloo tube trains between Watford, Harrow, and the West End. The new signalling scheme had enabled nine manual signal-boxes to be abolished, and was entirely automatic except at junctions, the signals normally being worked by the trains themselves. The signals showed three indications — red, yellow, and green — from one light, by means oi three small coloured screens mounted on a movable vane controlled by electricity. A feature of these signals was their long-distance visibility in fog. Automatic train stops, which apply the blocks should a train over-run a signal, were provided in conjunction with the signals. Among other developments between Euston and Watford are equipment of additional sidings for stabling electric trains at Euston; extension and enlargement of goods depot at Camden; modernisation of locomotive running sheds at Camden; widening of Kilburn High Road bridge to make room for erecting shops; re-modelling of Wembley station; new station at South Kenton and enlargement of Watford goods depot.

The Walschaerts locomotive valve gear. 59-61. 5 diagrs.
Patents were awarded in France in the name of F. Fischer on behalf of Walschaerts in France on 25 October 1844 (No. 2382), sealed 19 November 1844. This arrangement has sometimes led to references to Fischer's valve gear. Figure 1 shows the arrangement filed with the Patent.  This form was probably not adopted. An improved form is shown in Figure 2 which is based on a drawing preserved in the Brussels shops: Détente variable système E. Walschaerts à la locomotive No. 98 — Bruxelles, le 2 Septembre 1848. The gear patented in Prussia in 1849 by Edmund Heusinger is illustrated in Figure 3. Finally, mentiuon is made of Florian Angelé's gear patented in France on 8 March 1843 with a priority date of 29 November 1842. Although Angelé's gear shows that its inventor was aware of variable cut off it is improbable that Walschaerts was aware of the patent.

A Californian water tube boiler locomotive. 61-2. illus.
North Pacific Coast Railroad No. 21 was rebuilt from a conventional Baldwin 4-4-0 into a cab-in-front by W.T. Thomas master mechanic of the line and fitted with a water-tube boiler incorporating a Morison corrugated furnace. It was named Thomas Stetson after the innovator and his manager J.B. Stetson. Other earlier cab-in-front designs included a Livesey and Lange patented system build for the Bolivia Railway in the 1880s by Beyer Peacock, and a locomotive built by the Italian State Railways and cexhibited at the Paris Exhibition in 1900. See also letter from Wm. T. Hoecker on p. 164..

Armstrong-Whitworth diesel-electric railcars. 62.
Northumbrian, the last of three was being fitted out as a restaurant car at Wolverton to operate between Euston and Birmingham for the British Industries Fair.

Claudius P. Jenkyns. The new locomotive works of the Australian Commonwealth Rys. 62-5. 4 diagrs., 3 plans.
Plans show the layouts of the old and the new shops at Port Augusta: the new works were completed in 1929.

Rolls-Royce locomotive, Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Ry. 65. illustration

[First electric rack railway in Russia]. 65
Riggenbach system

[West Finchley,LNER]. 65
New station to open 1 March.

The Sutton & Alford Steam Tramway. 66. illus.
Until about 1895 a steam tramway taking passengers and goods ran two or three times a day from Alford Station, on the East Lincolnshire line of the G.N. Ry., to the town of Alford, three-quarters of a mile distant, and thence to Sutton-on-Sea, a total distance of 7 miles 41 chains. This tramway, opened in 1884, was built on the 2 ft. 6 in. gauge, with the track laid along the centre of the highway. As the road was very narrow in places, and the tram engines were 5 ft. 6 in. wide, at several points along the route there was not room for a loaded wagon to pass the tram-cars, causing much inconvenience to traffic. Had the rail been placed at the side of the road this trouble would have been avoided. The passenger fares were at the rate of 2d. per mile. The locomotives were supplied by Merryweather and Sons, and were built in 1884 at their then recently completed works in the Greenwich Road. They weighed 11½ tons in working order, and apparently were not fitted with the usual condensing apparatus for steam tram locomotives.
The line was worked for about eleven years, and closed soon after the completion of the Mablethorpe loop, which had been opened from Louth to Mablethorpe on 17 October 1877, from Willoughby to Sutton-on-Sea on 4 October 1886, and was extended from Sutton to Mablethorpe, to join up the two sections, on 14 July 1888. The only trace of the tramway in 1933 was the waiting room for passengers at Sutton, which was now a calling place for the motor-bus. service which operated over the route.

Obituary. 66

The death occurred on January 25 of Sir John Reid,
a director of the North British Locomotive Co., at the age of seventy-one. Born at Mancheser, he went to Glasgow as a boy. He served his apprenticeship at the Hyde Park Locomotive Works, and later became a partner with his father in the firm of Neilson, Reid & Co. Eventually in 1908 he became a director of the North British Locomotive Co., and had continued to have an active interest in that concern. Despite his business ties, Sir John Reid took great interest in art, of which he was a generous patron. His collection of pictures was well known. He was also interested in angling, yachting, and photography. He devoted much time in assisting charitable and benevolent institutions in Glasgow, and was closely connected with the Young Men's Christian Association. In 1916 he purchased Erskine House and grounds, which he handed over as the Princess Louise Scottish Hospital for Limbless Sailors and Soldiers. He received a knighthood in 1918, and was made a Knight Commander of the British Empire in 1925.

Mr. Robert Lowthian Trevithick
locomotive, carriage, and wagon superintendent of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. from 1889 to 1901, died at Clifton, Bristol, on February 3, in his eighty-third year. He was a grandson of Richard Trevithick, the famous Cornish engineer.

Mr. J.J. Richardson
formerly outdoor locomotive superintendent of the L.B. & S.C. Ry., died on January 18. at Hove, at the age of seventy-seven. Mr. Richardson served his time at Battersea Sheds under his father, Mr. Albany Richardson, and succeeded him as district locomotive superintendent there in 1898. He was appointed outdoor superintendent, with offices at Brighton, in 1901, and retired from that position in 1915.

Mr. Ralph Robson
death occurred at the age of sixty-five, was chief draughtsman at Darlington locomotive works, L. & N.E. Ry., until his retirement last September. Previous to joining the N.E. Ry, in 1895, he held positions with the North British Locomotive Co., Robert Stephenson & Co., and Babcock & Wilcox.

The railway position in U.S.A.. 66-7
Correspondents tell us of the increasing discontent among railway travellers, due to the withdrawal of so many services, the absence of sleeping cars on many trains which formerly carried them, and the withdrawal of connections serving secondary lines. Freighters, too, are up in arms over the condition of the goods stock. Merchants are conducting inspection of cars prior to loading to ascertain if they are really weather-proof or not. Cars are sprayed with water from fire hoses, and when this is not available, men take powerful lights inside whilst an inspector outside marks any cracks or holes which will prevent the car being accepted.
There is a general feeling that the railways will have to spend money on re-conditioning sooner or later, and when the move does come some large orders will be given.

Electric snow-ploughs. 67
Referring to the paragraph on page 22 of the January Issue on the new French electric snow-plough on the Toulouse-Spain line, it should be mentioned that this is part of the Midi Ry. system, and not the Paris-Orleans.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 67
Paper 301 read before the Members of the Institution on Thursday, 26 January 1933 by B.R. Byrne, on the Possibilities of the Electric Furnace in the Foundry. The electric furnace industry is making headway, and new installations are being effected in this country, despite severe economic restriction. Objection may be raised that the average locomotive foundry does not require a furnace designed primarily for large scale production, or that the service requirements of a locomotivc, even under the heaviest duty, do not call for the use of the highly-refined cast iron for which the electric furnace is noted. But there are signs railways will avail themselves of any process which promises a reduction in manufacturing costs. The electric furnace is becoming increasingly capable of showing a substantial profit when operated under the internal economic conditions peculiar to large railway works, and meets the objections mentioned.
The author gave a series of short descriptions of successful types of furnaces, forming an outline review of the steady development of electrical smelting during the present century. The second section of the paper was devoted to the general features of recent advances in the metallurgy of cast iron. Cupola iron is melted at a comparatively low temperature in contact with fuel and the products of its combustion, The electric furnace melts its charge under conditions of extreme superheat and freedom from adulterant gases. The inclusion of steel in the charge, resorted in cupola melting, has been extended to electric furnace practice with excellent results. The carbon content of the finished iron is here under closer control, and a new type of low total carbon iron has been developed. It has a finer in structure and unusually high tensile strength. The superheating of cast iron is accurately controllable the electric furnace. When combined with the refining process outlined by the author, a high-grade iron is produced with mechanical properties of an order hitherto unattainable. The process is referred to by some as the synthetic process, and the iron frequently called "synthetic" The greatest expansion in the use of this class of iron occurred in America and Germany, but it is steadily gaining favour in Britain. Its greatest commercial possibility lies probably in its use for castings of a type hitherto made in steel. There are definite possibilities for this product in some directions, although there appears to be little scope for its extension to castings for locomotive and rolling stock. Instead of using expensive brands of pig iron for the revivification of foundry scrap, it has been proved by the use of the electric furnace that it is a metallurgical possibility to produce from scrap materials pig iron quality high enough to be used as a diluent in those dry mixtures which would normally incorporate high percentages of more expensive proprietary brands. The lecturer then gave an approximate analysis of the costs of the processes, with particulars of melting practice, methods of using the electric furnace, planning of melts, comparative operating costs with cupola induction furnace, arc furnace, and pulverised coal furnace. In conclusion, the author claimed that even at the present time, with power costs in all but a few districts unfavourable to the electric furnace, the balance of practical and metallurgical possibilities is definitely on the side of the electric furnace. For speed of melting, control of furnace atmosphere and of slag conditions, it is. and will probably remain impossible to equal the performance of the electric furnace.

Reviews. 67

Symposium of Steel Castings. Philadelphia A.S.T.M. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd. 6s.
The presentation and publication of the ten extensive technical papers comprising the Symposium on Steel Castings had been sponsored jointly by the American Foundrymen's Association and the American Society for Testing Materials; the chief purpose being to provide the engineering profession with authoritative information on the properties of steel castings. Carbon-steel and alloy-steel castings are covered.
The first two papers give, respectively, a general survey of the industry and statistical data on steel castings production in the United States. Then follows a contribution on the design of steel castings, which emphasises the importance of co-operation between designer and founder, and discusses extensively contraction and crystallisation phenomena under such headings as crystal formation, feeding of sections, effect of heat transmission, deep pockets, linear shrinkage, etc.

Triplex glass for locomotive cab windows. 67-8
We were recently afforded an opportunity of visiting the works of the Triplex Safety Glass Co., at King's Norton, Birmingham, and of seeing the processes of manufacture of a sheet of "Triplex" glass. As is well known, this safety glass is very often specified for the cab windows of all types of locomotives, to eliminate risks of injury to the enginernen, which the breaking of ordinary glass might involve. The extra cost is now quite a small item. Briefly, Triplex glass consists of a "sandwich," with a sheet of celluloid between.

Number 487 (15 March 1933)

4-6-0 passenger locomotive, H.E.H. the Nizam's State Ry. 69-70. illus., diagr. (s., f. & r. els.)
Supplied by Vulcan Foundry under supervision of Sir Douglas Fox & Partners. 5ft 6in gauge; 6ft 2in diameter coupled wheels. 20½ x 26in cylinders; total evapourative surface 1480ft2; 352ft2 superheat and 32ft2 grate area. Boiler pressure 180 psi.

L.M. & S. Ry. — Northern Counties Committee. 70.
Larne – Ballymena narrow gauge line: permanent closure to passenger traffic

Oil-electric locomotive, P.L.M. Ry. 70-1. illus.
A1A-A-1-A locomotive  supplied Brown Boveri & Co. intended for branch line work and shunting with a MAN 600 bhp engine.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 71
Three  more Claughtons had rebuilt at Crewe as three-cylinder engines of the Baby Scot class (5X), Nos, 5952, 6006, and 6008. Of these, the first two were out and working temporarily from Crewe North shed. The first of ten similar engines now being dealt with at Derby were also nearing completion, No. 5916. Five new type 0-4-4 passenger tank engines had been delivered from the Derby works, Nos. 6405-9, the last two being stationed at Longsight.
The following engines had been turned out fitted with standard Belpaire boilers: 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class Nos. 5615 and 5730; 4-6-0 19-in. goods class No. 8848; 0-8-0 Gl c1ass No. 9303; and 0-8-0 G2 class No. 9435.
Only two of the 6 ft. 6 in. 2-4-0 Jumbos remained in service. Nos. 5001 Snowdon and 5050 Merrie Carlisle, both of which were due in for scrapping in 1933. Notable withdrawals during 1932 included the following : Experiment class, Nos. 5454, 5469, 5496, 5513, 5520, 5524, 5534, 5547, and 5549; 4-4-0 Precursor class, Nos. 5192, 5206, 5229, and 5237; 4-4-2 Precursor tanks, Nos. 6791, 6799, 6810, 6814, 6815, and 6816; also the last six 4 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 passenger tanks, Nos. 6519, 6534, 6542, 6546, 6573, and 6597.
It is understood that all the Claughton class names are be retained by the engines as they are rebuilt, the nameplates to be similar to those on the Royal Scot type.

New high-pressure "Pacific" locomotive, German State Rys. 71-2. illus., table
Amongst the locomotives included within the German scheme of standardisation (see this journal for January 1931) were two classes of the Pacific type, which differed only in the number of cylinders and the respective employment of simple and compound expansion. These two classes were designated Series 01 and 02 (the latter being the compound) and to these was added a further series (03) which are also "simples," but of smaller dimensions with axle loads of 17 tonnes. These locomotives proved very satisfactory, but it was deemed expedient to seek yet further improvement by the use of higher steam pressures and temperatures and by incorporating some rearrangements of detail while adhering as strictly
as possible to existing wheel loads and to tbe general programme of standardisation, which has shown to great advantage in the cost of construction and maintenance. The first of the latest series is illustrated by the courtesy of the builders, Fried. Krupp A.G., of Essen. It was classified as Series 04 and was a four-cylinder compound working with a pressure of 25 kg./cm2 and a superheat temperature of 420°C. This represents a working pressure augmented by no less than 9 kg./cm2 , and it had been obtained with a boiler of normal form and without any increase of weight; a result achieved by the extensive use of special alloy steels which give the strength required to resist the higher pressure. Slight modifications of wheelbase, bogie wheel diameter, and weight, as compared with the earlier compounds, are indicated by the table overleaf, in which it is apparent that the total weight in working order has actually been lessened by 10 tonnes, accompanied by a lowering of the adhesion weight, although this diminution is proportionately smaller,

L.M. & S. Ry. 72.
Recent appointments in the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Department: P.L. Henderson moved to Euston as technical assistant and J.E. Spink, chief inspector moved to be outdoor assistant, Crewe.

L.M. & S. Ry. 72.
Order placed with Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. for 250 hp 40 ton diesel electric shunting loomotive.

Rail transport with diesel engines. 73-5. 2 diagrs., plan
Based on lecture presented by H.D. Bush of William Beardmore & Co. Ltd. to the Crewe Technical Engineering Society entitled as above. Considered a Canadian National Railways twin unit articulated 400 hp railcar. Argued that 20% employed geared transmission and 80% electric. World total was estimated at 225 units.
Electric drive, had proved to be the nearest approach to steam, its advantages were:
Infinitely variable tractive effort.
Engine speed independent of road speed.
Shocks set up by the road wheels are not trans- mitted to the engine through the transmission.
Power available for lighting, heating, and driving the auxiliary apparatus.
Two or more units are readily coupled together and operated by one crew.
The majority of the transmission losses are dissipated in the form of heat.
The power unit can be mounted in any suitable position irrespective of the transmission gear.
The chief disadvantages of the electric transmission system were weight and high capital cost, but the latter is a relative term which is discounted in any final valuation. The actual running costs of diesel-engined electric cars had been remarkably low and even where coal is plentiful and readily available, steam locomotive traction had at last met a more than formidable rival.
The Diesel-electric rail-car cuts out stand-by losses, under such conditions as descending gradients, coasting, and standing in stations as the engine speed is automatically reduced, with consequent saving in fuel consumption.
The problems associated with mechanical and hydraulic transmission concerned:
Starting under load on the level and gradients.
Developing at the wheel treads maximum tractive effort when the locomotive is at rest.
Maximum possible acceleration.
De-acceleration on gradients to a low speed when hauling heavy loads under abnormal conditions.
The locomotive running in the reverse direction when starting up on a steep gradient. and the engine is picking up speed to run in a forward direction.
Each of these conditions reacts upon the engine, particularly stalling and driving in the reverse direction. The electrical transmission automatically meets all these conditions, with the exception of the possibility extensive operation at low speed.

French main-line electrification. 75.
Midi had completed Beziers to Neussargues line on which work began in 1928: it was 170 miles and includes long gradients of between 1 in 37 and 1 in 30 for thirty five miles. 1400 to 1600 hp double bogie electric locomotives were used. Work had started on the Maontauban to Sete and Bordeaux to Point de Grave lines.

Electrification of the Hungarian State Rys. 75-6. 2 illus.
Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. supplied 26 motors, each of 2500 hp to Hungary, conveyed by train direct from Trafford Park. Manchester to Budapest by train via the Harwich to Zeebrugge train ferry. Ganz & Co. were the main contractors for the elctrification using the Kalman de Kando system of phase converters.  

Views of a locomotive engineer on home railway operation under present conditions. 76-8.
Need for improved timetables to suit customers and punctuality for the transport of freight.

London & North Eastern Ry. 78.
Two B17 Sandringham class completed Nos. 2838 Melton Hall and 2839 Rendelsham Hall.

Armstrong-Shell Express, Euston Castle Bromwich by oil-electric rail-car, L.M. & S. Ry. 79. plan.
The Northumbrian on 20 February with special guests of Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. and Shell-Mex and BP Ltd. Car had been fitted out at Wolverton with luxury seating and a kitchen.

Recent locomotives, Imperial Japanese Rys. 80-1. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams. (side elevations), table.
Three cylinder 4-6-2 and 2-8-2 designs

Notes on early London and South Western Ry. locomotives. 82. 3 illus. (drawings)
Continued from page 54. In the History of the South Western Engines on page 353, Locomotive Mag., 1903, 9, (December) a description was given of Joseph Beattie's favourite engines, Nos. 95 to 100, built at Nine Elms Works in 1868 (WN 48 to 53); they were named as follows and turned out in the following order: Centaur, Castor, and Pegasus, in July; Plutus in October; Phlegon in September, and No. 100 Python in July. They were illustrated in Fig. 40 by photo reproduction of Phlegon on the same page, which shows the class in practically the original condition, with the exception of the chimney fitted by Adams and the removal of donkey pump and feed-water heater piping; the spring balances had also been removed from centre of boiler to large dome over firebox.
Four of these engines were fitted with second-hand boilers from the 273 class of Beyer, Peacock's goods engines (which had been fitted with new ones) as follows:
Castor in March 1887 with boiler from 286.
Plutus in October 1888 with boiler from 276.
Python in November 1888 with boiler from 288.
Pegasus in March 1890 with boiler from 275.
Plutus was fitted with closed splashers and straight side sheets, and had the No. 98 in large brass figures thereon, instead of the nameplates; the Peqasus also had new straight side sheets, but retained the nameplates and open-work splashers; Castor retained the curved side sheets, and is shown in Fig. 24 in this article with the new boiler fitted in 1887. Fig. 25 likewise shows the Pegasus in rebuilt form. Centaur and Phlegon retained their original boilers to the end.
Another interesting point concerning these engines and probably little known is that when built, the nameplates had the date on the small top position, the name below, with the corners of nameplate scalloped out at the corners and the words "Beattie's Patent" in the lower part; they were afterwards altered as shown in the illustrations with the number at top, name centre, and date below; the new plates had rounded-off corners for the name, and later on were again altered to add the cypher (0) in front of number when placed in duplicate list.
The writer of this article possesses a good photograph of Pegasus with original nameplate, chimney, etc., and also of Castor with altered nameplate, but original chimney, and fitted with the Ashton patent blow-back safety valve on the top of the dome m place of the spring balances, the original funnel top of the dome casing being removed for the purpose. The object of this valve was to return surplus steam to the tender, thus warming the feed water. It was provided with a pipe led down behind the dome and on the right-hand side of the firebox, and thence coupled to the tender. It was probably fitted in the middle of the 'eighties.
This class worked the fastest express trains from Waterloo to the South and West of England, and their performances would compare favourably with contemporary locomotives doing similar work, most of them runnmg over a million miles, Python having 1,061,915 miles to her credit before being scrapped in 1899. See also letter from W.B. Thompson on p. 136.

Obituary: James Falkinder. 82
Railway history is recalled by the death of James Falkinder, of New England, Peterborough, who was driver of Great Northern. Ry, 8-ft. single engine, No. 668, for years. He, With his fireman, John Bean, drove that engine In the memorable race on three nights in August 1895, from King's Cross to Grantham, in 101 minutes. They passed Hatfield in 16¾ mmutes and reached Peterborough in 72 minutes. Mr. Bean, now a retired driver, is still living Peterborough.
A similar engine, No. 775, worked the train from Grantham to York on the three nights mentioned above and made record running.

Paris-Orleans Ry. 82.
Completed the conversion of the double-track 68-mile stretch from Orleans to Tour but full electric operation will not be in force until early summer. Of the thirteen original P.-O. electric locomotives, almost the first in France, one has been rebuilt as battery locomotive for shunting, while the remaining twelve were being rebuilt on the metadyne system, DC current at variable voltage being delivered to the traction motors.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. 83-4. diagr.
Wheel centres: cast steel: sudden changes of section should be avoided. Tyres: British Engineering Standards Association contours; shrinkage; thickness.

Diesel-electric traction on the Buenos Ayres Great Southern Ry. 84-5. illus.

Electric locomotive design. VII — driving bogie design. 85-6. 2 diagrs.
Considers calculation of the side thrusts experienced by the North Eastern Railway Newport to Shildon locomotives.

Piccadilly Ry extension. 86.
Extension to Southgate and Enfield West opened Monday 13 March 1933. Claimed to be fastest underground railway in world with average speed of 25 mile/h.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Feed water heating on locomotives. 87-9.
Abstract of ILE Paper No. 302 by T.G. Atkinson

150 h.p. Hunslet diesel locomotive. 89-90. diagr.
Six cylinder engine with pre-selector gear changing and clutch mechanism patented by Hunslet Engine Co. Locomotive being trialled on LMS.

Railway Club. 90.
Presidential Address given by Kenneth Brown; Railways before 1825. Thirteen lines considered.

L. & N.E. Ry.: N.B. Section. 90.
The Leadburn and Dolphinton branch had been closed for passenger traffic and passenger service on Gifford branch would be withdrawn from 4 April.

300-h.p. petrol locomotives, Bermuda Ry. 90-2. illus., diagr., plan.

Exhibits at the Cairo Railway Musuem. 92-3. 3 illus.
Model built at Bulac workshops of the original Robert Stephenson 2-4-0 locomotives (WN 822-5 and 867-8); model of the Khedivial State saloon which ran on double bogies (i.e. each bogie was mounted on another pair of bogies) and both sets of bogies were mounted on rubber springs. The framework was built of timber and filled with papier-maché. The vehicle was highly ornamented. The original was supplied by Mason & Co. of the USA. A North British Locomotive Co. 4-4-2 supplied in 1906 and rebuilt in 1919, No. 194, had been sectioned and put on display.

German State Ry. activities. 93.

Obituary: J.H. Stead. 93.
Managing director Drewry Car Co. Ltd. had been associated with Company for thirty years prior to daeth from pneumonis following influenza.

A new smoke eliminator for locomotives. 94.
As fitted to Kitson 0-4-0ST for LMS see page 33.

Retired Railway Officers Society. 94
H. Marriott presided at annual luncheon at Liverpool Street Hotel on 2 March. Toast of The Guests proposed by the president Viscount Grey of Falloden and seconded by Sir Gloster Armstrong. G. Cole Deacon proposed "Success to the Society" and J.F. Bradford responded, W.A. Jepson propsed health of the president.

Diesel electric traction on the Netherlands Rys. 95. diagr.
To provide an improved passenger service the Netherlands Rys. have decided to introduce Diesel-electric traction on a large scale. The system will be inaugurated with the summer service of 1934 on the following sections: Amsterdam-Utrecht (53 krn.), Hague-Utrecht (60 km), Amsterdam-Utrecht-Arnhem (92 km.), and rut-den Bosch-Eindhoven (80 km.). With the option of the international trains and some other trains for long-distance traffic, an hourly ke will be run on these sections by the new diesel-electric trains.
Maximum speed will be 100 km. per hour at start of the service, while the rapid acceleration, equal to that of electric trains, will shorten running time very materially. Units consisted of three close-coupled cars on articulated system, running on four bogies, and seating 160 passengers, 48 of which were second class. For services requiring more passenger accommodation two units will be coupled to form a six-car train. Automatic couplers be used, incorporating also automatic air couplers the brake pipes.

The "Royal Scot" to be Exhibited at Chicago World's Fair. 95.
The LMS Railway announced plans for sending their Royal Scot express to America for exhibition at the Chicago World's Fair, which opens on June 1, were nearing completion. Prior to its display on tracks adjoining the Travel and Transport Building of the Fair, and again at the close of the Exhibition, arrangements had been made, in full co-operation with the American and Canadian Railroad systems, for the Royal Scot to make an extensive tour of the North American Continent. The tour would commence at Montreal on May 1; between this date and May 30 the train will cover 3,181 miles and will be on exhibition in four Canadian cities and thirty-five in the United States. This will be the first occasion on which a complete British train has visited America. In 1893 an engine named Queen Empress and two passenger coaches were sent by the London & North Western Ry. to the World's Columbia Exposition, held in Chicago in that year. Now, just forty years later, the Royal Scot, descendant of the Queen Empress, and with a tradition almost as old as the railwav industrv itself. is going to demonstrate to her cousins across the Atlantic the progress and development which has taken place in British passenger train construction. The engine chosen to make the trip is No. 6100, Royal Scot, precursor of seventy locomotives of the same type. It will be fitted with a large headlight and warning-bell.
The train itself will be composed of eight of the most modern type vehicles:- Third-class corridor brake; third-class vestibule coach; electric kitchen car; first-class corridor vestibule coach; lounge car; third-class sleeping car; first-class sleeping car; first-class corridor brake. Engine No. 6100 was at present at Crewe Works undergoing a complete overhaul in readiness for her journey, while work on the coaches is nearing completion at Derby.

Great Western Ry. 95.
Engines completed at Swindon were Nos. 5804 to 5809, 0-4-2 tanks, and Nos. 6150 and 6151, 2-6-2 tanks. Recent withdrawals included No. 1043 (Cambrian No. 98. 4-4-0), 2175 (Neath & Brecon No. 8. 0-6-0T), 2366 (0-6-0), 3621 (2-4-2T), 1572  (0-6-0T), and 1431 (0-4-2T).
Announcement of orders for 5,000 20-ton wagons placed as follows: Welsh Wagon Works, Cardiff, 1250; Birmingham Carriage & Wagon Co., 1000; Gloucester Carriage & Wagon Co., 1000; Charles Roberts & Co. Ltd, Horhury, 1000; Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co., Chepstow, 250; Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage, Wagon and Finance Co., 500. The wagons wouild be constructed of Armco iron, manufactured by the British Guest, Keen, Baldwin Iron & Steel Co. Ltd.

E.S. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. 96-7

Institution of Locomotive Engineers, Annual Dinner. 97.
Sir Clement Hindley proposed toast to Institution and presented an interesting assessment of the state of the railway industry. He was the recently retired Chief Commissioner of the Indian Railway Board.

The East & West Yorkshire Union Ry. and its locomotives. 98-100. map.
Promoted by colliery interests in 1881 to link mines near Ardsley on the Great Northern Railway to the Hull, Barnsley & West Riding Junction Ry & Dock Co. system near Drax. The North Eastern Railway objected and the Act of 2 August 1883 was more limited in its aims and the costs of construction resticted the system still further to just over 9 miles rather than the 30 anticipated. Joseph Charlesworth of J. & J. Charlesworth was the chairman. In 1904 a passenger service was provided using Midland Railway motive power and rolling stock, but the electric trams operated by the Yorkshire (West Riding) Electric Tramways defeated this venture within six months. Passenger stations had been provided at Stourton and Rothwell. Locomotive fascilities were provided at Robin Hood.

C.F. Dendy Marshall. Liverpool & Manchester Railway: some unrecorded states of the engravings. 100-2. 3 illus.
See also p. 194. Ackermann plate of tunnel: drawing probably finished before it had been decided not to use locomotives in the tunnel, but to use cable haulage instead, and the plate was partially amended. Notes John Phillimore's influence in the preservation of illustrative material, some of which is stored in Liverpool Public Library. Sepia drawings of bridge over Water Street in Manchester. Strategic location of Nasmyth's Bridgewater Foundry. Notes Frederick Swanwick: a sketch by J. Frederick Smith (1888) (Ottley 2461). Author had acquired George Stephenson's maps, a peep-show working like a concertina and a papier mache tray (reproduced).

L.M. & S. Ry. [preservation of Jones Goods]. 102.
Decision to preserve one of the remaining Highland Railway 4-6-0s designed by David Jones and used with great success on the Perth to Inverness route with its summits at Drumochter and Slochd.

Diesel locomotives for the Sudan Government. 103. illus.
Two 2ft gauge 90 h.p. 0-4-0 locomotives to work on the Tokar Trinkitat Light Railway serving cotton plantations supplied by R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. Designed to work at high temperatures. Fitted with McLaren diesel engines of the MDB type and started by J.A.P. twin-cylinder petrol engines. Trsansmission via a David Brown multi-plate clutch to a three speed gearbox and final drive via a jackshaft.

An interesting rebuild on the Delaware and Hudson R.R. 103-4. 2 illus.
Former Mother Hubbard type 2-8-0 desinde to burn bituminous-anthracite with driver's cab on side of boiler converted to standard configuration 0-80 for shunting.

A new British inspection car. 104-5. diagr.
Light petrol-engined 8 h.p. permanent way trolley: the Beverley fitted with a Ford engine and chain drive, sold by Koppel Industrial Car and Equipment Co.

Reviews. 105-6.
The life story of the Rt. Hon. J.H. Thomas a statesman of the people. Basil Fuller. Stanley Paul & Co.

Number 488 (15 April 1933)

Three-cylinder tank locomotive, North Milan Ry. 107-8. illus.

Standard "YB" type metre gauge locomotives, Madras & Southern Mahratta Ry. 108-9. illus.
Skoda supplied 5 locomotives under supertvision of Rendell Palmer & Tritton. 4-6-2 type with a maximum axle load of 10 tons. 4ft 9in coupled wheels. Cortazzi rear truck. 16 x 24in cylinders; Laird crossheads; 8in diameter piston valves; wide Belpaire firebox; 1434ft2 total heating surface; 23.1ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure. See also p. 165.

The Cossart rotary cam valve gear. 109-13. illus., 3 diagrams
Translated from Rev. gen. Chemins de Fer, 1933, February. Could handle highly superheated team  and high temperatures and reduced need for compounding. Used on 2-8-2Ts for Paris suburban services. A test train formed of all-steel stock weighing 482 tons was taken from Paris to Creil (50.5km) in 32 minutes. 68.4 mile/h was attained.

Great Western Railway sale of withdrawn locomotives. 113.
No. 729, not No. 728, sold to Hartley Main Colliery. The whole 1393 class of ex-Cornwall Minerals Raiilway 0-6-0ST to be withdrawn and replaced by new 1361 class Nos. 1366-71. The five Simplex locomotives had received numbers.

Southgate tunnels, Piccadilly Ry. 114. illustration.
Extension from Arnos Grove to Enfield West: section included a viaduct as well as the tunnel accommodating Southgate station.

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 114.
Order from Chinese Government Purchasing Commission for six superheater 4-8-0 tender locomotives.

Imperial Japanese Rys. 114.
Tokaido section express trains between Tokyo and Osaka booked at 43 mile/h start to stop.

Narrow gauge tank locomotives for the Eastern Bengal Ry. 114-15.
Three 2ft 6in gauge 2-4-0T built by the Yorkshire Engine Co. under the supervision of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. Outside cylinders 8½ x 12in; coupled wheels 2ft 0½in. Fitted with superheaters.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. 115-18. 2 diagrams., table.
Balancing: includes Cossart valve gear

The Black Forest Rys. - Germany. 118-21. 4 illus., 2 plans
Mountain railways: rack & cable car: Schauinsland (Freiburg)

L. & N.E. Ry. 122
Claud Hamilton rebuilt with J39 boiler: Nos. 8854 and 8866. New B17 class ex-Darlington Works No. 2840 Somerleyton Hall. H1 No. 1518 converted to 4-6-2T

H.E.H. The Nizam's State Ry. 122.
Superheater supplied Superheater Co. with 22 elements. MLS anti-vacuum valve

Notes on early London and South Western Ry. locomotives. 122.
Continued from page 82. During the year 1869 Beattie constructed at Nine Elms more engines of the Falcon class, a very successful type ot 6ft. coupled passenger engine; the works numbers were 60 to 65 and the running numbers and names were as follows: 61 Snake, 62 Serpent, 114 Frome, 115 Vulcan, 116 Stromboli, and 117 Volcano; the first three left the works in July and the others in June. The cylinder dimensions when built were 17 in. by 21 in., but were afterwards increased to 17 in. by 22 in. They were described in the L. & S.W. Ry. Locomotive History in THE LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE, March 1904, page 43, but were not then illustrated; we are now able to reproduce drawings made from photographs of several of these engines. Fig. 26 shows the Volcano in original condition, including the donkey pump, except for the removal of the feed-water heater, and Fig. 27 shows the Snake with pump removed and a new chimney fitted by Mr. Adams, also the addition of vacuum and steam brakes and new footsteps. One of this group, viz., 116 Stromboli, was rebuilt by Adams in July 1886, and is shown in Fig. 28 with new boiler, cab, and side sheets, with the No. 116 in large brass figures instead of the name, and a small oval plate stating rebuilt date, etc., underneath. Most of these engines ran over twenty-five years, the last to be broken up being the rebuilt one, 116. in June 1898, but the Serpent went in December 1888. Why this one should have gone so many years in advance of the others the writer has been unable to ascertain, but he saw all at different times during the 1880s on the 17.15 p.m. Portsmouth to Waterloo. This was a wonderful train for the variety of engines working it; the 6-ft. Ganymede, 6 ft. 6 in. Vesuvius, and the 7-ft. Phlegon classes were all common to this train and sometimes one of the Fireball class.

[West Monkseaton station]. 122
New LNER station at West Monkseaton opened on Monday, 20 March was constructed in twenty-eight days. Speaking at a luncheon in Newcastle following the official opening Mr. T. Hornsby, divisional general manager mentioned other improvements to the electric system at Newcastle which had been sanctioned by the directors, These include building two additional power stations; strengthening the conductor rails over certain sections to enable current to be more evenly distributed over the area, and provide power for increased services; alteration of the lines between Central station and Manors to enable traffic to be worked in both directions over the same rails; North Shields tunnel to be adjusted to enable two trains to pass through at once.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 122
The first of the new 4-6-2 Pacific type locomotives, of which three due to be built, would shortly be put in hand at Crewe. These engines, intended for service between Euston and Glasgow, were to be provided with taper boilers, and new standard 4,000 gallon tenders.
A new series of rebuilt three-cylinder Claughtons was being turned out at Crewe: Nos. 5952, 6006, 6008, 6026, 5907 Sir Frederick Harrison; 6022, 5926 Sir Herbert Walker, K.C.B.; 6027, 6011 Illustrious, and 6018 Privale W. Wood, V.C. The original names had been retained in all cases except No. 6008, which was formerly Lady Godiva. The new nameplates were similar to those on the Royal Scot type.
No. 6100 Royal Scot, which had been undergoing complete overhaul at Crewe for exhibition at the Chicago World's Fair, had been fitted with a new taper boiler [sic]; and also a new 4,000 gallon tender similar to that designed for the new Pacifics. The tender when completed was run-in attached to another engine of the Royal Scot type.
No. 5925, E.C. Trench, four-cylinder "Claughton" class, had been broken up prior to being rebuilt as a three-cylinder engine of the Baby Scot class.
The following engines had recently been rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class, Nos. 5629 and 5743; 4-6-0 19 in. goods class, Nos. 8725 and 8775; 0-8-0 G1 class, No. 9067. Engines recently adapted to the Midland included G1 class Nos. 9002 and 9011.

George Willans. Draw-gear for Indian broad gauge railways. 123-7. illus., 3 diagrs., 2 tables.
Materials, performance and cost: Vibrac and nickel chrome steel.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. 127-8

Sao Paulo Ry. (Brazil). 128
Drewry Car Co. to be supplied a rail-car for offtcial use.

Great Western Ry. 128
New engines completed at Swindon were 2-6-2 mixed traffic tanks, Nos. 6152 to 6155 and 0-4-2 tank No. 5806.

Southern Ry. 128.
Six Schools class, 4-4-0 tender engines had been completed at Eastleigh Works:Nos. 910 Merchant Taylors, 911 Dover, 912 Downside, 913 Christ's Hospital, 914 Eastbourne, 915 Brighton, 916 Whitgift, 917 Hurstpierpoint, 918 Ardingly, 919 Harrow, 920 Rugby, 921 Shrewsbury, 922 Marlborough, 923 Uppingham, 914 Haileybury, 925 Cheltenham, 926 Repton, 927 Clifton, 928 Stowe, and 929 Malvern,

The East & West Yorkshire Union Ry. and its locomotives. 129-31. 2 illus.
Concluded from p. 100. Describes branches to Beeston which served Beeston Colliery, Thorpe which served the Robin Hood Collieries and Newmarket which served the Newmarket Silkstone Collieries and the Nelson Pit and terminated at coal staithes on the River Calder. Signalling was provided on the main line for the passenger service but the LNER had allowed this to fall into disrepair, but the signal boxes remained to provide telephone communication and control. A 15 mile/h speed limit was imposed on all traffic. There was uncertainty about early motive power, although during the first five years the Great Northern Railway worked some of the traffic and Messrs Charlesworth worked their own traffic.
No. 5 was renumbered 3115 by the LNER and given the official classification of N19, and withdrawn from traffic in March 1928; No. 6 was never renumbered, being withdrawn from service in July 1923.
In addition it is understood that a small four-wheeled saddle tank with outside cylinders was in use. It was reputed to have been built in 1878 by Black, Hawthorn & Co. (WN 424), and rumour had it that it was purchased from a local firm m the vicinity of the line and that it was numbered. 8 by the East & West Yorkshire Union Co. The ultimate fate of this engine is unknown.
During the short period that the passenger tram service was in operation two engines were hired from the Midland Co. for working these trains. They were No. 6 (since renumbered 1226) and No. 1265 (since renumbered 1239), and were 0-4-4 tank engines of S.W. Johnson design.
The East & West Yorkshire Union Ry. never possessed any passenger rolling stock except a few miscellaneous vehicles which were used for conveying workmen, the coaches for the short-lived passenger trains between Leeds and Robin Hood bemg hired from the Midland Ry.
A number of freight vehicles, most of them open wagons for the conveyance of coal and mineral traffic, were owned by the company, and on 31 December 1922, the stock consisted of 201 vehicles. The Railways Act 1921 provided for the absorption of the East & West Yorkshire Union Ry. into the Eastern group of railways, arid thus the small but useful undertaking was acquired by the London & North Eastern Ry. Co. on 1 July 1923, after a separate existence of just over thirty-three years. The line was worked as part of the Great Northern section the locomotives used being the standard six-coupled side and saddle tanks allocated to the Ardsley depot.

L.M. & S. Ry. 131
Amongst locomotive classes which became extinct during 1932 were: Furness Ry. 4-4-0 tender engines; Furness Ry, 4-4-2 tanks; L. & Y. Ry. 0-6-2 tanks; C. Ry. 0-4-2 tanks; L. & N.W. Ry. 4 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 tanks; G. & S.W. Ry. 0-6-0 tanks; H. Ry. 0-6-0 tanks; and the John Fowler & Co. 0-6-0 tender engines on the Somerset & Dorset line. The last H.Ry. 0-6-0 tank was Stroudley shunter, No. 16119, formerly Balnain. Two of the ex-N.S. Ry, 2-4-0 tanks still survive, Nos. 1441 and l450 and two of the 2-4-2 tanks, Nos. 1458 and 1459.
The new 0-4-0 saddle tanks built by Kitson are allocated as follows: Nos. 1540 and 1544 at Gloucester, 1541 and 1542 at Edge Hill and 1543 at Dawsholm. The narrow gauge Leek & Manifold Ry, is to be closed. On 31 March the Lime Street Hotel, Liverpool, closed.

Rai1way Club. 131
At the March meeting C.N. Anderson read a paper on The Railways of the Isle of Wight. The history and growth of the Island's railway system were first dealt with in great detail and some interesting facts about certain schemes that never materialised were given. This was followed by an account of the chief features, rolling stock, and train services. Finally, present day conditions under Southern Ry ownership were described.

Trevithick Centenary Exhibition. 131
An exhibition to commemorate the death of Richard Trevithick which occurred on 22 April 1833, would be on view in the Main Hall of the Science Museum, South Kensington, until the end of June. Richard Trevithick the great advocate of the high-pressure steam engine, and the originator of the railway locomotive, was born near Carn Brea, in Cornwall, on 13 April 1771, and commenced his career as a mine engineer in 1790. He erected Bull's engine at Herland mine in 1797, constructed improved plunger pumps for mines, and developed the water-pressure pumping engme. In 1797-8 he made a stationary engine and locomotive models, and followed these by building high-pressure winding engines. In 1801 he constructed a steam road carriage at Camborne, and, in 1802, secured a patent for high-pressure engines and a steam carriage, such being run in London in 1803. He made the first steam railway locomotive in 1804, in South Wales, this incorporating a return flue boiler and exhaust-steam draught. His engme was applied to a dredger in 1806, and he became engineer to the Thames Archway Co.'s. driftway in 1807. In 1808 he exhibited a steam railway locomotive in London, where it ran on a circular track near Gower Street for about three months.
He returned to Cornwall in 1810, and, in 1811, built the first steam threshing engine and introduced his single-flue cylindrical boiler. In 1812 he erected the first Cornish pumping engine at Wheal Prosper mine. He supplied engines to Peru in 1814, and followed them to South America in 1816, returning to England penniless in 1827. He then devoted his attention to ship propulsion, and patented a tubular superheating boiler in 1832. . Trevithick died at Dartford, and was buried there. Among the objects exhibited at South Kensington were:
Oil portrait of Trevithick, by John Linnell, 1816.
Marble bust, by N.N. Burnard, c. 1855.
Trevithick's model locomotive, c. 1798.
Contemporary drawings of Trevithick's rail locomotives, 1803-4.
Portion of the Penydarran tramroad on which Trevithick's South Wales locomotive ran in 1804.
Trevithick's high-pressure engine by Hazeldine, c. 1805.
Original engraving of the London locomotive of 1808.
Trevithick's threshing engine, 1811.
Boiler flue and cylinder from an early Trevithick engine.
Original Rastrick drawings of Trevithick engines, c. 1812.
A collection of holograph letters from Trevithick to Davies Gilbert, 1802-1828.
Trevithick's account books, 1797-1816.
Trevithick's draft letter books, 1812-1816.
Letters and other documents relating to Trevithick in the Goodrich collection.
J.V. [sic] Rastrick's notebook, with particulars of a Trevithick single-acting expansive engine, 1813.

Roller bearings for locomotive valve gear. 132-3. 8 diagrs.
As used by Gresley, including for one Pacific, and as supplied by Ransome & Marles Bearing Co. Ltd. of Newark-on-Trent.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Oil electric traction. 133-4.
Abstract of Paper by C.D. Hanna on 250 h.p. railcar and 250 h.p. shunting locomotive

British coals. 134.
Based on issue of Sands, Clays and Minerals, a periodical which included an article by Algernon L. Curtis on coals; their classication and suitabily for coking, steam coals, town gas production, and from where they were produced.

Obituary. 134.
Obituary: Arthur Woolford. 134.
He was aged 14 when he entered the Stratford works of the Great Eastern Railway as an apprentice. Five years later he was promoted to the Drawing Office and then to the Works Manager's Office. Subsequently he returned to the supplementary drawing office and was engaged in designing and demonstrating the Holden oil-burning arrangement. He was later given charge of the oil gas works at Stratford, and in 1915 was appointed district mechanical engineer for the Ipswich area and subsequently was promoted district locomotive engineer. He retired in March, 1932, and died twelve months later on 13 March 1933.

Obituary: Professor W.C. Unwin. 134-5.
FRS (KPJ: which implies that full obituary should be available). Died in Kensington, aged 94, on 17 March 1933. Born in Coggeshall, Essex, William Cawthorne Unwin was educated at the City of London School and graduated BSc at London University and served his apprenticeship with Sir William Fairburn in Manchester. After acting as works manager for seven years, he taught for the next thirty-six years. First he was rector at the Royal School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering at South Kensington; then from 1872-1885 Professor of Hydraulic Engineering at Coopers Hill, finally Professor of Engineering at the City and Guilds of London Technical Institute at South Kensington, 1884-1904.
Professor Unwin was secretary of the International Niagara Commission of five members, which was appointed in 1890 by the American company which proposed to utilise the power of Niagara Falls, and the report on the various projects was written by him. He was retained as one of the consulting engineers of the Niagara project, and took part in settling details of the work as it proceeded. His invaluable work, Elements of Machine Design,was first published in 1877, inaugurated a new departure in engineering text books in Britain. A treatise on testing Materials of Construction, which came out in 1898 became a standard work of reference. He was a president of the Institution of Civil Engineers, as well of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Not in Chrimes.

Reviews. 135
Handbook for electric welders. Third edition. Murex Welding Processes Ltd., Ferry Lane Works, Forest Road, Walthamstow, E.17.
This compact handbook has been. compiled not only for welding operator, but for the engineer who wishes to me acquainted with a concise account of the principles Dived in utilising electric arc welding. The first chapters deroted to elementary information relating to electricity the electrical side of metallic arc welding. The illus- tions include the wiring for various welding plants. ther chapter is devoted to instructions for beginners, a section deals with special applications of welding, 'ng instructions as to the making of a fillet weld, a butt d, and practical methods of welding cast iron, stainless .brass, and other alloys. A chapter on metallurgy and llcgraphy as applied to welding has been considerably 'sed and enlarged, and a chapter dealing with the strength v;elded connections has been added. There is also a useful appendix containing abstracts from Home Office Memorandum on electric welding and a reduction of the regulations published by both Lloyd's 'ster of Shipping and the British Corporation in connected with the construction of ships by Electric arc welding. the end of the book there appears a list of electrodes a short description about each, detailing the most suitable way of working them. e book is a handy size and is good value for the money. should be in the hands of all railway engineers and others interested in welding.

Holiday Haunts. 135
1933 edition published by Great Western Ry. Holiday Haunts had been entirely re-designed and was best ever produced. Included pen pictures of nearly 800 Resorts, Towns, Villages. and Hamlets, plus addresses of hotels, boarding houses, private rents, and farmhouse accommodation.

Locomotive Engineers' pocket book. 135.
1933 edition of usfeul little book had been published. The details of Locomotive Superintendents of British, Colonial, Central, and South American Rys, as well as China and Mexico, had been revised and brought up to date. The industrial works owning locomotives with the names officials responsible for their upkeep, and particulars of ones in use, comprised a lengthy list. Other sections relating to the design, operation and maintenance of locomotives were full of useful information for practical men. Special types of locomotives, lubrication, injector faults and failures, and locomotive erection are also concisely dealt with. Principal locomotive types with dimensions, fastest runs on British railways in 1932, and other memoranda are given in tabular form.

Correspondence. 135-6.

[Santa Fe 2-10-0 type]. Charles R. Danforth.
See issue of 15 February 15 page 39, E.C. Poultney's article on the new 2-10-4 locomotive of the Santa Fe Ry. It was historically inaccurate to state that the Santa Fe was the first road to use ten-coupled engines. It was the first to use the 2-10-2 type, hence the common designation of Santa Fe type, but the 2-10-0 or Decapod type had already been in use on several American railways before it was adopted by the Santa Fe. The first locomotives of this type were two experimental engines built in 1867 for the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The type did not again appear until about fifteen years later when the Baldwin Locomotive Works built some for the Northcrn Pacific Railroad. About ten years later, the same builders built a number of that type for the Erie Railroad and about the same time the Rogers Locomotive Works built some 0-10-0 banking engines for the Chicago Burlington and Quincy Railroad. In conclusion, I might mention a 4-10-0 locomotive built in 1883 for the Central Pacific Railroad, now part of the Southern Pacific system. As far as I am aware, this was the only engine with that wheel arrangement ever constructed.

Providing lead for piston or slide valves. C A. Cardew. 135-6.
In your issue of November 15, 1932, you were kind enough to print a summary of my paper on the above subject presented to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. In your next issue (December 15, 1932) there are certain criticisms of my arguments by Engineer-Lieutenant Batt, and to these I would ask your permission to reply. In the first place, I would point out that my remarks were, of course, confined to locomotives. Lieut. Batt suggests that the chief reason for having lead is so that by having more at one end of the cylinder than at the other the cut-off at each end of the cylinder may be equalised. Whilst I am quite aware that the practice of setting with "unequal lead" so as to secure "equal port openings" and "equal cut-offs" has sometimes been adopted, I cannot accept this as the most important reason for providing lead. I would point out that it is just as easy to obtain the same results with no lead if the valve be set line and line for one end. and slightly blind for the other; or one may have no lead (with the valve line and line) for one end, and just enough lead for the other to give equal cut-offs. At all events, in locomotive practice, particularly with modern valve gears, equal lead is almost invariably used, which would be an argument for suppressing lead altogether if the chief object of having it were to make it unequal, and this is not made use of. With regard to the reduced steam consumption due to less clearance, your correspondent suggests that my figure of 10% should be 6.5%. The saving, of course, varies with the cut-off, and as the figures are perhaps not quite plainly set out in your November issue I will repeat the argument:- "If the clearance volume be 8 % of the swept volume, and the engine does most of its running at 30 % cut-off, the amount of steam in the clearance volume (which does no useful work) is 8 x l00÷(30+8)=21 % of the total initial volume admitted. In this case, if the clearance volume can be reduced to 4%...  a clear saving of 10.5 % in steam consumption is achieved."
I have carefully examined this argument and the calculation involved, and it seems to me quite sound and straight- forward, and to accurately represent the theoretical saving.
It is obvious that if the clearance volume accounts for 21 % of the total steam admitted, and it be halved, that one saves one half of this amount of steam, or 10.5 % of the total. I would be obliged to Lieut. Batt if he would kindly explain the method of working by which he only obtains 6.5 %. Batt responded to this on page

Early L. & S.W. Ry. locomotives.  W.B. Thompson. 136.
Article claims that six engines of the Centaur class were "Joseph Beattie's favourite engines." Writer could not remember anything to distinguish these six individual engines from the others of the class (Fire king, Castleman, etc.), and would be much interested if the writer of the article, or some correspondent, would point out any little differences that may have existed amongst them.
He did not wonder at these engines being anybody's favourites. At the time when they were built they were of adequate power, and with their graceful outline, their bright paint, and their profusion of polished brass and copper fittings, they were some of the handsomest engines he had ever seen. It is much to be regretted that there is not one of them in the Railway Museum. .

Who was the originator of the wheel drop pit? J. H. Moffat.
Writer was Locomotive Superintendent, Chinese National Rys., Taokou-Chinghua line. He claimed: I may not claim to have that distinction without authentic proof, though I am almost certain that such a pit was not mentioned in any engineering paper previous to the year 1902, when I had a pit in operation in the running shed at Fengtai, on the Peking-Mukden Ry.
The idea for the pit was to get to the axleboxes and journals of the engines of the 7-ft. drivers class, without having to make a high and risky jack lift of over 4 ft., which was intensified by the high-pitched boiler of these American built engines. Also, they were minus the extended buffer beam at the rear end of the frames, which necessitated the jacks being set in triangular form, two in front at the ends of buffer beam and two at the rear, close together, under the centre casting between the frames: consequently it mattered not how steadily and in unison the jacks were worked, the top heavy boiler developed a dangerous rocking movement which fairly got on my nerves, hence the drop pit.
I first sketched the pit in 1899, but owing to the Boxer rebellion and the destruction of the railways in 1900 I was unable to have it made and operating until 1902.
My first pit was 10 ft. by 9 ft. by 4 ft. deep, the base for the screw was two 12 in. by 12 in. by 24 in. timbers, slotted in the centre and bolted in the form of a cross, and then set in lime and ash cement. The screw was 3½in. diameter by 7 ft. long, with the usual fittings for such work.
The pit was such a boon that it was adopted by the National Rys, and installed in most of the running sheds on the line. In 1903 I had a large one made, 30 ft. by 9 ft. by 9 ft. deep with 12 in. by 12 in. cross timbers, and rails 7 ft. 6 in. long laid on top and secured with movable wooden clamps, so that the rails could be removed quickly; the wheels are dropped in pairs by a double screw jack, set on a four-wheel trolley on a standard gauge track along the bottom of the pit, and run along to a vacant section of the pit and lifted out and away. By using the long pit, the engine was not moved until a full set of wheels were put in, then the engine was pulled away.

Trade notes and publications. 136.

Diesel locomotives and coaches. 136
Illustrated booklet  from the Frichs Locomotive Works, of Aarhus, Denmark, gave detailed particulars of the Diesel electric locomotives and coaches recently built for the Royal State Rys. of Siam, and the Danish State Rys. A selection of typical locomotives, coaches and Diesel engines are shown by repro- duced photographs, as well as charts of trials of the 1,000 h.p. and 450 h.p. locomotives carried out in Denmark. There are now 46 Frichs Diesel locomotives and 34 Diesel passenger coaches in service or under construction, with. a total of 30,000 h.p.

Hoyt Metal Co. 136
Introduced a high-grade chilled cast phosphor bronze in the form of tubes and solid bars, suitable for machining into bearings, bushes, valve seatings, etc. It is known as Hoyt Number One Bronze. Chill-casting increased both the elastic limit and ultimate crushing strength of the metal.

Michelin Tyre Co. Ltd. 136
Leaflet issued by Michelin Tyre Co. Ltd, of Stoke-on-Trent, gave particulars of the Colonial Micheline pneumatic-tyred rail-car for metre and 3 ft. 6 in. gauges. Fitted with a 27-h.p. four-cylinder petrol engine, the vehicle seated eighteen passengers and carries 6 cwt. of luggage, and had a cruising speed of 50 m.p.h, on the level. Empty, it weighs 6 tons, and carries a useful load of 33 cwt. A list of railways that have purchased Michelines and particulars of some long journeys made are included. In the French Colonies these machines were in operation on the Madagascar, Algerian, and Tunisian Railways.

Brazing alloys. 136.
Technical properties and industrial applications of silver brazing alloys to meet modern requirements of jointing practice, are set forth in a brochure issued by Johnson, Matthey & Co. Ltd.

Number 489 (15 May 1933)

Re-boilered 4-4-0 passenger engine, L. & N.E. Ry. 137. illus.
No. 8900 Claud Hamilton

2-8-2 freight locomotive with mechanical stoker, H.E.H. The Nizam's State Rys. 138-40. 3 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
North British Locomotive Co.: seven locomotives shipped fully assembled in SS City of Barcelona in late March. Indian Standard XD type

Shipping the "Royal Scot" train to America. 144. 3 illustrations
From Tilbury on SS Beaverdale on 11 April.

"Sentinel-Cammell steam rail-bus for the Southern Ry.. 145-6. illustration

Standard locomotive stock, Northern Ry. of France. 146-7. diagram.

"The Flying Hamburger". 147.
820 b.h.p.  timed departure 08.02 from Berlin Lehrter Bahnhof and arrive Hamburg at 10.20 at an average speed of 77.5 mile/h and return at 15.16 arriving Berlin in 2 hr 20 min.average speed 76.4 mile/h.

Russian locomotives. 147.
Two 2-14-4 locomotives not being built by Krupps as stated in Technical Press, but at the Lugansk Works in Russia.

New Russian Diesel locomotives. 147-8. 2 illustrations.
1500 hp oil electric locomotive with two Sulzer engines and small shunting locomotive built by Krupp

Swiss Federal Rys. 148.
Experiments with forty seat petrol railbus powered with an Austro-Diesel engine similar to one working between Vienna and Semmering. Swiss unit evaluated between Berne and Thun and on the Lotschberg and Simmental sections.

Electric locomotive design. VII — Driving bogie design. 149-50. 2 diagrams.
Shildon-Newport type and Bo-Bo for Paris Orlean Railway.

Aluminium locomotive details. 151
Following on the experience of the Chicago & Alton RR, which five years before placed into service a 2-8·0 locomotive with aluminium connecting rods the neighbouring Alton & Southern RR had put into traftic an enormous 0-10-0 switching locomotive in which aluminiun, has been extensively employed. The connecting rods. coupling rods, and Walschaert details were of aluminium alloy.

Joynt, E.E. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. The foundry. 151-2.

Novel designs of resilient wheels. 152-3. diagram.

Two historic Royal saloons, L.M. & S. Ry. 153-4. 2 illus.
Queen Adelaide saloon built by London & Birmingham Railway in 1842. It had three compartments and the coach work was constructed by coach builders in Gough Street, London. The other was Queen Victoria's saloon in its ultimate state on two six-wheel bogies with both oil and electric lighting. It had been cobstructed at Wolverton in 1869 and was sent to the St. Louis Exhibition in 1904.

Addison Road to Clapham Junction service. 154.
18.34 worked by GWR using stock used to convey J. Lyons' employees from Greenford.

Netherlands Rys. 154.
Forty diesel electric triplex-car (articulated sets). 23 supplied Werkspoor and 7 by J.J. Beynes of Haarlem and Allan of Rotterdam

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter X. Valves, ports and valve gears. 154-5.
Types of valve: flat or D, Trick valves, balanced slide valves, piston valves (including friction and Knorr rings): inside versus outside admission

Locomotive stock returns, 1932. 155-7. table.

F.W. Brewer. Locomotive sanding arrangements: early British methods and recent practice. 157-9.
Notes Hedley's experiments on adhesion. On the first locomotives sand was simply shovelled onto the track. Eventually a sandbox was fitted to the engine and by 1838 duplicate sandboxes were in use. Eventaully valves were fitted to control the flow of sand. The Gooch 4-4-0Ts of 1849 had the sandbox above the tanks near the smokebox. Cudworth fitted his 7ft 2-2-2 and 0-4-2WT designs with sandboxes at the base of the steam dome. Adams on the North London Railway fitted the sandbox between the dome and the chimney on his 4-4-0T design and a similar location was employed on his 2-6-0 for the Great Eastern Ry. Dean placed the sand in a saddle on his 4-6-0 and his first 2-6-0 locomotives. D. Drummond placed the sandbox inside the smokebox on four-cylinder 4-6-0 Nos. 369-73 and their contemporary 6ft 7in and 5ft 7in 4-4-0 designs, but abandoned the practice in 1903. Compresssed air sanding was devised by Holt on the Midland Railway in 1885, but Westinghouse objected and steam sanding followed in 1887 and was patented jointly with James Gresham.
Improvements in the apparatus were afterwards effected by Gresham and Craven. These were patented in 1909, and were, briefly, as follows: the control valve, which was originally a plug cock, was, with a view to reducing steam consumption, and general wear and tear, changed to one of the disc kind. With this, steam from the boiler is controlled by a small primary valve which is now lifted by a cam connected to the spindle of the disc, so that steam is admitted to the regulating valve only when sanding is in'actual operation. The valve can be packed while under steam, and condensation water cannot easily leak through to the ejectors. The air admission cap of the sand trap was also altered so as to afford greater protection from rain and damp, and enable the sand to be kept dry; and a third improvement consisted in enlarging the area round the nozzles for the purpose of increasing the delivery of sand to the wheels. Other, and modified forms of power sanding apparatus, for which special advantages in one respect or another have been claimed, have been introduced, but in their main principles they are practically the same as the Holt and Gresham apparatus, and differ only in details. Although, as stated, the use of compressed air, taken from some part of the Westinghouse brake, was objected to in 1887, this method is now common in the case of electric locomotives, which are generally fitted with that system of continuous brakes, and occasionally steam locomotives have air sanding. It may be added that locomotive sandboxes are made of cast-iron, and when not fitted for power sanding are now ordinarily furnished with butterfly-valves. These valves, which are pivoted inside the sandboxes, and directly over the outlets to the delivery pipes, are worked by upright rods having at their upper ends short cranks, to one of which the operating lever extending from the cab is attached, a transverse rod connecting the gear from one side of the engine to the other for simultaneous application of the sand on both sides. The latest practice is generally to fix the sand- boxes below the outside running platform, as this plan gives greater accessibility to the motion parts, but it is still sometimes departed from when the sandboxes can be made to form part of the front splashers of the leading wheels of inside cylinder engines, such as 0-6-0's. Strictly speaking, the under- th position is a very old one, having been adopted by the L. & N.W. Ry. for 2-4-0 express engines as long as 1866. Among the other power sanding devices may be cited the Willans apparatus (described and illustrated in Loco. Mag., 1913, 19, 260-1). In this, the steam valve is of a new non-leakable kind, while the ejector action is obtained, not by means of a central nozzle, but by passing the steam through a number of holes, formed in a ring, at the junction where it meets the combined air and sand supply, with the result that the sand is delivered full bore to the rail without impinging directly on the interior of the feed pipe. Furthermore, the sandbox itself is arranged so as to trap and discharge the contents centrally, whereby a large area of the sand is subjected to the air current induced by the steam ejector. If required, it can be adapted for operation by compressed air instead of steam. Incidentally, it should be mentioned at this point that sometimes, as was the case on the G.E. Ry. in 1905, the steam sanding gear is arranged to be worked in conjunction with the main regulator handle, it being possible to feed the sand either momentarily or continuously, and from either the front or the rear sand-box for engines running in both directions. In all the systems previously referred to dry sand is used. A departure from this very general practice was made some few years ago by the invention of the Lambert patent wet sanding apparatus: water taken from the boiler is fed into a chamber at the top of each of the sand pipes, and is there mixed with the sand, thus forming a semi-liquid substance, which, after passing through a strainer, goes to the delivery nozzles, and is projected there from by means of an internal steam jet. This system, for the control and regulation of which the necessary steam and water valves are provided in the cab, has been adopted by numerous railways in India, Africa, and the Colonies; in England, the later (1925) 2-8-0 engines of the Somerset and Dorset Ry. were fitted with it. See also letter from PCD on page 285

London, Midland and Scottish Ry. named trains. 159.
Seven additions to named trains to be made from 1 June 1933, when the following names will be carried by trains operating wholly in Scotland: The John O' Groat, a summer-only thrice-weekly express from Inverness to Wick and back, will have the distinction of penetrating furthest north of any express in the British Empire. It will leave Inverness for Wick at 4.10 p.m. on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays, and Wick for Inverness at 10.0 a.m. on Fridays, Saturdays and Mondays. The Hebridean and The Lewisman will be summer only expresses between Inverness and Kyle of Lochalsh, connecting with steamers to and from the Isle of Skye and Stornoway respectively, while The Granite City will be the 10.0 a.m. from Glasgow (Buchanan Street) to Aberdeen, and 5.30 p.m. from Aberdeen to Glasgow. The Irishman and The Fast Belfast are names chosen for the expresses running between Glasgow and Stranraer, and vice versa, in connection with the steamer services between Stranraer and Larne. The 8.0 p.m. Glasgow (St. Enoch) to Stranraer Harbour, and 9.17 p.m. in the reverse direction will be The Irishman, while the 3.43 p.m. from Glasgow (St. Enoch) to Stranraer Harbour, and 12.30 p.m. in the reverse direction, will be The Fast Belfast. Finally, there will be The Tinto, which takes its name from Tinto Hill, a famous landmark near Symington. This will be a residential express leaving Lockerbie for Glasgow (Central) at 7.26 a.m. and returning from Glasgow at 12.45 p.m. on Saturdays and 4.45 p.m. on other weekdays.

Modern locomotives of the Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 160-1. 2 illustrations
Formed in 1876 by the amalgamation of the Ulster and the Northern of Ireland Rys. the Great Northern Ry, (Ireland) possessed towards the end of the last century a somewhat heterogeneous collection of locomotive types of the 2-2-2, 2-4-0, 0-4-2, and 0-6-0 wheel arrangements. Several of these engines were famous in Ireland, notably the fine 2-A-0 locomotives, Ulster, Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, of the Ulster Ry. which were described in these pages some years ago. In the following article it is proposed to mention in detail only those engines which survive at the present time, either as originally built or modernised, these being given under their various types, i.e., passenger. mixed traffic, goods, etc. and in order of appearance.
In 1885 real progress in rebuilding and a standardisation of the various types was well in hand. and there gradually came to be evolved the several highly efficient classes of locomotive presently to be described.
The engines of the Great Northern Ry. (Ireland) have always been extremely uniform in appearance, so much so that in many cases it has oulv been possible to distinguish various classes by their relative size. The company's engines are noted for their careful design and finish and smart upkeep. For many years prior to 1914 the locomotive stock was painted in a similar manner to the English Great Northern Ry. Co.'s — i.e., green, picked out in black and white, with chocolate-coloured frames lined in red. The "built-up" form of chimney, certain details in the older patterns of tenders, and the custom (at one time general) of providing small 'splashers for the bogie wheels, were also reminiscent of the English company.
In 1884 there were quite a number of 2-2-2 type engines in service, as well as two classes of 2-4-0 engines. Disregarding several old Fairbairn and Sharp singles, many of which had been converted to 2-4-0 type, or relegated to branch work, there were seven singles of modern type, built by Beyer. Peacock & Co., three with 5ft. 6ins. wheels (Nos. 53, 55, and 56). and four with 6ft. wheels Nos. 13, 14, 15, and 16). The latter were the "crack" express engines of that time, and ran the fastest trains, the "Mails" invariably. In fact, they had been reccntly rebuilt with larger boilers and larger cylinders, expressly for running the Limited Mails This they did until superseded by the bogie singles in 1885. The slower and less important trains were worked by 2-4-0 coupled engines. the 6 ft. engines generally working on the Duhlin-Beilast section. and the 5ft. 6 ins No. 3 and 42. on the Dundalk-Londonderry line. Of the 2-4-0 passenger engines. with 6 ft. wheels. there are still a few in service employed on light branch line duties. Fig. 1 shows one of the engines as now running. This photograph not only represents a rebuild, hut this engine was one of those which originallv had the Park modifications. As originally built, the sand boxes were placed below the running boards, otherwise the appearance of these machines is unaltered,
This class comprised the nine engines. Nos. 12, 37 to 39, 43, and 84 to 87, designed and built bv Beyer, Peacock & Co., of Manchester; No. 12 of 1871 ex Dublin & Drogheda Ry.: Nos. 37 and 38 of 1866 and 39 of 1868 ex Dublin and Belfast Junction. 1866; and 43 of 1872 ex Irish North Western, also built for the G.N. Ry. Nos. 86 and 87 of 1880. and 84 and 85 of 1881.
The four engines built for the G.N. Ry. differed in many respects from the others. They had features of J.C. Park's design, although apparently based on the original Beyer, Peacock type. Nos. 37, 38, and 39 were re-numbered 44, 45, 46. Their dimensions are as follows :-·Cvlinclers 17 ins, diameter (originally 16 ins. diameter) by 22 ins stroke : driving wheels 6 ft. 1 in The leading wheels are 3 ft. 7½ ins. diameter. and the wheelbase is as follows: Between leading and driving axles 7 ft.; coupled wheelbase 8 f t. The engines were provided with a cylindrical boiler, the barrel being 10 ft. 3 ins. long, with a maximum external diameter of 4 ft 4¼ ins. The firebox casing is 4 ft. 7 ins. long. and has a width of 4 ft. 6 ins. (advatage being taken of the Irish standard gauge of 5ft 3in). The grate area is 14.8 ft2 The total heating surface 1121 ft2. Weighng 33½ tons in working order, 'These engines took trains of 6 to 10 six-wheelers at a net schedule of 36-40 m.p.h. More recently they had been provided with boilers having a working pressure of 175 psi.
The five new three-cylinder 4-4-0 express engines, illusttrated and described in the June 1932 issue. are numbered 83 to 87. so that the old 2-4-0 will be renumbered or withdrawn f rorn service. Nos. 84 and 85 were already out of service and No. 83 was renumbered 26.
The "crack" services on the G.N. Ry. (I). when these engines wen: built, were the "Limited Mails" expresses, between Dublin and Belfast, and order to cope with accelerations scheduled about this time from 3 hours 5 minutes down. and 3 hours up to 2 hours 45 minutes each way and with a dining: car (non-corridor, of course) attached, the company designed and bought from Beyer Peacock & Co. in 1885 two engincs of the type, at that period unique in British locomotive design.
At the timne these engines were built there were only three similar ones in the whole of the British Isles. and these were on the Great Western Ry. Moreover. they were 7 ft. gauge, and were not built as such. but were the lasr survivors of the old Bristol & Exeeter Ry. tank cngines., converted to tender. The Gooch smgles were not of course, bogie engines and the only other railway that had ever had any of this wheel type was the G.N. Ry. On this line old No. 215 had outside frames througghout and also had long since been scrapped, whilst the Stirling engines came in a different category. as they all had outside cylinders. The Great Northern Ry. of Ireland engines preceded the famous Caledonian Ry. No. 123, often spoken of as the first of its type, by at least a year J.C. Park, the locomotive superintendent. is ccrtainlv entitled to such credit as may be attached to the introduction of the type. '
These locomotives were numbered and named 88 Victoria and 89 Albert. They were the first engines on the line to have 6 ft. 7 ins. drivinz wheels. Thev possessed several features of interest. and were a marked advance in design.
Nos. 88 and 89 were slightly larger than their four-coupled contemporaries ; the cylinders were, however similar in size.

Swedish electric locomotives. 162
Annual mileages of variouis types in service

Trevithick Centenary. 162-3.
The centenary of the death of Richard Trevithick, who died at Dartford, Kent, on 22 April 1833, was celebrated at Camborne, Cornwall, where he ran his first steam road locomotive, and near which town he was born, by a demonstration on Saturday, 22 April 1933, at the Trevithick Memorial statue. At the Parish Church of Dartford, where the famous engineer is buried, the morning service on Sunday, 23 April, was made the occasion of a commemoration. The Lord Bishop of Rochester preached the sermon, which was followed at the close of the service by an address by Mr. Loughnan St. L. Pendred, past president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, on "The Life and Work of Richard Trevithick."
A national tribute was paid at Evensong at Westminster Abbey, on the same afternoon. The Archdeacon of Westminster, the Venerable V. F. Storr, in his sermon, said that it was appropriate to honour the memory and inventiveness of so great a benefactor of mankind as Trevithick on St. George's Day, when we thought of our national heritage. Trevithick was a remarkable genius and had a fertile mind. Among his ideas was one for tunnelling under the Thames, an expedient later used with success. His achievements were forgotten until a later generation recalled them. Unfortunate in the affairs of life, he was an outstanding figure in engineering. When the service was over, Archdeacon Storr conducted a large party of engineers to the Trevithick Memorial window in the north aisle, where Mr. Richard Ewart Trevithick, a great grandson of Richard Trevithick, deposited a chaplet. Sir Murdoch MacDonald, president of the Institution of Civil Engineers, delivered a brief speech on behalf of the engineering profession, and said it was their duty to keep green the memory of the great engineer, to whom humanity as a whole owed so great a debt.
A memorial service was also held at Tregajorran Methodist Chapel, near Carn Brea, his birthplace. The celebrations terminated by a memorial lecture at the Institution of Civil Engineers, in London, on Monday evening, April 24, by Prof. C. E. Inglis, O.B.E., F.R.S., M.LC.E.
Professor Inglis dealt in chronological order with the events of Trevithick's life, most of which were mentioned in the brief biographical sketch given in our columns last month. But some of his most interesting remarks referred to Trevithick's character. With all his strength, impetuosity, and energy, Trevithick had a kindly disposition, and even when occasionally goaded by opposition, he cherished no animosities. The overwhelming vitality and driving force of the man was vividly portrayed in the bronze statue erected to his memory at Camborne last year. Referring to Trevithick's first steam road locomotive, Professor Inglis said that apparently construction was begun in 1800, but it was not tried on the road until Christmas 1801. Davies Gilbert (or Giddy), Trevithick's life-long friend, in a letter he wrote long after, states: "The travelling engine took its departure from Camborne Church for Tehidy on December 28, 1801, where I was awaiting to receive it. The carriage, however, broke down after travelling well, and up an ascent, in all about three or four hundred yards. The carriage was forced under some shelter, and the parties adjourned to the hotel and comforted their hearts with a roast goose and proper drink, when, forgetful of the engine, its water boiled away, the iron became red hot, and nothing that was combustible remained, either of the engine or the house."
Andrew Vivian Trevithick's cousin, took an active part in these experiments, when they journeyed to London to obtain a patent for "Improvements in the construction and application of steam engines." While the specification was being prepared, Trevithick and Vivian were strongly advised to construct a steam carriage for exhibition purposes. The engine and boiler for the carriage were constructed and tried out au the Hayle Foundry and sent to London early in 1803. According to Trevithick's account book, the cost was £210. This road carriage was much more successful than its predecessor, and ran through the streets of London, sometimes attaining a speed of 8 or 9 miles an hour. It is remarkable that this astonishing sight appears to have received no notice in the newspapers of the day. This doubtless damped the ardour of the inventors, and seeing no return for their outlay, they relinquished the trials, and sold the engine to drive a hoop-iron rolling mill.
In 1803 Mr. Samuel Homfray acquired a half share in the patent rights of the high-pressure steam engine. He was an influential business man, and associated with the Penydarran Ironworks in South Wales. This alliance resulted in the construction of the first tramway locomotive, designed to haul iron from Penydarran, Merthyr, to a basin on the Glamorganshire Canal, at Abercynon, a distance of miles. This feat it successfully performed, but the locomotive was more robust than the track; its progress was continually checked by broken tramway plates. After a few more trial runs we hear no more about this historic locomotive.
The Newcastle locomotive of 1804 was Trevithick's next venture. Similar in general design to the Welsh locomotive, it was superior in detail and worked in the yard of an iron foundry. It was erected by John Steel, one of Trevithick's mechanics. Crowds came to see it, probably including George Stephenson and Timothy Hackworth, who, in years to come, took an active part in resurrecting the steam locomotive. But Trevithick did make one more attempt to popularise the steam locomotive, for in 1808 he con- structed not merely a locomotive, but also a circular track, on which it could run, the site of which is commonly supposed to have been some waste ground not far from the present Euston station (The location of this site was discussed fully in our issue of June 14, 1930).
This locomotive was referred to by Mr. Homfray as the "Racing Locomotive," and the sister of Davies Gilbert christened it Catch-me-who-can. The speed attained on the circular track, which was only about 100 ft. in diameter, was about 12 miles an hour. Admission, including a ride for those who had sufficient courage, was one shilling. The locomotive ran successfully for several weeks, until one day it was overturned by a fractured rail, and this, combined with the fact that the shillings did not arrive in sufficient numbers to defray expenses, brought the venture to its close.
The special exhibition at the Science Museum, South Kensington, which we referred to in our last issue, will remain open until the end of June. An interesting collection of letters describing the trials of the Penydarran locomotive and engravings of the London locomotive of 1808 are exhibited.

Railway breakdown cranes. 163-4.
Abstract of Paper No. 310 read before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers by John Baker on 7 April 1933. In discussing the features bearing on the types of crane to be adopted as part of the equipment of a railway, the author considered the following points.
Firstly, the breakdown crane must be capable of reaching quickly any part of the line on which it is stationed. In some cases one or more large cranes are provided at a central point and capable of dealing with any load likely to be met with, whilst smaller cranes are stationed at other points for dealing with minor breakdowns. The breakdown gang must be ready to attend to any call without delay, and must be reliable and capable of travelling at high speed.
When a gang reaches a wreck it must be fully equipped to deal with it quickly and efficiently. It is of the utmost importance that the line should be cleared and normal working re-established as soon as possible.
From the financial side the breakdown crane can never earn money, although by efficiently clearing away a wreck it may save its own value in revenue losses many times over. As a crane is only in part time use it is not likely, in a few years' time, that a new design will come along and show sufficient economy in working to make it worth while scrapping the former design. Accordingly, the crane must be built to last. A crane must be self-contained and supply its own motive power. Therefore there are four opposite considerations combining to balance the financial considerations. The result may be summed up as follows:
(1)The cranes are extremely well made.
(2) To keep down first cost the crane is equipped with bare necessities, and as a general rule modern time and labour-saving devices are not a financial proposition. Thus, hand cranes, except for the larger sizes, are often invested in. in preference to power-driven cranes.
(3) Design tends to lag behind present-day practice for similar machinery. Improvements are mostly in methods of manufacture to cheapen selling cost, and increase the "tapacity of the crane, rather than improvements that will make it more efficient in use. Some engineers regard a crane as a necessarv evil rather than an asset to a breakdown gang. They comnlain that the cranes give endless hot box trouble. and when they do reach a wreck so much time is taken in getting them prepared to lift that they should only be used when re-railing by other methods is out of the question. The author mentioned watching a crane dealing with three any case, whatever the rated full load may be, in practice when dealing with a wreck the limit to lift is the tipping point. Dealing with the details of a breakdown crane, the author pointed out that the carriage frame should be sprung and flexible to carry the superstructure, and as a base for the crane it should be as rigid as possible. The number of axles is fixed by the total weight, and in order to get the best use from the crane the carriage must be kept as short as the axle loading limitations will allow. It is not always possible to distribute the load and still keep the carriage short enough to allow the crane to lift over the end. Then relieving bogies are used to take part of the load. The objection to them lies in the extra time taken to prepare the crane for lifting. Wheel arrangements take a variety of forms. From a running point of view two pairs of four- or six-wheel bogies make the nicest arrangement. Axle journals are usually outside the wheels, as this facilitates changing brasses, adjustment to springs, and blocking them when the crane is lifting. Some railways use their wagon axleboxes; these are not really heavy enough, and locomotive tender type boxes are much better. Leaf springs following locomotive practice deflection are usually worked to. Jack screws or wedges must be provided over the springs in order to relieve them from excessive load when lifting. There should also be similar screws under the axleboxes to prevent the off side of the carriage from lifting off the springs as the load on them is relieved. A locking device is fitted to prevent the jack screws jarring down when the crane is running. The travel gear is led by means of a vertical shaft through the centre pin and by a train of spurs and bevels to the axles; two axles are usually driven; if the axles are on bogies it is necessary to make provision for float. The travelling gear must be made to disconnect, and this is done by sliding the final pinion out of gear from the spur on the axle. A Stone's boosting engine would make an ideal unit for travelling a steam crane. It is not practicable to brake more than four or six wheels on a carriage, as the brake-operating rods tend to foul the blocking girder boxes. When steam brakes are fitted it is necessary to take the steam down the centre pin; this is not as difficult as it might appear at first sight, as only a small supply is needed. A curved jib is a characteristic of this class of crane. The original idea of curving the jib was to enable the crane to lift a bulky piece, such as a coach or a locomotive, up to a reasonable height without fouling. If one looks at some of the modern large cranes one wonders what the jib is curved for as the main hook leads off a straight portion of the jib. and yet who would dare to design a breakdown crane with a straight jib? On hand cranes the method of operating the tail as a counter-balance usuallv consists of fixing the weight on rol1ers which run in guides. the movement being obtained by means of a hand wheel and screw.
On steam cranes the position of the boiler prevents the use of the sliding tail weight. An adjustable weight is sometimes arranged by a loose block, which clips on the underside of the tail. When the crane is being run in train this weight is carried on the opposite end of the carriage underneath the jib foot. To pick it up the crane is slewed round so that the tail is plumb over the weight. Then by means of the attachment screws it is lifted up ann fastened to the tail.
The longer the tail the less will be the weight of the tail ballast required. From a user's point of view. it is highly desirable to keep the tail as short as possihle: if too long. it is liable to foul vehicles standing on adjaccnt lines and prohibit the use of the crane in a cutting. Hoisting gear is usually spur driven from the engine shaft by means of a double reduction spur gearing. It is engaged by means of a sliding pinion, and all cranes above ten tons capacity should have two speeds of operation; this is necessary even if the crane has an auxiliary hoist. as hoisting or lowering an empty block with only one speed is a very slow job. The brakes are usually band type, Ferodo lined, operating on the second shaft. Sometimes two brakes are supplied, one foot-operated and the other screw-operated, but one brake is sufficient, provided it is arranged to give plenty of purchase. For derrick gear the barrel is either fitted with a worm wheel or the worm and wheel is incorporated in an earlier reduction, the final reduction being by spur. The worm-gear is self-sustaining, and to obtain this feature it must hare an efficiency of less than 50 per cent., so the speed at which this motion operates is slow. It is necessary to fit an automatic or hand brake which can be put on when the operating clutch is disengaged.
Slewing gear motion is nearly always made to operate at too high a speed. Most cranes would stand double the amount of reduction in gearing and operate better for it. A breakdown crane calls for a boiler with two opposite characteristics: (1) Quick steaming from cold; (2) plenty of storage capacity to cope with the intermittent demand for steam. The first requirement calls for a boiler with as much heating surface as possible and small water space. Quick steaming gets prior consideration, as the amount of room available limits the second requirement. The best place for the steam outlet is the crown of the boiler. There is not always head room for it here, so it has to be taken out at the side; in either case a dry pipe is essential to limit priming.
The size of the engine cylinders is largely settled by the torque required to start the various motions from rest. Comparatively large clearances should be used in order to prevent water hammer. The sacrifice in efficiency, due to clearances, does not matter much, as the work is so intermittent. Various types of valves and valve gear have been used, but the plain "D" valve with Stephenson motion is very satisfactory. The author favours inclined engines with a piston valve, the valve chest being on top of the cylinders. This ensures that water does not accumulate in the valve chest and it is easy to get the water away. The correct place for a driver is the front of a crane; in this position he gets a good view, which is very essential. Unfortunately, the restrictions of loading gauges make it difficult to house the driver in front; in fact, for cranes for use in this country it is almost impossible. By elevating the driver slightly quite a reasonable view can be obtained from the rear.
The author is of opinion that there is an opening for a crane built on hand-crane lines, but with a small petrol or Diesel engine. The speeds would be slower than those of a steam crane, but the first cost would not be much more than that of a hand-crane.

Correspondence. 164-5.

[Santa Fe type]. Wm. T. Hoecker
With reference to Poultney's article on page 39 of February Issue, it should be mentioned that while the Santa Fe system was the first American railway to employ ten-coupled engines to any great extent, there were probably a dozen instances of the use of 0-10-0, 2-10-0, and 4-10-0 type locomotives in the United States prior to 1902. Most of the early examples were failures, but one group of six Decapods built for the New York, Lake Erie and Western RR in 1891-1893 remained at work for ove thirty years, and the four 0-10-0 tank engines built for the St. Clair Tunnel Co. in 1891 were in service until superseded by electrification in 1908.
In connection with the statement on page 62, lines 4-9: a few remarks concerning the early development of oil-burning in Europe and America may perhaps not be out of plate Though experiments with oil fuel had been made some years previously (e.g., on the Eastern Ry, of France in 1870. see Loco. Mag., 7, 202), the first practical application of oil-burning on a large scale was begun by Thomas Urquhart in Russia in 1878. It was quite natural for Russia to take the lead in this direction, as her oil-fields were then the largest in existence. The annual production of petroleum in the United States did not equal that of Russia until 1902. The first of Holden's oil-burning engines on the Great Eastern Ry. appears to have been equipped in 1887, and the Rumanian railways followed in 1888. Trials with oil fuel in America were conducted as early as 1887 (on the Pennsylvania RR and on another line which later became part of the Santa Fe system), but the relatively high cost of oil at that time precluded its general use. Prior to 1900, about 90 per cent. of the petroleum produced in the United States came from such states as Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia, all of which have abundant deposits of excellent coal. The development of large oil-fields in California (from about 1895 onward) and  in Texas (after 1900), both situated in regions practically devoid of good coal, brought about the universal use of oil fuel on locomotives in those and adjacent states. Several illustrated references to the growing importance of oil fuel m Southern California appeared in Loco. Mag. for 1898.
The water-tube boiler of the North Pacific Coast Ry. locomotive described in your article has one or two points of resemblance to the boiler designed by Strooman and applied to a Prussian 0-8-0 goods locomotive some years later.
The Lithuanian locomotive, on page 38 seems to be a modern edition of the Bavarian D XII class; which was dealt with on page 37 of your 1900 volume.

Russian railway notes. 165.
The reorganisation of the transport system in the USSR appeared to be making good progress. New locomotive works have been erected and the Lugansk shops, in the Ukraine, had been entirely reconstructed. The new plant, which started operating in January when working at full capacity, wilI be able to turn out 1080 locomotives a year, whilst the old plant could produce only 300 engines.
The Lugansk new shops were on a very large scale. The boiler shop had a steel framework, covering an area of 32,000 m2 and the erecting shop, with 55,000 m2, was reinforced concrete, used instead of structural steel. There were 2,000 machines perated by 15,000 workers and 200 engineers.
The difficulties met with during construction are best shown by one example. The new works are buiIt on the spot where the slag and ashes from the old shops were dumped. To level the ground, 10,000 car loads of earth were required. Further difficulties arose through the the plans being changed several times during erection of the plant, which originally was to produce only 360 engines a year.
The central electric heating station, with a capacity of 21,000 Kw., supplies 75.000 m3. of compressed air per hour. The machine shops started work in the second quarter of 1933.
The standard Lugansk engines will be of 2-10-2 type, with mechanical stokers, etc. The grate area, 7 m2 permits the use of slow burning coal Two of these engines were constructed at the old works, and they have already covered 38.000 km. each without requiring heavy repairs. During 1932 the USSR constructed 844 locomotives instead of 825, as specified by the Five Year Plan.
An electric line is now working between Stalin si and Seztafoni with engines built at the Moscow Dynamo Factory. The longest bridge in Europe has been completed at Dniepronetrovsk over the Dnieper. It is constructed entirely of reinforced concrete.

The Model Railway Club Annual Exhibition. 165.
Held at the Central Hall Westminster, between 17 and 22 of April: noted continued progress in the quality of the members' work displayed. Accuracy in detail is certainly now closely studied, and the finish and craftsmanship were in many cases of a very high order, notwithstanding that most members, we believe, do not command very extensive resources in the nature of tools, etc., and are by far the greater part amateurs in engineering.
As with former exhibitions, the models of locomotives and rolling stock were arranged in groups corresponding with the leading railway companies, the most extensive of which was that allocated to the G.W. Rly.; and we noted some excellent work shown by other clubs participating as guests of the MRC. The French Societe des Amis des Chemins de Fer was well represented, and there was also a really magnificent display of highly finished and completely detailed models to a scale of 1/10 of locomotives and carriages lent by the French railways, the work of apprentices in their instructional schools. In this section all the great companies were represented, together with the Paris Metro Ry, and the C. de fer Nord-Belge. The P.L.M., in particular, showed two models including the minutest details, repectively, of their latest type of Mountain locomotive and a first-class coach. The British companies were not entirely un-represented, there being models from the Southern and LMS. Rys., the latter exhibiting a beautiful model of their latest dining car.
Visitors were greatly interested in a very fine and well- equipped 7 mm. scale running railway, with an elaborate system of signalling, track points, stations, etc., and the passenger-carrying line operated by large scale steam locomotives, was, as usual, a highly popular attraction. The attendance was most gratifying to the promoters of the exhibition, which marks the twenty-third year of this club's existence, and exceeded all previous records. The free kinematographic exhibition of films of railway interest was much appreciated by the visitors.

Madras & Southern Mahratta Ry.165
In our description of the new 4-6-2 type locomotives for the metre-gauge section of this railway, we mentioned that they were grease lubricated. We now learn that the coupled wheels were fitted with Ajax patent hard grease lubricators, of which Whitelegg & Rogers, were designers and patentees. Similarly, the coupling and connecting rods were fitted with Ajax bayonet type hard grease nipples operated by an Ajax patent, type A hard grease pump. The valve motion, brake, and spring rigging are fitted with Tecalemit button-head soft grease nipples, operated by a soft grease gun, supplied by Tecalemit Ltd., of Brentford, for whom Messrs. Whitelegg & Rogers act as special representatives for locomotive grease lubricating equipment.

Mr. W. B. Pickering, 165
Elected to the Presidency of the Sheffield Chamber of Commerce, is a Director of Messrs. Hadfields Ltd., of Sheffield. He received his early business training from his father, the late Mr. Thos. Pickering, who was Divisional Superintendent of the North Eastern Ry. at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The firm of Hadfields Ltd., and their able Chairman, Sir Robert Hadfield, Bart., are of first importance in the steel making industry and the allied branches of engineering. As pioneers in so many developments connected with the steel industry, their achievements are world renowned.
Mr. Pickering is held in high esteem by his many friends abroad, as well as in his own country. His travels on behalf of his firm have entailed visits to many countries, and have produced most satisfactory business results. The successful introduction of Hadfield's Manganese Steel is largely due to Mr. Pickering's efforts and personality.

Reviews. 166

The British Locomotive Illustrated. W.J. Bell, London: A. & C. Black Ltd. 95 pp.
Arranged in very readable form with an attractive dust cover, this volume should find a ready sale amongst those interested in the locomotives of England and Scotland. It contains forty-three excellent full-page photogravure illustrations, showing practically all the leading locomotive types of the present day, together with a few older designs of historic interest. Each illustration is arranged with full descriptive wording on the facing page, and this reading matter, giving all the leading characteristics of . the engine — or train — shown, is pithy and distinguished by an accuracy that is not usual in books of this nature. Naturally, the larger passenger engines are given prominence, but we should have liked to have seen included an example of a medium-sized suburban tank engine and also an example of that ubiquitous "maid-of-all-work"-an 0-6-0 goods. We appreciate, however, that selection must have been a difficult matter, and the author is to be congratulated on his choice.

Patents explained. Herbert J. W. Wildbore, Patent Agent, Leadenhall House,
Explains the kinds of invention adapted for protection, the way in which a patent is obtained, and. the effect of the patent when granted. Mention is made of the new provisions introduced by the Act of 1932.

Estimating for mechanical engineers. W.V. Seear. London: Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd.
A guide to the systematic preparation of estimates, including preparation of specifications in the drawing office and technical department, estimating costs in the estimating department and forecasting delivery in the planning department.

Train lighting and heating. Second and revised edition. 134 pages. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.

Bulletin of the International Railway Congress Association (English Edition). London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
Contents of the April issue: Experiments with rail motor coaches in Spain; Manufacture of monobloc cylinders for three-cylinder locomotives; New single-phase electric locomotives; Air-cooled cars on the Illinois Central RR; etc.

The Railway Club. 166
At the on Friday, 7 April R.M. Robbins read a paper on the North London Ry. tracing the history of the line up to its absorption by the London & North Western Ry, in 1922, and described it in detail, together with the North & South Western Junction, with which the North London was for so long closely associated. Train services and rolling-stock were dealt with. An interesting discussion followed, many members describing their experiences, past and present, on the North London Ry., and all expressing appreciation of an excellent paper. On the following day 8 April a visit was made to the running sheds of the G.W. Ry. at Old Oak

Trade Notes and Publications. 166

Diesel oil engines. 166.
Catalogue from Harland & Wolff Ltd., of Queens Island, Belfast: Harland-B. & W. system. Improvements included low fuel consumption, quick starting from cold and the small space occupied.

Thos. W. Ward Ltd., 166.
Albion Works, Savile Street, Sheffield issued a list of standard gauge saddle tank locomotives which they have for disposal or available for hire. They are all of British make and modern design. The firm specialises in contractors' plant of every description and carry large stocks, which can be inspected at their works at Grays, Sheffield, and Wishaw.

Dobbie-McInnes indicators. 166.
Catalogue of Dobbie-McInnes indicators issued by Dobbie, McInnes and Clyde Ltd., 57 Bothwell Street, Glasgow. New specialities described included a Diesel engine Indicator to deal with the high pressures and temperatures encountered in Diesel engine practice. Other instruments listed include steam, gas and oil indicators; the Hopkinson optical indicator for high speed steam and internal combustion engines; Farn-boro electric indicator for automobile and aero engines. Bourdon gauges, boiler water level gauges; pneumatic tank indicators, revolution counters, etc.

YB type locomotives for the Madras & Southern Mahratta Ry.  166
Referring to the description of the five "YB" type locomotives for the Madras & Southern Mahratta Ry. on page 108, the Clyde Rubber Works Co. Ltd., of Renfrew, inform us they supplied the Skoda Works with the auxiliary bearing springs for the engine bogies, coupled wheels, and rear trucks and the tender bogies. They also supplied the rubber feed pipes for these locomotives.

Diesel locomotives. 166.
John Fowler & Co, (Leeds) Ltd. have issued a publication, No. 616, dealing with the 88-h.p. Fowler Diesel locomotive. With it they send also their booklet dealing with the 70-h.p. type, which is built on exactly similar lines, the only differences being the engine, haulage capacity, and various dimensions, Details given include comparative merits of Diesel engines in relation to petrol or paraffin engines for locomotives, also particulars of the locomotive and its components and the main features and advantages of the Fowler design. Operating facts and figures, supplied by a user, are also included.

Cambridge Instrument Co. Ltd. 166
A leaflet describes their quick-reading distance thermometers. These possess a quick and rapid response to temperature changes, and will indicate accurately in five seconds a change as large as 100°F. The instruments are of robust construction, easy to handle, and can be provided with a very open scale calibrated at any selected temperature.

Floating & Elastic Drawbar & Shock Absorber Co. Lrd., 166
Of 7 Victoria Street, S.W.1. appointed Engineer. Lieut.-Commander J.G.B. Sarns, R.N. (Retired), to be a director on the Board of the Company.

Drop Forgings. 166
Albion Drop Forgings Co. Ltd., FoleshiIl, Coventry, issued booklet with much useful information as to their practice in the fabrication of forgings in steel, duralumin, magnesium, and monel metal.

Number 490 (15 June 1933)

4-6-0 type locomotives, Gaekwar's Baroda State Ry. 167-8. illus.
W.G. Bagnall metre gauge. Belpaire boiler 15.5 x 22 in cylinders; 4ft coupled wheels; 854.25ft2 total heating surface, including 123.12ft2 superheat; 18.25ft2 grate area

Diesel-electric locomotive for the Belfast & County Down Ry.168-9. illus., 2 diagrs (s. & f. els.).
Built by Harland & Wolff Ltd with Harland B&W traction type 270 h.p. two stroke engine and Lawrence Scott Emcol traction motors under the supervision of J.L. Crosthwait, locomotive engineer, B&CDR. Intended to work a 16 hour day, to haul light passenger trains, light frreight (it could cope with 200 tons on a gradient of 1 in 100) and shunting. It was aimed to employ it on the Ballynahinch branch.

2-8-4 booster fitted locomotives, South Australian Government Rys. 170. illus.
720 class built at the Islington Works to the design of F.J. Shea, Chief Mechanical Engineer. 5ft 3in gauge. 4ft 9in coupled wheels. 22 x 28in cylinders. Boiler with Nicholson thrmic arch tubes; 2975ft2 total heating surface, 751ft2 superheater, 59.5ft2 grate area, mechanical stoker and 215 psi boiler pressure.

Closing of a Belgian locomotive works. 170.
Société Saint Léonard, Liége. Founded in 1829 by Regnier Poncelot & Co. First locomotives supplied in 1840 to the Belgian State Railways: Nos. 94 Léonard, 117 Beck, 120 Delcour, 125 Sanderus, 127 Roland Delattre: these were probably singles. Over 2000 locomotives had been produced by 1930. Directors were Regnier Poncelo, Vaessen Oury, Bihet Oury and Regnier Oury.

Kent and East Sussex Ry. 170.
Disposal of 0-8-0T Hecate to Southern Railway where it became No. 949 in exchange for 0-6-0ST No. 0355 becoming No. 4 on KESR

Metre gauge rail-car with twin bogie power units. 171-2. diagr. (s. & f. els.), plan
D. Wickham & Co. of Ware: unit consisted of two light tractors each fitted with a Ford 40 h.p. engine and either a three or four speed gearbox and a large radiator designed for tropical conditions. The unit was intended to work with only one power unit in operation except on steep gradients. The bodywork was intended should be built in country of destination. Also mentions firm's petrol-engined trolleys.

L.M. & S. Ry. 172
Order placed with Leyland Motor Co. for three 40-seat rail coaches with diesel engines. Also order with Sentinel Waggon Co. for three rail caoches seating 70 fitted with Sentinel-Doble boilers with oil firing and automatic in operation and intended to be driven by one man without a fireman.

Petrol-engined rail-car for the L.M. & S. Ry. Northern Counties Committee. 172-3. illus., diagr. (s & f. els & plan).
Designed H.P. Stewart. Two Leyland Motors ten litre 6 cyclinder engine (each 140 hp). 62 reversible seats. 65 mile/h maximum speed. Used on Derry Central line between Coleraine and Cookstown

North Milan Railway. 173.
3-cylinder 2-6-4T design prepared Borsikg LokomotivWerke of Tegel for Saronno Co.

Non-condensing turbine locomotive, Grangesberg Railway, Sweden. 173-4. illus.
B. Hydquist & Holm of Trollhattan: Ljungstrom turbine. 2-8-0. 1616 ft2 total heating surface plus 1076ft2 superheat. 32.3 ft2 grate area, 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 185 psi boiler pressure, 10% fuel saving compared with three-cylinder equivalent

2-8-2 narrow gauge locomotives for the Western Oases Ry., Egypt, 174-5. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
Two supplied Nasmyth Wilson to 0.75m gauge. Belpaire firebox. outside frames. 15 x 20 cyl, 160 psi, 943 ths, 15 ga, 3ft cw

H. Jackson. 175.
Former deputy app cme N Western Ry of India. E.L. Manico new dep

800 h.p. Bugatti rail-car, French State Rys. 176. illus.
AT an exhibition of rail-cars in use on the French State Rys., held at the Gare St. Lazare, Paris, last month, considerable interest was taken in the "Automotrice Bugatti" shown in the accompanying illustration. This car was built by the famous French motor car firm, Bugatti, at their Molsheim Works (Bas- Rhin) , while the stream-lined design is based on the results of aerodynamic tests in the laboratory at Issy, with the collaboration of Monsieur Pacon, architect of the French State Rys. The car is driven by four 200 h.p. motors of the Royal Bugatti type, and is mounted on two eight- wheeled motor bogies. The car is reversible, the driver's cab being placed in the middle of the coach with a raised glass hood like a conning tower. All the windows have safety glass. The total length of the car is 23 m. 160 (76 ft.), and its width 9 ft. 4 ins., while the distance between the centres of the bogies is 16 metres. It weighs 23 tonnes. The car has been designed to run as quietly and noise- lessly as possible. The four motors are connected through an intermediary gear and reversing box to a motor shaft which transmits the power to the two inside axles of each bogie. The fuel used is an alcohol-benzol mixture. Specially mounted bogies with Timken roller bearings have been designed, and the wheels have rubber cushions in their construction. The car will accommodate fifty-two passengers in comfortable arm-chairs. At the first trial of the car on May 3, on the line from Le Mans to Cannerré Beillé, a speed of 171 kilometres per hour was attained, beating the famous Berlin- Hamburg train. During six days the car ran 2,200 kilometres, whilst on the last dav of the trials it covered 800 kilometres. - For the summer season the car will be used on the Paris-Deauville service, the run of 220 kilometres being made in two hours exactly, at the speed of 110 kilometres (68 miles) per hour.

Tramways, Light Railways and Transport Association Congress. 176.
The twenty-third Annual Congress was held at the Queen's Hotel, Leeds, on June 8 and 9. On Thursday morning, June 8, W.V. Morland, General Manager and Engineer of the Leeds City Tramways, read a paper on "Modern Mass Transportation Methods." An inspection of a new type of tramcar on the light railway to Middleton followed, while the afternoon was given up to an excursion to Temple Newsam. The Annual Members Dinner and Dance was held at the Queen's Hotel, in the evening.
On Friday, June 9, the papers read were "Regeneration on Trolley Vehicles," by W. A. Stevens, and "Various types of Fuel used in Omnibus Engines," by D.E. Bell, General Manager of the Yorkshire Electric Tramways Ltd. After the discussion a party of the delegates went by motor coaches to Harrogate, where lunch was taken. After a visit to Fountains Abbey the party went on to Ripon to tea. A return to Leeds for an informal dinner, followed by a reception, dance, and cabaret at Leeds Town Hall as guests of the Leeds City Tramways Committee, brought the very successful congress to a close. A word of praise to the Secretary, A. de Turckheim, is due for the well arranged programme.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 176.
A further five "Claughton' class 4-6-0s being converted at Crewe into three-cylinder type (Baby Scot class). The first two out would be Nos.  6015 Private E. Sykes,. V.C. and 6000 (no name). Ten similar engines recently dealt with at Derby — all into service — Nos. 5905, Lord Rathmore; 5916, E. Tootal Broadhurst ; 5933, 5935, 5944, 5954, 5963, 5973, 5996 and 5997. Except where otherwise shown, the original engines were un-named. Nos. 5944 and 5996 were allocated to the Western Division and the remainder to the Midland Division. The following engines had been rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: George the Fifth class No. 5408; 19in goods class, Nos. 8768 and 8814; G1 class, Nos. 9220, 9155 and 9369. Engines recently altered for working over the Midland section include G1 class, No. 9142. Two further 0-6-0 standard shunting engines have been transferred from the Northern, Division, Nos. 7134 and 16400. G1 class Nos. 9021 and 9348 are now allocated to the Midland Division. Recent withdrawals of note include the following:- 4-4-0 Precursor class, Nos. 5196, Huskisson; 5217 Knowsley; 5257 Locke and 5275 Tiger; 4-6-0 19in. goods class, Nos. 8771 and 8784; and ex N.S.R. No. 5413 which is the last of its type.
New construction at Derby comprised four 2-6-0 tender engines for the N.C.C. section and ten 2-6-2 passenger tank engines.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. 177-9
Refers to Selby I Loco E paper on dim of p/v and to poppet valves Lentz and Caprotti

Modern locomotives of the Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 179. illustration
Two single drivers, Nos. 88 and 89, converted to 4-4-0 type in 1904. New 4-4-0 type designed at Dundalk Works in 1892 and built by Beyer Peacock: Nos. 72 Daffodil, 73 Primrose, 82 Daisy and 83 Narcissus (latter pair built 1895): known as 72 class; No. 83 illustrated. Boiler dimensions quoted. Continued page 214

Joynt, E.E. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. The Drawing Office. 180-1.

Third class sleeping cars in France. 181-2. illus.
310 francs and the return journey 534 francs. Each compartment contains three beds superimposed and is provided with a lavatory basin. A conductor renders service to travellers.
For day use, the lower seat is comfortably upholstered with imitation leather. At night it forms support for the lower bed, while the back is raised and forms the inter- mediate bed. The top berth, by day, is suspended from the dividing partition. The beds have a width of about 26 ins. They are provided with a wool mattress and the usual bed coverings. Between the bunks there is a space of about 2 ft. and each has a lamp and a bell for the conductor. Access to the beds is made easy by light ladders attached to the divisions. By day these are fastened against the dividing partition.
Electric lighting is on the Dick system with a 50 amp. dynamo on the axle and accumulators of 150 ampere- hours. Each compartment has two lights over the door. The large windows have rising frames, the smaller ones are balanced and have lowering frames. In each compartment is a ventilator with glass plates placed over the top part. The corridor windows are movable and balanced and carry ventilators with glass plates.
At the bottom of each compartment door is another ventilator. Heating is by hot water on the thermo siphon system, the heat being provided by the locomotive through a Korting injector. There is also a low pressure steam heat system feeding a radiator in each compartment and controlled by the passenger. Large luggage racks are arranged on the partitions above the berths. The panelling is covered in ornamental leather and the fittings are bronze, whilst the floor is carpeted. Third-class sleeping cars although an innovation in France, are not, however, altogether novel for the Wagon-Lits Co., as it has operated such vehicles in Central Europe, Denmark, and the Balkan States for some years past.

[L.M. & S. Ry.: water-softening scheme]. 182. 
With the installation at 28 places on the two routes between London and Carlisle of lime-soda plants for purifying locomotive water supplies, the LMS Ry. completed the largest aggregate water-softening scheme of any railway in Europe. These water softeners enabled very considerable savings to be effected though the prevention of scale formation in the boilers of the engines, leading to reduced maintenance costs and lower coal consumption The 28 plants, which are capable between them of extracting 4,000 tons of impurities from the 4,000 million gallons of water used annually on the sections of line concerned had been erected at: Kenyon Junction (Lancs.), Whitmore (Staffs.), Hademore, Nuneaton, Northampton,. BIetchley, Leighton Buzzard, Hellifield, Toton (Derbyshire), Melton Mowbray, Kcttering. Wcllingborough, Oakley, St. Albans, Cricklewood and Kentish Town (London), by Patterson Engineering Co. Ltd.
Moore, Castlethorpe (Bucks.), Rugby, Bushey and Colne Valley, by United Water Softeners Ltd. Preston and Loughborough, by Wm. Boby & Co. Ltd. Stafford and Newbold, by Kennicot Water Softener Co. Ltd.
Tring and Market Harborough, by the Becco Engineering & Chemicals Co. Ltd. Bedford, by Bell Bros. Ltd.

Live fish vans for Japanese Rys. 182. illus.
Following successful results of a trial van placed in service in 1930, the Impenal Japanese Rys. were constructing live-fish vans to operate more efficiently their growing fish traffic, which then amounted to over 600,000 tons of raw and live fish per annum. The vehicles were four-wheeled, and in addition to the standard centre-couplers, were provided with the Westinghouse brake, which was being fitted to all goods wagons as they went into the shops for overhaul. The average haul of the fish traffic was 265 miles, and it was intended to operate these vans in special fast trains, although they could be attached to express passenger trains if convenient. Four tanks, with a combined capacity of 2000 gallons, were fitted inside the vans, aeration of the water being carried out by introducing oxygen from containers in the vehicle. The tanks were entirely separate from the body-work, and could be removed through large sliding doors, one of which extends from roof to underframe on each side.
The vans were all-steel construction. but a notice to warn that heavy shunting must be avoided was prominently painted on the side of the vans.

[L.M. & S. Ry. staff changes]. 182.
A.H. Whitaker, who for the past twenty-six rears had been in charge of the locomotive depot of the S. & D.J. Ry. at Bath, had been appointed to succeed J.W. Waddington as district locomotive superintendent oi the L.M. & S. Ry. at Bristol.

Electric locomotive design. VII. Driving bogie design. 183. diagr.
Bo-Bo type was coming into favour: suspension arrangements including use of volute springs

A.J.T. Eyles. Repair methods on damaged all-metal coaches. 184-5.
Welding aluminium and steel panels.

Ottoman Railway (Smyrna to Aidin). 185.
From records collected by the Stcphcnson Locomotive Society: this Company purchased from the Railway Operating Department of the British Government six 0-6-0 goods engines which had been built at Swindon. G.W.R Nos. 427, 495, 1084 and 508 (RO.D. Nos. 32, 34, 37 and 40) became Ottoman Ry. Nos. 100 to 103 (Class 10). G.W.R Nos. 2308 and 2542 (R.O.D. 73 and 84) became O.R. Nos. 110 and 111 (Class 11). Nos. 101 and 103 were withdrawn in September 1932, and No. 111 in September 1929; the other three were still in traffic. No. 2308 was repaired at St. Etienne du Rouvray and put hack into traffic on 1 June 1918.

Canadian Pacific rolling stock. 185
At the end of 1932 owned 2,137 locomotives, 3,463 passenger cars, 88,196 freight cars, and 6,857 service vehicles. Route mileage including the subsidiary and controlled lines was 22,527. of which 16888 miles were actually operated by the C.P.R The passenger train-miles for the year was 16,991.436; the freight train-miles 16,558,495; the mixed-train miles 2,927.702; and the motor train-miles 494.858.

The Cromford & High Peak Ry. 186-8.  6 illus., map
The line was sanctioned on 2 May 1825 and opened in 1832/3. the line extended 33¾ miles. An Act of 1855 permitted the carriage of passengers. Josias Jessop was irs engineer. In 1845 a junction with the Midland Railway was formed at Cromford. A junction was made with the LNWR at Whaley Bridge in 1857 and from 30 June 1862 the railway was leased by the LNWR. The summit of the line was at Ladmanlow: 1266 ft. There were inclines at Sheep Pasture, Cromford (1 in 8 for 1349 yards); Middleton (1 in 8½ for 1100 yards with engine supplied by Butterley Co. in 1829) and Hopton (1 in 14 for 220 yards) where the sharp curve limited loads to 5 wagons. The rope broke at Sheep Pasture on 29 February 1888. A junction was formed with the Buxton to Ashbourne line at Parsley Hay. There are abandoned inclines at Bunsall (1 in 7), Shallcross (1 in 8) and at Whaley Bridge (1 in 13½) down to to a Wharf on the Peak Forest Canal. Illustrations show 0-4-2ST No. 7859 at Cromford Wharf; catch points at foot of Cromford Incline; foot of Middleton Incline and 2-4-0T at Middleton Top.

Notes on early London and South Western Ry. locomotives. 189-90. 4 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Whilst on trial trip after fitting Ashton blow-back safety valve during the winter of 1880/1 Castor was involved in a serious accident near Coombe & Malden when it ran into a platelayers trolley loaded with sleepers, but did not derail and was able to return toi Nine Elms under its own steam. Includes drawings of Joseph Beattie 0-6-0 No. 8; 2-4-0WT No. 36 Comet and 2-4-0 No. 26.

Recent locomotives, Imperial Japanese Rys. 192-3. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (side elevations), table
C50 class 2-6-0 and C10 class 2-6-4T

Spanish electrification. 193.
Norte Railway: Madrid to Avile 75 miles of double track and 40 miles of single track to Segovia. 2-Co-Co-2 2300 hp passenger locomotives and Co-Co 1620 hp freight locomotives

New methods in railway wagon construction. 193.
Welding underframes at Dukinfield led to savings in weight and cost. Under supervision of R.A. Thom and Edge. Murex Welding equipment. See also page 281..

Replacement of bowstring girders. 193.
LMS main line: bridge over Grand Union Canal at Buckby Bank. Northamptonshire. New steelwork: partial replacement had taken place in 1892.

A newly discovered liverpool and Manchester Ry. handkerchief. 194. illus.
See also p. 100. Depicts opening train with Duke of Wellington's saloon, Irwell bridge, the locomotive Dart with Sankey Viaduct in centre; printed in blue.

Glasgow St. Enoch power signalling. 194.
New signal box with 203 levers: implemented on Sunday 14 May 1933.

London and North Eastern Ry. 194.
No. 2841 Gayton Hall latest B17 ex-Darlington Works. J39 Nos. 1482 and 1483 also ex-Darlington Works and sent to North Eastern Area. Five S class 4-4-4T converted to 4-6-2T: Nos. 1518, 1525, 1528, 2155 and 2162. Y8 Nos. 559 and 563 at Hull Docks displaced by petrol tractors on shunting. Former MR shed at York closed and used to store LNER locomotives.

The Railway Club. 194.
On 5 May 1933 C.R.G. Stuart spoke on Some notes on Irish railways giving details of locomotive performance on the GSR and GNR(I). On 6 May the Post Office Tube Railway was visited.

Obituary. 194
Arthur E. du Pasquier.
Died 20 May 1933. Manager of Publicity Deprtment at Metropolitan Vickers. He had returned from South Africa in 1920, having been reprsentative there from 1915. He presented a paper on Electric winding engines to the South Wales Institute of Engineers in 1912.

J. Stanley Wolff.
Died 15 May 1933 aged 54. Chairman and Joint Managing Director of John F. Wolff & Co. Ltd. Apprenticed at Workman, Clark & Co. and the LBSCR. London representative for Vulcan Foundry, Horsehay Co. and Allen Everett & Sons.

Douglas Earl Marsh.
Died 25 May 1933 at Batheaston. Locomotive superintendent LBSCR 1905-12.

Personal. 195

[A. Newlands retirement]. 195.
A. Newlands, CB.E., Chief Civil Engineer of the L.M. & S. Ry., notified his intention to retire on I July after completing 41 years' railway service having been Chief Engineer of the Highland Railway at the date of the amalgamation, and Divisional Engineer at Crewe prior to his final appointment in 1927. He was to remain a member of the advisory commit tee on scientific research. He was succeeded by W.K. Wallace, previously engineer for the Northern Counties Committee, and for the previous three years the Company's Chief Stores Superintendent.

[W.S. Edwards]. 195.
W.S. Edwards, a director of W.G. Bagnall Ltd., locomotive builders, of Castle Engine Works, Stafford, since 1915 elected Chairman and Managing Director of the Company. The firm was established by the W.G. Bagnall in 1873, and the first locomotive named Brick, was of the 0-4-0 type for a light industrial railway, and completed in 1875. Sixteen small locomotives were built during 1876 and by the end of 1879 275 had been turned out. The first passenger locomotives were Nos. 1 to 4 of the West Clare Railway, built in 1886, makers' numbers of which were 730 to 733. The firm was converted to a Limited Company in 1887. During recent years considerable additions to the works and the introduction of modern plant and tools had enabled the firm to largely extend its activities and successfully compete for contracts for the standard locomotives for the Indian Railways as well as for the Colonies.

Correspondence. 195
Providing lead for piston or slide valves. C.F.I. Batt. diagr.
Replying to Mr. Cardew's letter in your issue of 15 April: It must not be assumed that the amount of steam in the clearance volume does no useful work. It is always filled with high pressure steam when admission occurs, and this steam in the clearance space forms part of the total steam which expands after cut-off, resulting in a higher mean effective pressure and a lower ratio of expansion than is obtained with no clearance. Then shows a calculation which leads to a 6.57% saving.

Reviews 195

Train lighting and heating. London: Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
This book commences with a general consideration of methods of lighting railway carriages electrically, by self-contained plant fitted to each vehicle, by current generator installed at some point on the train and supplying current to the complete train, by batteries or accumulators, and also by collection of current from some extraneous source as in electrically driven trains. The various systems in use are described in a practical manner, including Stones', Mather & Platt, Vickers, Oerlikon, Wolverton, Brown-Boveri, Dalziel, Rotax-Leitner, etc. The arrangements of dynamos, suspension and drive, batteries, wiring and fittings are also dealt with. As an example of emergency lighting, particulars of the practice of the London Electric Railways are given, and lighting by traction current is shown by the Metropolitan Railway method and the specification of the Railway Clearing House. Through control of lighting is indicated by details of Mather and Platts', Vickers', and Stones' devices. Recent developments in electric headlights for locomotives show Stones' "Pyle National," "Sunbeam" and general electric designs. There is a long section on the varying types of batteries used, and an account of the manufacture of train lighting cells at Wolverton, L.M. & S. Ry, The chapter on electric fans for railway service in the tropics is comprehensive and another on the maintenance of lighting equipment of practical utility to engineers in charge. Electric heating and cooking equipment in its latest and successful development on the L. & N. E. Ry. receives attention. In the chapters on steam heating of carriages, the systems devised by Grcsham & Craven, G. D. Peters & Co., W. M. Still and Sons, Westinghouse Co., A. G. Wild & Co., and the arrangements standardised on the Great Western Railway and by the International Sleeping Car Co., are illustrated and described at length. Not in Ottley: in British Library it seemed to have been treated as a supplement to the Locomotive Magazine which in itself was treated as an anomalous form of periodical literature.

Number 491 (15 July 1933)

New 4-6-2 "Pacific" type four-cylinder locomotive, London, Midland & Scottish Ry. 197-9. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
No. 6200 was exhibited at Euston Station on Wednesday 28 June 1933.

0-8-0 tank locomotive for the Nanking Train Ferry. 199-200. illus.
Hunslet Engine Co. via Chinese Purchasing Commission. 4ft 8½in gauge. 22½ x 26 outside cylinders. Total heating surface 1694ft2; grate area 24.6ft2. Working pressure 200 psi. Superheated. Franklin pneumatic firedoor. Powerful Westinghouse brake.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 200. Summer meeting at Southampton: 21-23 June 1933. Visits to Southampton Docks, including large floating dock; Easleigh Locomotive Works; Lancing Carriage Works; new signalling installation at Brighton; and inspected Sentinel-Cammell railbus on the Dyke branch.

Gardner-Edwards diesel rail-car for the Antioquia Ry. 200-1. 2 illus.
Built by Gardner-Edwards Diesel Rail-Car Co.of Belfast for Colombia 3ft gauge railway and tested between Ballymena and Larne on 26 June 1933. The car was designed to work at high altitude (6000 ft above sea level) and on severe gradients of 1 in 25. It carried 30 passengers. The body framing was teak and mahogany; the outer panelling of steel and aluminium.

New dynamometer cars, French State Rys. 201-3. 3 illus., 2 diagrs., 2 plans.
Four cars designed by Place, chief engineer with Amsler hydraulic measuring apparatus.

[Harwich train-ferries]. 203
LNER agreed to acquire the three train-ferry steamers, the Harwich terminal, and business of the Great Eastern Train Ferries Ltd.

London Passenger Transport Board. 203
The following railway appointments of the new Board under Lord Ashfield, the Chairman, and Mr. Frank Pick, Vice-Chairman, are announced. Secretary and Treasurer: Mr. J.S. Anderson ; Controller and Accountant: Mr. C. S. Louch; General Manager, Railways: Mr. J.P. Thomas; Chief Mechanical Engineer, Railways:. Mr. W. A. Agnew; Operating Manager, Railways: Mr. G. Hally; Chief Engineer: Mr. A. R Cooper. Messrs. Anderson and Hally are transferred from the Metropolitan Railway. Mr. Thomas was operating manager of the Underground Railways, while Messrs. Agnew and Cooper hold the same titles as they had on the Underground.

Tank locomotive for an Australian colliery. 204. illus.
Andrew Barclay outide cylinder (16 x 24in) 0-6-0ST for the Gunnedah Colliery in New South Wales. 4ft 8½in gauge; 3ft 7in coupled wheels; total heating surface 831ft2 and grate area 13.5ft2. Fitted with Westinghouse brake. 160 psi working pressure.

Diesel-electric train ordered for San Paulo Railway in Brazil. 204.
W.G. Armstrong Whitworth to supply train to work over the cable-operated inclines between Santos and San Paulo. Aimed to haul whole train up the inclines (average gradient 1 in 12).

Phillipson, E.A. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter X. Valve ports and valve gear. 204-5.
Position of valves above and below cylinders: latter better for unbalanced slide valves. Ports for piston valves.

Diesel-engined locomotive, Belfast & County Down Ry. 205. illus.
Diesel-electric locomotive built by Harland & Wolff Ltd., for the Belfast & County Down Ry, Photograph of No. D1 in service taken by the Belfast Telegraph at Ballymacaratt Junction, just outside the Belfast terminus. The locomotive was to work the Ballynahinch branch.

P.L.M. locomotives and rolling stock. 205.
The P.L.M had put into service, or had on order the following locomotives: 14 Mountain type, Class 241.C; 30 Pacifics; 10 Santa Fe's; 110 Mikados; 43 4-8-4T engines; 3 Diesel-electric locomotives. Also on order 1,375 open wagons, 17 hopper cars for the carriage of ballast, and a travelling crane; while in 1932, 62 bogie coaches and 500 wagons for perishable traffic were delivered.

Great Western Railway. 205.
The following 4-6-0  Hall class engines had been completed at Swindon Works:- 5921 Bingley Hall, 5922 Caxton Hall. 5923 Colston Hall. 5924 Dinton Hall. 5925 Eastcote Hall. 5926 Grotrian Hall. 5927 Guild Hall. 5928 Haddon Hall. 5929 Hanham Hall.  5930 Hannington Hall.

The Cromford & High Peak Ry. 206-8. 9 illus., including 2 drawings.
The original permanent way consisted of short lengths of cast-iron rails on stone blocks and horse traction was used on the level stretches. The first locomotive was introduced in 1842: this was an 0-6-0: Tayleur & Co. WN 175, but this probably survice in service for long. Routine steam working started in 1855. Locomotive No. 2 was probably a Bury, Curtis & Kennedy 2-2-0 with 4ft 8in driving wheels and 12 x 18in cylinders. It probably came from the Southern Division of the LNWR. The railway was leasedf to the LNWR on 30 June 1862, but the locomotives were not taken into stock until 1871. No. 2 became No. 2039 and later duplicate No. 1942 and was scrapped in 1882. It had served for a time as a stationary engine being then lettered "B". Nos. 3, 5, 6 and 7 were all 0-6-0Ts. Nos. 3 and 5, and 4 (not taken over) had 3ft coupled wheels and 10 x 12in cylinders. It was not known who manufactured them. Nos. 6 and 7 were built by the Vulcan Foundry WN 435/1860 and 436/1860 and were saddle tanks with 9 x 15in outside cylinders, 3ft coupled wheels, 274.3ft2  total heating surface and 100 psi working pressure.  On takeover they became LNWR Nos. 2039-43; then 1942-6 in the duplicate list.
When the Fell system was being developed for the Mont Cenis route a locomotive with four cylinders, two of them working flanged wheels acting on the centre rail, built at the Canada Works in Birkenhead was tested on a section of 1 in 13.5 of the line at Whaley Bridge in 1863. "In 1876 Mr T. Handyside, of Derby, designed and tried a special 0-6-0 tank locomotive" on the Hopton incline (see entry for Henry Handyside): a Handyside locomotive is illustrated. Article mentions "a very nice model of this interesting locomotive" in the offices of William Peckett in the Atlas Works in Bristol.
When the LNWR first employed their own locomotives on the High Peak Ry. some of the Allan or Crewe goods type of tender engines, and also as converted to tanks, were used on the stretches between the inclines. These had coupled wheels 5 ft. diameter. The outside cylinders were 15 by 20 ins.; the boilers were about 9 ft. 4 ins. in length, with a diameter of 3 ft. 6 ins. The grate area was 10.5ft2.
Later the line was worked by Webb small 2-4-0 side tanks, locally known as the Choppers with 4 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels and inside cylinders 17 ins. by 20 ins. More recently, between Cromford and High Peak Junction, a 0-4-2 saddle tank, No.7859, of the LMS was employed. Traffic on the Middleton-Parsley Hay length was worked.for many years by the Choppers, but for a time by one of the North Staffordshire Ry. 2-4-0 side tanks, and now two ex-North London Ry. outside cylinder 0-6-0 side tanks, Nos. 7511 and 7521 were in service there.
The water supply for the stationary engines, as well as for replenishing the locomotives, is obtained from a spring at Cromford, and is distributed along the line by a regular service of tank wagons and some converted locomotive tenders. The water columns are suitable for filling side tanks only at most of the depots.
According to a working time-table dated December 1876, a through train which left Whaley Bridge at 7.10 a.m. was due to run in the Cromford terminus at 12.15 noon.
The somewhat primitive century-old method of working the traffic over the inclines of the C. & H, P, Ry., although fairly efficient in practice, must be costly to operate, not only in wages of staff but in the main tenance of plant and material. It would surely be a commercial and economical proposition to convert the inclines to rack working, and to operate the trains safer and quicker by combined rack and adhesion tank locomotives as has been done for many years in Switzerland. On the Furka line, described in  the issue of  15 January 1932, the inclines are 1 in 8, the same as the Sheep Pasture incline. It should be quite an easy matter for one locomotive to work fairly heavy trains through from Derby to Buxton, and vice versa, without the tedious delays due to breaking up the trains and shunting the wagons, inseparable from the present antiquated method.

London & North Eastern Railway. 208
Another 4-4-0 passenger engine of the D49 class, No. 283 The Middleton, fitted with rotary cam poppet valves, had been completed at Darlington Works. The LNER Diesel-electric rail-car Tyneside Venturer was stationed at Scarborough, working on observation trips. On Thursday 6 July an official trial was made by the LNER at Newcastle-on-Tyne, of a Diesel-electric locomotive, capable of hauling, if required, a goods train of 800 tons, The train it worked consisted of seven passenger coaches. Leaving Newcastle Central Station soon after 11.0 a m., it travelled to North Wylam, stopping at all stations, and returned to Newcastle as an express The locomotive was designed and built by Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. _
The engine shed at Richmond was to be closed on 11 July, and the service on the branch would be worked from Darlington with the six-cylinder rail-car No. 2271, Industry. The two new J39 0-6-0 goods engines, Nos. 1482 and 1483 were stationed at Heaton Junction sheds, whilst the rebuilt A8 class 4-6-2 tanks, Nos 1518, 1525 and. 2162 were at Middlesbrough, and No. 2155 at Heaton junction.

150 b.h.p. petrol-electric rail motor car. 209. illus.
Built by Triebwagenbau A.G. of Berlin for the Freienewalde-Zehden line. Designed to seat 61 with 20 standing passengers. Single class. Lavatory fitted.

Double-decked carriage. French State Rys. 210. illustration.
For suburban services from Paris St. Lazare to Sartrouville

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 210-12.
Joseph Beattie Ilfracombe goods: mention is restricted to late survivals, W.G. Beattie's 0-6-0 No. 292 is illustrated. Figure 34 shows Joseph Beattie 2-4-0T No. 314 as rebuilt by Adams. Figure 35 shows 4-4-0T No. 318 which was a Beyer Peacock design identical to thoese supplied to the Metropolitan Railway; and Figure 36 shows W.G. Beattie 2-4-0WT No. 326.

Gaekwar's Baroda State Ry. 212
Re article on page 1(i7 when describing the new 4-6-0 locomotives for this railway, recently constructed by W.G. Ragnall, Ltd. of Stafford, we omitted to mention that these were built to the designs of, and under the supervision and inspection of, the consulting engineers, Rendel, Palmer and Tritton, of Westminster.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish Locomotive Works. 212-13

A stronger steel. 213
New plain carbon steel, stronger by at least 40% than ordinary steel or alloy steel of the same ductility, according to the British standard specification tests. After much research the "KL stronger steel" has been perfected at the Letchworth foundry of Kryn and Lahy (1928) Ltd. Standard specifications require a minimum tensile strength for general purposes of 26 tons per square inch, but if required to show the greatest resistan:e to wear an increased tensile strength of from 35 to 40 tons per square inch is stated, the requirements for ductility are less stringent. Ductility is measured by the amount of elongation on the tensile test piece, and by the angle to which a piece can be bent cold without fracture. The elongation on 35 to 40 ton steel as usually made is 15% or 10% according to the tensile strength; the cold bend test is dispensed with. The new "stronger steel" shows an elongation of 25% and also it can be bent cold just like the 26 ton steel. The makers therefore claim that it gives 40% more strength for the same degree of ductility.
Railway motor bogie wheels now being cast in this new steel weigh about 150lbs. less apiece, than when cast in ordinary mild steel. This saving is obtained by reducing the section of the spokes, rim, and boss, while still retaining the same margin of safety against fracture. If wagon wheels were made of "KL stronger steel" the section of the rim, and the boss, and, to some extent. the spokes, could be reduced to save about 20%. in the weight. According to the makers' records, this would mean about 50 to 60lbs. per wheel centre, or 130lbs. compared with a rolled steel wheel centre.
This material is especially suitable for parts of machinery subjected to vibrations and shocks, combining, as it does, strength with toughness and it may also be used with advantage for locomotive and other wheels, gear wheels, pulleys, rollers, etc., all of which are made by the Acid Bessemer process.
When we visited these works recently, we had an opportunity of seeing a test made with a specimen of "cast: steel" to conform to the British standard specification "C," .564 in. dia., with a sectional area of ¼ sq. in. The ultimate breaking point was 9.4 tons; tensile strength 37.6 tons with an elongation of 2S% on 2 ins. The bend test was very satisfactory as the piece was doubled up without any sign of fracture.
At the time of our visit a large order for wheels for the G.W. Ry. was in hand. and also contracts from the other British railway companies.
The works cover approximately 26 acres, employ normally about 1,000 workers, and manufacture 600 to 800 tons of steel castings per month. The output consists principally of plain carbon steels from magnet steel to 7S ton steel in castings weighing up to 6 or 7 tons each.

Obituary. 213
The death occurred on 6 July 1933 at Portstewart, Northern Ireland of W. A. Traill, Chairman of the Giants' Causeway and Portrush Tramway, in his 89th year. Traill was the promoter and engineer of the tramway, which was worked by the first hydro-electric plant in the world. It was opened in August 1883, between Portrush and Bushmills (a distance of about six miles), and therefore reaches its jubilee next month.

Modern Locomotives of the Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 214-15
Continued from page 179.
The larger type of 4-4-0 engines designed in 1895 to deal with the increasing traffic were known as the Precursor class, from the name of No. 70, the first of the class, and were at the time of their inception the largest engines in Ireland, being slightly bigger than the class 60 on the G.S. & W. Ry.
No. 76 Hercules was stationed for some time at Greenore (L. & N.W. Ry.), and worked the Greenore to Belfast breakfast train, returning in the evening at 17.30 with the boat express in connection with the Greenore and Holyhead cross-channel boat service.
In 1911 a further modification of the class was brought out for use on the Derry branch, and really formed a separate class E8. These had extended smokeboxes, fitted with Phoenix superheaters, which increased the weight of the engines by some four tons, and differed in many respects; the nominal heating surface was increased by 200ft2. These superheaters were not a success, and the class was later fitted with the Robinson type. As thus altered, their particulars were as follows: heating surface (large and small tubes) 757ft2; superheater (16 elements) 168.6 ft2. Firebox l06.5ft2. The engines now had a working pressure of 175 psi, and weighed 42 tons 12 cwts, The dimensions of boiler and firebox remained unaltered with the exception of No. 45, which was provided with a boiler 4ft. 8¾ins. in diameter.
They worked the principal mail and express trains until 1899, when they were relegated to the limbo of the important Belfast-Londonderry branch, where timings were 5 mile/h slower, and train weights 50 tons lighter than on the main line, owing to this section having curves and gradients of greater severity. As built, the first three engines of 1896 (70, 71, 74) and the two of 1906 (106, 107) had 18in. cylinders, and the three engines of 1898 (75, 76, 77) had cylinders 18½ ins. diameter; they were, however, subsequently lined up to 18ins. The stroke was 24 ins. The boiler barrel was pitched half an inch higher from the rails than their predecessors. The working pressure was 160 psi. The defect found with class 72 was rectified by providing a larger firebox. This was 5 ft. 5 ins. long, and had a grate area of 18½ft2. The heating surface of this boiler totalled 1,119.5 sq. ft., of which the firebox provided 106 sq. ft. The weight in working order was 42 tons. The coupled wheels supported 28 tons 15 cwts.
Fig. 4, which illustrates No. 74 Rostrevor, gives an excellent idea of the symmetrical appearance of these handsome engines, which bore the following numbers and names: 70 Precursor, 71 Bundoran, 74 Rostrevor (built 1896), 75 Jupiter, 76 Hercules, 77 Achines (dated 1898). In 1906 two more of the class,  106 Tornado and 107 Cyclone were brought out. These differed from Nos. 75 to 77, etc., in having 18in. by 24in. cylinders and a working pressure of 175 psi. The sandboxes were arranged under the running boards, and the tenders provided with rectangular coal-guards.
The names and numbers of this last series were: 12. Ulster, 25 Liffey, 42 Munster, 43 Lagan, 44 Leinster, 45 Sirocco, 46 Typhoon, 50 Donard, and 129 Connaught. Fig. 5 shows No. 46 as now running on the Derry branch. Nos. 25 and 43 were built at Dundalk and the other five by Beyer, Peacock & Co. In about 1920, Nos. 70 etc., had their bollers replaced by new ones- with a diameter of 4 ft. 8½ ins. and carrying a working pressure of 175Ibs., similar to that used for re-building class 72. This boiler increased the weight of the engines by 2 ton 4 cwts , and greatly enhanced their efficiency.
Save for the longer fireboxes and coupled wheel- bases, and the fact that the sandboxes have been lowered and the domes placed further back, these engines are exactly similar in appearance to the rebuilt class 72 machines already described. During the last few years Nos. 45, 70, 74, 75, 76, 77, and 107 of these 4ft. 8½ in. rebuilds have been provided with superheaters, and the cylinders bored out to 18 in. diameter, and a slightly extended smoke- box provided" the heating surface being: Tubes 838 sq. ft.; superheater 198.7 sq. ft.; firebox 107.5 sq. ft. There are 116 small tubes I! ins. diameter, and the superheater has 18 elements. The weights are distributed as follows: On bogie 14 tons 16 cwts.; on driving axle 15 tons 14 cwts.; on rear coupled axle 15 tons. Total 45½ tons.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 215
Two further three-cylinder Baby Scots were nearing completion at Crewe, Nos. 5901 Sir Robert Turnbull and 5925 E.C. Trench: these engines continued in service on the Western Division. Work was also well in hand on a new series of 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines, forty of which were to be built. Two recent conversions to class Gl (superheater) were Nos. 8947 and 9097, both of which have been provided with standard boilers and vacuum brake throughout. The following engines are now running re-built with standard Belpaire boilers: 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class Nos. 5689 and 5755; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 9122 and 9317 0-8·0 G2 class No. 9453. Several class 3 0-6-0s of former L. & Y. standard type had been transferred to the Western Division; including Nos. 12111, 12116, 12122 and 12125 ex Midland Division and Nos. 12090, 12091 and 12098 ex Central Division. L. & N.W. class G1. Nos. 9021 and 9348 were allocated to the Midland Division. Only one of the 6ft. 6in. 2-4-0 Jumbos remained in service: No. 5001 Snowdon. The most recent engine of this class to be scrapped was No. 5050 Merrie Carlisle. 4-6-0 four-cylinder Experiment class engine No. 5554 Prospero, which had been rebuilt with the Dendy-Marshall arrangement of valve gear, had also been scrapped.

Three-power locomotives. 215.
The number of oil-electric-battery locomotives in service in USA was 49. Running experience proved that the battery, which can supplement the engine power by 420 horse-power for a few minutes, was only called into service some 15% of the locomotive operating hours. On external power, that "is, when drawing current from a third rail or overhead line, the output was 1,600 horse-power on the one-hour rating, these figures referring to the units with 300 B.H.P. Ingersoll-Rand oil-engines.

Piston rings. 215
New method of manufacturing cast-iron piston rings for Diesel engines has been introduced by Hepworth & Grandage, Ltd., of Bradford. From the particulars sent us, we gather that each ring is cast singly so that it has four natural sides, all equal, and all with their crystallization standing at right angles to the mould surface.

Nord rolling stock returns. 215
At the end of 1932 the rolling stock belonging to the French lines of the Nord Ry. was made up as follows: Tender locomotives, 91 four-coupled, 723 six-coupled, 1125 eight-coupled, 112 ten-coupled; total tender locos, 2,051. Tank locomotives, 157 four-coupled, 188 six-coupled, 271 eight-coupled, 72 ten-coupled, and 13 double-six- coupled articulated; total tank engines, 701. There were also 113 tender and 77 tank engines on the Nord-Belge system, making a total for the Company of 2,942, exclusive of 9 loco-tractors, and of the 34 six-coupled tanks contributed by the Nord to the stock of the Paris Ceinture Ry. At the beginning of the present year there were on order 34 2-8-2T, 30 2-10-0, 4 0-8-0T, and 29 0-10-0T engines; 30 bogie tenders with a water capacity of 38 m3, and two 45 H.P. loco-tractors. Among the passenger and goods stock orders were 64 double-bogie all-steel carriages, 138 all-steel suburban carriages, 1257 covered wagons of 20 tonnes capacity, and 700 other wagons of various types.

Axholme Light Railway. 215
Joint LMS and LNER between Haxey and Goole closed for passenger traffic as from 16 July

Electric locomotive design. VII. Driving bogie design. 216-17. illus., 2 diagrs.
Bodensee-Toggenberg Ry.: S.A. Ateliers de Sécheron each axle with motor

Armstrong-Whitworth diesel-electric railbus. 217-18. illustration
Lightweight: seated 57 to 71 passengers. Park Royal body

Nord super-pressure locomotive. 219
Collaboration with Swiss Locomotive Company to build an 850 psi boiler pressure Pacific for Calais bnoat trains.

German State Railways. 219
Orders for 122 locomotives divided amongst five builders: some would have 355 psi boilers

Alsace-Lorraine Railway. 219
Claimed to be most powerful Pacific type in France: two-cylinder simple with Caprotti valve gear and 290 psi boiler; also building a 2-10-2 with booster

Smoke-jacks in locomotive sheds. 219
American Railway Engineering Association recommendation for height above pits and use of non-combustible materail for construction

Tank locomotive, Kent & East Sussex Ry. 219. illustration
No. 4: formerly Southern Railway No. 0335: Beattie 0-6-0ST (Beyer Peacock WN 1596/1876). Painted green and lettered in yellow

Miniature diesel locomotives for the Blackpool Pleasure Beach Ry. 220. 2 illus.
Steam-outline 20 inch gauge locomotive supplied by Hudwell Clarke & Co.: a 4-6-2 (Gresley Pacific) named Mary Louise and a 4-6-4T Carol Jean with power supplied by Dorman-Ricardo 26 h.p. diesel engines. See also p. 267.

The Gloucester welded wheel and axle set. 221. illus.
Invented by F. Gibbins and devloped by the Gloucester Railway Carriage and Wagon Co.

The first tramway in Belgium. 221. illus.
Horse trams operated in Brussels from 1869: cars supplied by George Starbuck of Birkenhead.

High-speed pneumatic tyred railcar. 222. illus.
Michelin car with 140 h.p. Hispano-Suiza engine. Ran from Paris to Lille in 2h 27min at an average of 65.6 mile/h.

Major C.E. Williams honoured. 222.
Awarded C.B.E.: he was chief inspecting officer for the Crown Agents and President of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers.

New Zealand Government Railways. 222.
Locomotice Superintendent P.R. Angus, Locomotive Engineer Auckland L.W. Robertson and at Wellington J. Binsted. Superintendent of Workshops E.T.L. Spidy and Controller of Stores S.S. Millington.

W.I. Bezpyatkin. Pacific express locomotive for the Vladikavkas Ry., Russia. 223-4. illus.
Designed by M. Lopushinsky and Professor Rayeskvy and built at Putiloff Locomotive Works in Petrograd. Bogie was of von Borries type, whilst the rear truck is of Bissel design, controlled by planes. The four cylinders were each .460 m. diameter by .650 m. stroke, with piston valves operated by Walschaert gear, with only two expansion links; motion to the inside valves being transferred by links. The cranks are arranged at 180° to each other. The crank axles are of nickel steel-the first of this metal to be used in Russia. The driving wheels were 1.840 m. diameter. The Westinghouse air brake was fitted. Locomotives of this type operated fast trains between Leningrad and Moscow made the run of 650 km., with three stops at Vishera, Bologove, and Tver, in 10 hours.

Sleeping car ventilation. 224.
A new svstem of ventilation tested on L.M. & S. third-class sleeping- cars was claimed to represent a distinct departure from the usual method of ventilating railway carriages. Fresh air is "scooped" in to the corridor of the vehicle by air scoops in the side of the coach arranged to onerate according to the direction of the train, the air being cleaned by passing over filters. The scoops can induce 400 ft3. of fresh air per minute into a 28-passenger sleeping-car travelling at 55 mile/h while the stale air was extracted through the roof. The difference in pressure in the compartments and corridor caused the fresh air to flow through louvre vents in the bottom of the compartment sliding-doors, these vents being under the control of the passenger.

London Midland & Scottish Railway Company's Royal Scot train. 224.
The engine and train was on view at the Century of Progress Exhibition at Chicago, after having completed the first stage of a 4.400 miles exhibition tour of Canada and the United States. The train. which consisted of locomotive No. 6100, Royal Scot and eight modern passenger coaches, made a preliminary tour of Canada and the United States between its unshipment at Montreal and arrival at Chicago, and visited 39 cities and. towns, covering more than 3,100 miles under Its own steam. The train had been inspected by more than 500,000 Canadians and Americans. The train kept excellent time throughout.

Southern Railway order for three train-ferry vessels. 224
Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd. ships for the Dover-Dunkirk service. for delivery in about twelve months' time. They would be 360 ft. long by 63 ft. beam, and with a speed of 16½ knots.

Air-operated turntable. 224. illus.
Manually operated turntables had been converted to pneumatic drive with very little difficulty at several sheds on the German railway system using a standard air motor of the Demag Co.'s manufacture

Paris-Orleans electric locomotives. 224
The Paris-Orleans Railway was taking delivery of the first part of an order for twenty-five 2-DO-2 locomotives of 4000 horse-power. They were to be used for 750-ton express trains on the Vierzon-Brive and Orleans-Tours divisions at speeds up to 81 m.p.h. (130 krn.p.h.), regenerative braking being employed to decelerate the train from 75 to 16 m.p.h. when descending grades of 1 in 100. The double Brown-Boveri individual axle drive transmited the torque of the four double-armature traction motors to the 5 ft, 9 in., wheels.

Correspondence. 225
The late Mr. Bowman Malcolm.  J.H. McDowell.
Noted obituary on page XX (January 1933 issue). Malcolm was a most progressive engineer. Soon after he took charge (about 1876) of the locomotive department he became interested in steam brakes, and took out several patents for brake valves, used in connection with his own arrangement of steam brake gear (which was usually operated on the engine only), and soon had most of his engines fitted with this useful auxiliary. It must be remembered that continuous brakes were only beginning to come into use at this time, and a year or two after (in 1882) a practical working automatic vacuum brake had been perfected from a somewhat crude appliance on the Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry. Malcolm was quick to realise the importance of this, and had it fitted to several traiuns on the B. & N.C. Ry., and so successful did it prove  that soon the main line trains were fitted, and the writer remembers it in regular use on the B. & N.C. Ry. in the middle 1880s at a time when the "battle of the brakes" was in full swing, soon to be ended by the compulsory introduction of automatic brakes after the accident near Armagh in 1889.
In 1880 Beyer Peacock & Co. delivered to the B. and N. C. Ry. two 2-4-0 passenger engines, Nos. 45 and 46, followed in 1885 by another of the same type, No. 23. No. 45 was selected to run the royal train when the Prince of Wales (afterwards King Edward VII) visited Belfast early in 1885, and for several years carried the Prince of Wales' feathers on the side of the cab. These were the last new simple passenger engines delivered to the B. & N.C. Ry. for many years.
About 1889 the locomotive stock of the B. & N.C. Ry. consisted of some fifty engines, of which twenty were of the 2-4-0 double frame type, four were 2-4-0 tank engines, one 0-4-0 tank shunter (No. 42), fourteen 0-6-0 goods engines, five 2-4-0 single frame passenger engines, and five or six odd classes. Some of these even then were fitted only with weather boards, but during the next few years Malcolm fitted all with cabs. There were a variety of chimney caps, from the Stroudley pattern to the Swindon pattern and others; all were gradually replaced by the plain cast-iron chimney a few years later, and which was still in use.
In 1890 Beyer, Peacock & Co. delivered to the B. & N.C. Ry four Worsdell type, two-cylinder compound locomotives of the 2-4-0 type: These had 6 ft. 4 in. wheels, cylinders 16 ins. and 23 ins. x 24 ins. 180 psi, and about 900ft2. of heating surface. They were the first compound locomotives in Ireland, and are also noteworthy in that they were the first locomotives in Great Britain and Ireland to be fitted with inside connected (Walschaert) valve gear. Some details of this gear will be found in Professor Dalby's book on valve gears, 1906.
These engines were numbered 33 (named Galgorm Castle), 50-51-52. No. 50 was later re-numbered 58, and in summer 1897 when nearing Antrim Station the firebox collapsed, killing both the driver (Turner) and fireman. The train was stopped safely, and no one else injured.
These engines aroused considerable interest and attention at the time, and, until the men got used to them, also caused some inconvenience at times when they. happened to stop on the the H.P. dead centre (or as an old stationmaster put  it "on the focus"!) a pinch bar being sometimes resorted to, to assist in starting.
These engines gave so much satisfaction that others followed. No. 21 2-4-0 a year or two later, and 53 and 54 two large 0-6-0 goods engines with cylinders 18 ins. x 26 ins. x 24 ins. In 1895 (which was the jubilee of the B. & N.C. Ry.),  Beyer, Peacock & Co. delivered two fine 7-ft. 4-w/c. compound passenger engines, and with 18-in. and 26-in. cylinders
and a larger boiler. These were originally 2-4-0 type but proved rather unsteady for fast running, so Ma1colm fitted them with. bogies, an innovation on the B. & N.C. Ry., and this alteration was so successful that all later engines were fitted with bogies.
These engines were numbered 50 Jubilee, and 55 Parkmount, and after being re-built and altered were still at work.
Other compounds followed, until when the B. & N.C. Ry, were taken over by the Midland Ry. there. were some seventeen or eighteen of them running. Of late years the simple engine had again come into favour and the practice of naming the engines also.
Malcolm was much criticised in connection with these compounds, but the B. & N.C. line seemed to suit them and he claimed a saving of 14 per cent. in coal, so they must have been satisfactory or he would not have perpetuated this type of locomotive.

Early L. & S. W. Ry. Locomotives. C. Chambers.
As the writer of the above article, he was replying to W.B. Thompson's letter in the April Issue page 136, and he agreed with Thompson that there was not much to distinguish the Centaur class from the previous "7-foot" engines, but they were generally spoken of by the men on the line as Beattie's favourites—why, he did not know, unless it was because they were the last 7-ft. driving wheel engines he built.
Personally, heI liked the Fireking, R.H. Dutton and Nymph classes best, as they, for some reason or other, appeared to be more interesting.
The R.H. Dutton, also the Clyde and Lacy were frequent visitors at Portsmouth in the late 1870s and 1880s, but the Castleman was somewhat rarer. The twelve engines of the Undine group were also in and out of Portsmouth in those days, they were all built with only the large dome over firebox; later the Undine, Psyche, Circe, Atalanta, Electra, Sylph, Zephyr and Hebe were fitted, in addition, with the small mounting on centre of boiler, but the Ariadne, Cupid, Nymph and Naiad carried. the large dome with spring balances over firebox to the end, and in that respect were similar to the R.H. Dutton.
The Lacy carried oval plates on the side sheets (which were of the same shape as the Centaur class) bearing the inscription round the top, "London and South Western Railway Co., Beattie's Patent, No. 158" in two straight lines in the centre, and "February 1859" round the bottom.
I think the St. George group were also pretty engines, the side sheets being extended to cover the donkey pump and painted and lined as a separate panel. .
He was in agreement with Mr. Thompson that some of the early South Western engines were exceedingly handsome, and it is more than a pity one or more of them had not been preserved.

St. Enoch Station, Glasgow new power signal box. 225.
At St. Enoch Station, Glasgow, the new power signal box, containing 203 levers, all of which are electrically interlocked, controls the whole of the signals and points in the vicinity of the station; which previously necessitated the use of five mechanically operated signal boxes. In this new signal box, as well as in adjacent boxes, train describers and illuminated diagrams enable the signalman to tell at a glance the position, destination and description of all trains in the area controlled by the boxes. Signals on running lines are of the three-aspect type, a double red light meaning "Stop"; a yellow Iight over a red, "Caution: be prepared to stop at next signal," and green, "All right-proceed." A "calling-on" signal, indicated by a yellow light below a red, is also provided which enables the signalman to move a train forward, but keep it under his control. Owing to the numerous trains working into and out of St. Enoch Station, the signals are so arranged that they do not return to danger until the whole of the train has passed the signal.

Number 492 (15 August 1933)

4-8-0 four cylinder triple expansion locomotive, Delaware & Hudson R.R.. 227-9. 2 illus.
No. 1403 L.F. Loree named after the Company's President was a high-pressure water-tube boiler design with the 20 x 32in high pressure cylinder located under the driver's side of the cab, an intermediate cylinder (27½ x 32in) locoated under the fireman's side of the cab and two 33 x 32in low pressure cylinders under the smokebox.  Rotary cam valve gear was fitted. The locomotive was built at the Schenectady Works of the American Locomotive Co. G.S. Edmonds was the Railroad's Director of Motive Power.

The "Franco" articulated locomotive. 230-2. 2 illus., 3 diagrs.
See also 38 pp. 441-444: manufactured at Atélers Métallurique at Turbize. The 6-2+2-4-2-4-2+2-6. The middle unit carried the boiler and this was connected to the outer units via ducts which carried feed-water heaters or econimisers with smokeboxes and chimneys. The double boiler had a central firebox and was fed by two firemen firing in different directions. There were eight outside cylinders (approximately 17 x 26in) and 4ft 6in coupled wheels. The working pressue was 200 psi, total heating surface of main boiler 2700ft2 and grate areas 70 ft2. The locomotive had been tested on the Schaerbeck to Libramont line in Belgium with a train of 1200 tons. A similar configuration, but bigger, locomotive had been designed for the Russian Railways: an eight-cyliner compound: 2-4-4-2+2-8-8-2+2-4-4-2.

Armstrong-Whitworth diesel-electric railbus. 232.
Provided demonstration runs between King's Cross and Hertford for British and overseas railway officials. Had travelled from Newcastle to King's Coss on 35 gallons of fuel. Estimated that streamlining saved 30% fuel.

New "Pacific" type locomotive, L.M. & S. Ry. 233. illus.
Slight modifications to the original design: accompanying photograph shows engine No. 6200 had been named The Princess  Royal. Snifting valves had been fitted on the outside steam pipes, while the work's plate was now attached to the leading splasher. On Sunday, 23 July this engine made a successful run from Crewe to Carlisle and back, with a train of 550 tons, and the dynamometer car. A speed of  25 mile/h. was maintained up Shap. As preliminary trials of this engine had been completed it had gone into Crewe Works to be painted in the Company's standard maroon red, in place of the preliminary grey coat used during the tests.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 233.
Second engine of 4-6-2 Pacific type was in hand at Crewe. The last of the order for five three-cylinder Claughtons was now running, No. 5903 Duke of Sutherland was being run in at Crewe, and was intended for m the Western Division.
Further 2-6-4 passenger tank engines had been constructed at Derby for the Western Division, of which 2385·94 were in traffic, mostly in the London district. No. 9088 had been converted from Class G to Class G1 (superheater) and provided with a standard Belpaire boiler. Engines rebuilt with Belpaire boilers: Prince of Wales class Nos. 5513 and 5832; also G1 class Nos. 9152, 9304, 9305, 9320 and 9355. 0-6-2 coal tank No. 7780 had motor rodding equipment removed, reverting back to ordinary type. Others of class were similarly treated. The last of the small-boilered 0-8-0s, No. 8973, had been withdrawn from service. Other withdrawals included Precursor class 4-4-0 No. 5249 Bellerophon, and 2-4-0T No. 6427, the latter having lately been attached to the Midland Division.

Piccadilly Railway. 233.
Enfield West to Cockfosters section of the Piccadilly Railway opened on 31 July, thus completing the extension. Construction began in the latter part of 1930 and the line was opened to Arnos Grove on 19 September 1932, and to Enfield West in March 1933. The Cockfosters section is .88 mile long and in shallow cutting most of the way.

L.M.S. Ry. Bromsgrove to Stoke Works quadrupled. 233.
Quadrupling completed and brought into use on the main West of England line between Bromsgrove and Stoke Works (Worcestershire), a distance of 2¼ miles. In conjunction with other improvements recently carried out on this line near Birmingham, including the quadrupling of the track between Barnt Green and Northfield and the installation of colour-light signalling on the Lickey Incline, the new scheme afforded considerable relief to the heavy passenger and goods traffic passing over this line between Derby, Birmingham and Bristol. The new widening, which had involved extensive re-signalling and the reconstruction of several bridges, extended from Bromsgrove station to the junction at Stoke Works, where the Worcester and Cheltenham direct lines diverge. A new coaling stage had also been provided to accommodate the banking engines maintained at Bromsgrove for assisting trains up the Lickey Incline.

L.M. & S. Ry. locomotive No. 2717. 233.
Believed to be only British railway engine to have been captured by the Germans, had been withdrawn from service and broken up after a working life covering over 1,220,000 miles. One of 78 locomotives loaned by the Midland to the Railway Operating Division for active war service overseas, No. 2717 was captured by the enemy during the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917, and for five months was used as a machine-gun post in No Man's Land. In the following March retreat the Germans removed the engine, patched up the bullet and shrapnel-holes, and employed the engine for railway purposes until it was recaptured in the great British advance of November 1918.
Another distinction gained by No. 2717 was the working of the first troop train to run from Mons to the German frontier. When returned to home duties after the war, this and other engines of the same class were decorated with plates recording their war services. Until recently these engines, which were built over fifty years ago, were employed on freight work by the LMS. Ry., but having become obsolete they had been withdrawn from service. See also p. 285 .

Centenary of the Shildon Railway Institute. 233.
Shildon, near Darlington, played an important part in the early days of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, and the centenary of the town's Railway Institute was to be celebrated on Sunday, 24 September when W.W. Whitelaw, Chairman of the L. & N.E. Ry., would unveil a bronze tablet in the Institute. There would also be an exhibition of rolling stock at the Shildon Railway Works.

New tourist trains, L. & N.E. Ry. 234-6. 5 illus., 3 plans.
Saunders-Roe Ltd. of Cowes supplied waterproof plywood panels for the vehicles built on steel underframes. The body profile avoided the bowed ends to the roofs. The livery was engine green on the lower panels with cream above. Rexine was used in the interior. Coaches were formed into articulated pairs except the buffet and end brake thirds. Interiors were open saloons with bucket seating and tables. The buffet cars had tubular steel loose seats. and brake thirds non artic. 12 car set: 600 pass, wt 338 tons. open salloons, bucket seating (some with latex foam padding). Articulated vehicles built Metropolitan Cammell and by Birmingham Carriage & Wagon. Non articulated built York and Doncaster built buffet cars.

2-6-0 locomotives for the L.M.S.R. Northern Counties Committee. 237-8. illus.,diagr. (s. & f. els.)
Credited to Stanier: four built at Derby: 90 Earl of Ulster; 91 Sorley Boy; 92 Richard de Burgh, 93 John de Courcy

Express rail-car developments. 238.
Statement in one of newspapers that Flying Hamburger shaking itself to pieces due to vibration. Refutes this and notes two further units on order and cars ordered by Netherlands State Rlys and Northern Rly of France.

A.E.C. 130 h.p. diesel-engined rail-car. 238-41. 3 illus.

L.N.E.R. main line widening, York-Northallerton. 242-4. 9 illus.
Neat station buildings at Ollerton, double fronted station masters house at Alne, colour light signalling. fly under at Northallerton. Emergency power plant at Thirsk and at Tollerton. John Miller Engineer North Eastern Area and A.E. Tattersall Signal and Telegraph Engineer  North Eastern Area.

French railway amalgamation. 244
Orleans and Midi railways.

An interesting locomotive conversion, Egyptian State Rys. 245-6. 2 illus.
Conversion 4-4-2 to 4-6-0 with boiler pressure increased from 160 to180 psi

Petrol-engined bogie rail-car, Buenos Aires & Pacific Ry. 246-8. illus.
Seating 50. Leyland E17 106 hp alt: 3000ft built Junin CME R.E. Kimberley

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter X. Valves, ports and vale gears. 248-51. 3 tables.
Valve characteristics and events: steam lap, exhaust lap, valve travel, cut-off, compression, (consideration of merits of short-cut-off working versus control by regulator). Table XLIV comparison of valve settings for Stephenson and Walschaerts valve gear and GWR 18 x 30 in Stephenson valve gear (last from Fawcett ILE Paper No. 165 1924) Table XLV valve setting of GWR Castle engines. See also letter from W.T. Hoeker on page 345.and from C.R. Caton Volume 40 p. 30

Western Oases Railway, Egypt. 251

L.&N.E. Ry. 251
Two new Hunt class (D49) completed at Darlington: Nos. 288 The Percy and 292 The Southwold

Egyptian State Rys. 251
W.D. Knight, pupil of Drummond at Nine Elms and Eastleigh. In 1904 went to Sudan Government Railways,. in 1907 became Assistant Locomotive Superintendent Egyptian Government Railways and appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer in 1933

Sudan Railways. 251
F.E. Oakes appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer with offices at Atbara

Mr. Malcolm Patrick. 251
Appointed as Locomotive Engineer, Northern Couunties Committee.

L.M. & S. Ry appointments. 251
Chief Mechanical Engineer's Department: R.A. Riddles, assistant works superintendent Crewe to be locomotive assistant to chief mechanical engineer at Euston. R.C. Bond assistant works superintendent Horwich to be assistant works superintendent Crewe. Chief Commercial and Chief Operating Managers Departments. G.A. Frost, district locomotive superintendent, Burton to be district locomotive superintendent, Leicester, in succession to R.H. Fox who had retired. H.B. Buckle. district locomotive superintendent, Derby added Burton district to his reponsibilities.

Mr. Eric A. Robinson
Appointed General Manager of Superheater Company

Kryn and Lahy (1928) Ltd. 251
C.B. Unwin appointed joint managing director: formerly had many years experience with Underground Railways.

Modern Locomotives of the Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 252-4. 3 iillustrations
120, Uranus or Q class 4-4-0 with a large boiler, also fitted to the QG freight locomotives with 1357.4ft2 heating surace and 20ft2 grate area. The cylinders were 18½ x 26in. The boiler pressure was 175psi. When displaced from the main line they were placed on the Derry road and were rebuilt from  1923 with larger superheated boilers. In 1904 the QL or Neptune class came out with larger boilers with 1397.9ft2 heating surace and 22.1ft2 grate area.  These were fitted with superheaters and piston valves by Glover as descibed. The 170 class was introduced in 1913 and was described at the time. Nos. 1901-192 did not receive names, but woould have been Lugnaquillia, Carlingford and Mount Hamilton. At first they carried 165 psi, but this was later raised to 175. Nos. 170-4 received the green and chocolate livery, but later locomotives were painted black. The state of the Boyne Viaduct precluded heavier locomotives

Electric locomotive design. Part 7. Driving bogie design: pivots and side-bearers. 254-5. 3 diagrams.
Bodensee-Toggenberg bogies and suspension springs.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 255.
Tour to John o' Groat in association with a public excursion. Visit to Port of London Authority.

Castlederg and Victoria Bridge Tramway. 255.
Closed following Irish railway strike.

Flexible wheelbases. 278.

Number 493 (15 September 1933)

4-6-0 four-cylinder compound locomotive, L.M.S.R.. 257. illus.
No. 10456: this rebuilding was undertaken in 1926 by Fowler in connection with the development of a compound Pacific design. See also latter from F.W. Brewer stating that No. 10456 did not have largest diameter low pressure cylinders (in Britain).

Standard I.S.R. "ZB" narrow gauge locomotives for India, 258-9.  illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Bagnall metre gauge for Indian State railways

Cab window deflector, State Railways of France. 259-60. illus.
Smoke and steam deflector fitted to Pacific locomotivs based at Havre on French State Railways.

Eight-coupled side tank locomotive, Northern Ry. of France. 260-1. illus.
Outside-cylinder 0-8-0T: states locomotives had outside Stephenson link motion: see paragraph on p. 295: states Gooch type motion

Locomotive development on the Paris-Orleans Ry. 261-2.  2 illus.

70 H.P. petrol electric shunting locomotive. 262. illus., diagr.
Henschel & Son two axle locomotive.

Four-cylinder compound goods locomotive, German State Railways. 261. illus.
Extended trials were to be carried out by the German State Railways with two 2-10-0 high-pressure compound goods locomotives designed and built by Henschel & Son at Cassel. They carried a working pressure of 25 atm. (367 psi) to withstand which high-tensile steel plates had been used for the boiler. Steam was superheated to approximately 430°C. and does its work in two high pressure and in two low pressure cylinders, by which it was anticipated efficiency would be increased 10 to 15% as compared with two cylindered simple engines of this type. The speed also was increased to 80 km/hour. The principal dimensions were:
2 high pressure cylinders 16½in. diameter
2 low pressure cylinders 26¾in. diameter
Stroke, 26in.
Coupled wheels, 4ft. 7in. diameter
Grate area, 50.5ft2
Total heating surface 2424.4 ft2 excluding superheater: superheater 1332.2ft2. Total weight of locomotive and tender in working order was 189 tons. making it the heaviest locomotive running on the German State Railways system. Special equipment included the Henschel system of electric lighting and Nicholson water syphons in the firebox. The two engines bore running numbers 44011 and 44012 and the classification was G.56-20. The first engine was the 22,000th locomotive built by Henschel & Son. The two locomotives had been sent to the Versuchsamt Grunewald, near Berlin, of the German State Railways. They were going through extensive tests before being put into service.

Kitson-Still locomotive trials. 263.
Trials under ordinary service conditions had recently been made on the LNER between York and Hull. The load had been at times as high as 450 tons and the dynarnometer car had been used to check results obtained.

Oil-engined locomotives for main line work in India. 263.
"We understand that an order" will shortly be placed for two broad-gauge oil-engined locomotives for main line work in India, as a proposal has been made that similar engines may be suitable for use on any new line between Bombay and Karachi which must cross desert country where the problem of watering steam locomotives is difficult to solve. The running of these engines will doubtless be carefully watched on sections of the State Railways.

Armstrong Whitworth railbus trials. 263.
The 95 h.p. diesel-elecrric railbus (described in July issue page 217) ran from Newcastle-on-T'yne to King's Cross, 268 miles, on 30 July in 5 hours 48 minutes. Allowing for eight stops and signal checks, the average speed was 46.15 mile/h. The fuel consumed was 35 gallons, or 7.65 miles per gallon. (costing 4½d. per gallon) =.59d. per mile for fuel. The lubricant consumed was ¾ gallon costing .08d. per mile. Demonstration runs on 2 August from King's Cross to Hertford North, before a number of railway officials from various parts of the world, were made express in both directions, except for one stop at Bayford for 2 minutes and 1½ minutes lost at Belle Isle signal box on the return. The distance is 19½ miles from King's Cross. On the outward journey a speed of 58 mile/h was attained, and 60 mile/h. on the inward. Fuel consumption varied between 9.3 m.p.g. and 7.15 m.p.g. As a result of these runs a South American railway had ordered two oil-electric rail buses, replicas of the 57-seater described, while a contract for another unit had been placed by an Indian railway.

Great Northern Ry. (Ireland). 263.
In the last article on the modern locomotives of this line (page 252) we described the Uranus class of 4-4-0 engines. No. 136 Minerva was fitted with T.A.B. piston valves during its general overhaul in the early part of 1932, and very favourable comments on its improved performance had been made by the Locomotive Engineer.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter X. Valves, ports and valve gears. 264-7. 7 diagrs.
Valve diagrams: Reuleaux, Zeuner, rectangular or wave and Bilgram diagrams. Equivalent eccentric (Macfarlane Gray's construction) applied to Stephenson link motion.

New Nord Pacifics. 267
Following trials of the P.L.M. and Est Mountains, the Paris-Orleans Pacifics, and the Nord Super-Pacifics, between Paris and Calais, the Nord Company were understood to have ordered a number of Pacifics of the P-O type, with poppet valves, these engines having developed peak indicated horse-powers in excess of 3000 during the course of the tests.

Russian electric locomotives. 267
Further 2,700 h.p. Co-Co electric locomotives of the standard type had been completed for service on the 3,000 Volt lines in the Caucasus, but a new standard locomotive of the l-Co-Co-l wheel arrangement had been evolved for future main-line requirements. Developing 3,500 h.p. at a speed of 22 rn.p.h. on the one-hour rating, these new locomotives weighed 165 tons, have a maximum axle load of 23 tonnes against the 22 tonnes of the 129-ton Suram Pass Co-Co machines, and a maximum speed of 53 m.p.h. compared with 40 m.p.h. Large numbers of the new type are to be constructed at the new electric locomotive works now being laid down at Kashira, near Moscow, but until this is in full swing, requirements would be met by the Kolomna establishment, working in conjunction with the Dynamo Works, of Moscow. The seven Co-Co locomotives built in Italy had now been erected, and are reported to be in service on the Perm line, part of which is now electrified.

Blackpool Pleasure Beach Railway. 267.
In our issue of 15 July page 220 two miniature locomotives for the above were illustrated and described. We now learn that the whole of the track, points, crossings, etc., for the railway were supplied by R. White & Sons of Widnes, Lancashire, the well known makers of portable railways, turntables, tip wagons, etc.

It seems probable that an express engine of the 2-8-2 type, with 6 fr. or 6 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels, will be put into service on onc of the British railways next year.

Test of locomotive No. 6200, L.M.S.R., Euston-Crewe. 267.
The new L.M.S.R. four-cylinder Pacific type express locomotive, The Princess Royal, No. 6200, made a trial trip from Euston to Crewe, 158 miles, on Tuesday, 15 August, with a train of 14 bogie coaches and a dynamometer car weighing 505 tons, before going into service on the Anglo-Scottish expresses, for which it has been specially designed by Mr. W. A. Stanier, the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L.M.S.R.
On leaving Euston the gradient of 1 in 70 for a mile to Camden was covered in just over three minutes, a record for any single engine with this load. A speed of 40 m.p.h. was attained at the entrance to Primrose Hill Tunnel. The run to Lichfield (116?¼ miles)was covered in 119 ½ mins. or 30 seconds under schedule, the highest speed of 75 m.p.h. being attained between Tring and Bletchley (15 miles).
Unfortunately, one of the leading coupled axleboxes was found to be getting hot shortly after passing Lichfield and the train was pulled up at Elmhurst siding, 118¾ miles from Euston. The rest of the run to Crewe was made at a reduced speed.
On arrival the party of visitors accompanying the train made a tour of Crewe works and were shown two further Pacifies at present in course of construction. These are to be named Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret.
For the return journey the Royal Scot class locomotive, No. 6151, Royal Horse Guardsman with seven coaches, weighing 215 tons, made a record run, covering the 158 miles to Euston in 147½ minutes, an average of 64.28 miles per hour, including two signal checks between Crewe and Stafford and a stop outside Euston, these delays amounting to 7 minutes. From Tring to Watford the 15 miles were covered at an average of 80 m.p.h. The maximum speed was 85 m.p.h. between Boxmoor and King's Langley. The fastest regular L.M.S. train, the 5.25 p.m. Liverpool to Euston, is scheduled over the 152½ miles from Crewe to Willesden in 142 min. (64.4 m.p.h.). Driver A: Parsons and fireman H. Betley were in charge of the engines in both directions.

Bath locomotive depot, 267.
To provide facilities for effecting light running repairs at Bath locomotive depot to the heaviest engines now running over thc Somerset and Dorset Joint Line the L.M.S. Railway authorised the provision of new machincry at this depot. This new equipment would comprise an electric wheel drop-pit, and a set of balancing tables for weighing locomotives. Hydraulically operated wheel drops had bcen in use for many years at L.M.S. engine sheds but this is the first electrically operated one to be installed on the system. The drop-pit obviates the necessity of lifting by sheer-legs engines whose axles require attention.

Recording apparatus for dynamometer cars. 268-9. 4 illus.
Amsler equipment described in greater detail: see July (French cars)

Personal. 269
H. A. K. Zachariae retirement. 269
H.A.K. Zachariae recently retired from the position of Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Royal State Railways of Siam. He, went out to the East in 1909 as Superintendent of the Bangkok Tramways, and joined the Siamese State Railways in 1912, as personal assistant to the' C.M.E. Appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer in 1924, Mr. Zachariae was responsible for the introduction into Siam of three-cylinder engines, Caprotti valve gear, Garratt locomotives, and finally Diesel traction, while the reconstruction and extension of the Makasan shops to serve a system of 3,000 krn., in place of the 750 km. for which it was originally built, was also carried out under his direction.

Browett-Lindley (1931) Ltd. 269
The Directors of Browett-Lindley (1931) Ltd. have now arranged with the Board of Kryn & Lahy (1928) Ltd. for the sales of their Compressors, Condensing Plant, etc., to be conducted by Mr. A. G. Foster. As these two companies work in association, the arrangement is a natural sequence to the recent announcement of Mr. Foster's appointment to the position of General Sales Manager for Kryn & Lahy.

British Guiana Government Railways. 269.
Mr. G.I. Goring had been appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the British Guiana Government Railways and Mr. A. H. July was Assistant Mechanical Engineer.

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 270-1. 3 illus. (drawings)
(Continued from page 212). The first of the six-coupled saddle tanks Nos. 330-335, described in Vol. XII, page 39, were of Messrs. Beyer, Peacock's design and had originally the graceful copper-topped chimney adopted by that firm and also polished brass dome casings. In 1926, No. 127, one of the later engines of this class, was sold to the East Kent Railway (see LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE, Vol. XXXII, page 263). One of the earlier, No. 0335, went to the Kent & East Sussex Railway last year. Of the last passenger engines built by Mr. W. G. Beattie, Nos. 348-367, described and illustrated in Vol. XII, page 40-41, it is of interest to add that these were the last engines built with Beattie's patent fireboxes. They also had piston valves, which had defects similar to those of Bouch's valves for the Stockton and Darlington engines. The trapped water had no suitable means of escape and a long casualty list of broken and bent valve spindles resulted . They were unfortunate engines; in addition to the trouble with the valves they were 'over-cylindered,' and would not steam satisfactorily, though after liners had been put into the chimneys they were somewhat improved."; Mr. Adams made several other alterations to these engines see Ahrons The British Steam Locomotive;page 215. We give in Fig. 37 an illustration of No. 348 from a photograph taken in the early years of Mr. Adams' superintendency; there is some doubt as to whether this — the first of the class—was built with the splashers as here shown. The external exhausts passing into the smokebox do not appear in the photograph of 358 in her original condition (see Vol. XII, Fig. 50), so it seems probable that they were part of the design of new cylinders with slide valves. Fig. 38 shows No. 363 with the addition of compensating beams to the springs of the coupled wheels, as well as simplified steam brake gear, vacuum brake apparatus and slightly smaller chimneys, exhaust unalltered; No. 368 was similar.
A photograph of 358 taken in the early 'eighties has the original steam brake arrangement as in Fig. 37, and the external exhaust pipes but had no vacuum brake. A photograph of 361 with altered brake gear as No. 363, is without compensating beams and the exhaust arrangement is unaltered. In all of these, excepting No. 358 in its original condition, the feed heating arrangerr.ent has been removed.
The last series of W. G. Beattie's inside framed goods engines were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1878; the first two, numbered and named 151, Montrose and 152, Marmion, were followed by 229 and 230 which did not bear names. The last two were 160, Thames and 161, Severn. The names were on curved plates placed on the side sheets. Montrose was frequently to be seen in the early 'eighties at Brent Sidings on the former Midland Railway, and working goods between that yard and Kew Bridge. We have now to chronicle the last two engines received in Mr. W. G. Beattie's time; they are Nos 147, Isis and 148, Colne, and were purchased from the Somerset and Dorset Railway in 1880, on which line they had been numbered Nos. 11A, and 12A.
They were built by George England of Hatcharn Ironworks in 1863, and soon after being acquired by the L. & S.W. Ry. were partly re-constructed and named in 1880 and then appeared as illustrated by the drawing of Colne, Fig. 39. In the very few years they were in ordinary traffic, they ran passenger trains between Portsmouth and Southampton, but in March 1883 and March 1884 respectively, they were transferred to the Engineer's Dept. and were then named Bnllld and Stephenson.
Particulars of these engines were given in our Serial History, also in the very full notes on the engines in the Engineer's Dept. in THE Locouotive, October and November, 1930, so it is unnecessary to repeat here. They were rather interesting little engines, and the writer was on the footplate of the Colne several times when at Portsmouth,
Referring to the description of Fig. 35, pages 211-212, it should be added that this was the only engine so altered.
We have now to record some details of engines which were omitted when dealing with them in the present articles, and also add some notes of inte- rest which have come to hand since. When describing the differences between Nile, Cressy and Hogue and Nelson, Howe and Hood on page 293 of our last volume, we omitted to mention  that the former had inside and outside bearings for the leading axle, wher~as Nelson, H owe and Hood had inside bearings only. Another noteworthy point about the latter engines is, that to avoid a long crank pin, the rear part of the big end had a boss to which the coupling rod was attached by a forked end and pin on the latter-not a mechanically correct arrangement as the coupling rod was only parallel to a line joining the centres of the coupled axles when the crank was on either dead centre.
A correspondent writes that in 1878, Nile was working in the Exeter district and was seen standing outside the engine shed then at the east end of Queen Street station. The Nile and Nelson classes mostly worked in districts west of Southampton. He also mentions one of the 231 class as working the train in which he travelled from Exeter to Plymouth. Wildfire and Sultana described in our last volume, page 369, besides havmg the valves above the cylinders and worked with rocking shafts, .differed from the others of this lot In having double crank bosses, and also having two quadrant shaped openings in the outside framing for access to each crank pin, and the driving splashers had a small reverse radius at the front end. In the early 'eighties Herod, No. 81, and several other engines were fitted with Westinghouse air pumps, probably for working trains experimentally fitted with that brake.
For other additions and corrections to the previous history (LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE, Vols. VIII to XIV), see Vol. XXV, page 153. (To be continued).
Errata On page 210 of the July issue the item "with 16 in. cylinders No. 271, etc.," should read "No. 16 Salisbury afterwards re-named Stonehenge, and Nos. 271 and 272, the latter two never received names."

South African Railways. 271.
The Drewry Car Co. received instructions from the South African Railways to put in hand a 300 i.h.p. double power bogie rail coach underframe. A light body was being constructed in South Africa and the complete vehicle would be employed in high speed passenger service. The two power bogie units will each be fitted with a 150 h.p. engine and the Drewry Car Co's. 5-speed pre-selective epi-cyclic transmission system as well as their patent electro-pneumatic single lever remote control arrangement. Westinghouse air brake, electric light and self-starter equipment were included; each power bogie being fitted with independent air compressors and electric generators. The railcar is intended to haul a passenger trailer coach and a special feature is that provision is made in the control to enable the power coach to be driven from the remote end of the trailer, thus obviating the need for shunting at the termini. When running without the trailer, or in services where very high speeds are not required, either power bogie may be isolated and only one engine used.

French State Railways double deck carriages. 271
In our issue of July 15th we gave a description of the new double-deck carriages recently introduced. The Societe d'Exploitation des Precedes Dabeg inform us that the whole of these vehicles are equipped with their brake gear regularators.

L. Derrens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 272-3.
See also letter from T.S. Lascelles on gongs at level crossings

First locomotive to enter the Vatican. 274. illustration.
No. 735-210 entering Vatican City in 1932

North Milan Ry. 274.
Order for ten electric locomotives to be equipped with Kofler automatic train stop device: see also preliminary pages vii-viii: The Kofler train stop apparatus: recent developments in service on the Cologne-Bonn Ry. (7 illus.).

Delaware & Hudson R.R. locomotive "L.F. Loree". 274.
Note that rotary cam poppet valves were designed and supplied by Dabeg of Paris.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish Locomotive Works, 274-6.

New third-class sleeping cars, L.M.S. Railway. 276-8. 2 illus.
Third class sleeping cars, not convertible for day use were being introduced on the Anglo-Scottish night expresses of the LMS Railway. The new sleeping car had been designed by W.A. Stanier, Chief Mechanical Engineer, and had been constructed at Derby Works. Cars arre corridor type with an entrance vestibule and separate lavatory and toilet compartment at each end. In addition, an attendant's compartment was provided. There were seven compartments, giving sleeping accommodation for 28 passengers. The body framing was teak, finished on the outside with steel panels, the exterior being designed to give a flush finish and balanced elevation. To eliminate track and running noises the floor was made up of cork sheeting laid on dovetailed steel sheeting. In addition a blanket of insulating material is fitted to the whole of the underside of the body floor. Each compartment contained four berths. The walls are finished in stippled brown Rexine, and the mouldings and berth frames with Rexine of a shade to match. The ceiling was 3-ply, covered with Rexine of a pale cream shade. The metallic fittings were chromium plated. The berth mattresses were of two types, half the car being equipped with Vi Spring and the remainder with Latex rubber mattresses. The upholstery for these is of fawn and brown shaded rep. With the addition of a rug and pillow very comfortable sleeping accommodation was provided. Entrance to the compartment was by sliding door. The interior fittings comprised a mirror on the sliding door, a rack for light articles, coat and hat hooks, a combined ascending ladder with table top.

Electric locomotive design. VII. Driving bogie design. 278-9. 4 diagrs.
Side bearer springs on C + C freight locomotives, Swiss Federal Railways 1-C-C-1 and 1-B-B-1 single phase types and the need to protect sensitive equipment from shocks, and German Bo + Bo types for fast services.

American rail failures. 279.
During 1931 failures in rails rolled in 1926 were 131.3 per 100 miles of track, an increase of 20% over failures of 1925 rails in 1930. The Sperry detector car of American RailwayAssociation detected 1551 fissures and 7187 defective rails during a total of 16597 miles travel over four years.

The "Neckar" system of loco-boiler water conditioning. 280. diagr.
Modification of stationary equipment for use on locomotives.

Great Western Railway. 280.
New 4-6-0 tender engines completed at Swindon Works: Nos. 5931 Hatherley Hall, 5932 Haydon Hall, 5933 Kingsway Hall, 5934 Kneller Hall, 5935 Norton Hall, 5936 Oakley Hall, 5937 Stanford Hall, 5938 Stanley Hall, 5939 Tangley Hall and 5940 Whitbourne Hall. New 0-4-2T 5810 and 5811 also completed.  Engines Nos. 712 sold to the Coltness Iron Co. in Lanarkshire and 724 and 747 to the Hartley Main Collieries where they became Nos. 24 and 25. 

Welded railway rolling stock. 281.
See also page 193. Wagon underframes. Presentations at the International Railway Congress in Cairo included one from French Est and Nord railways noted weight saving. German experience noted the elimination of holes which were a source of weakness, saving of material, reduction in angle pieces and joints and the replacment of cast components by lighter fabricated components.

Articulated diesel locomotive for the Ashanti Goldfields Corporation Ltd. 282-3. 2 illus.
W.G. Bagnall double bogie locomotive for 2ft gauge with six-cylinder Gardner engine and Vulcan-Sinclair Hydraulic Coupling and two-speed gearbox.

Southern Railway. 283
Another El class side ranks, No. B 131, had been transferred to the Isle of Wight and was No. 4 Wroxall. The latest School class 4-4-0 engines to be completed at Eastleigh Works were Nos. 916, Whitgift 917 Ardingly, 918 Hurstpierpoint stationed at Hastings, and 919 Harrow at Ramsgate. No. 911 Brighton, was at Eastbourne. The new locomotive shed at Hither Green opened on 11 September and was used for goods engines. A number of N class Moguls have been transferred there from the Bricklayers' Arms, Battersea and Tonbridge depots. The five J class 0-6-4 tanks, which had been at Bricklayers' Arms since they were built by  Wainwright in 1913, were also to be transferred to Hither Green, as although chiefly used on passenger work, their first daily turn was usually goods working. New Moguls completed at Ashford Works were Nos. 1400 to 1409. Nos. 1400 to 1404 were stationed at Ashford and Nos. 1405 and 1406 had bcen allocated to the Western section. We understand both locomotive sheds at Maidstone have becn closed and the engines transferred to Ashford, Gillingham and Tonbridge.

The L.M.S. Railway. 283
The LMS Railway had put into service a new type of vehicle designed to carry a wide range of traffic, such as ordinary luggage, parcels, pigeons, fruit, scenery and motor cars. The vans were straight sided and built with a semi-elliptical roof. At each end were double folding doors with loading plates to facilitate the loading of motor cars, scenery, etc.; wheels bars and racks are fitted. Two pairs of double doors on each side were provided for loading from the platform, while along each side of the interior were arranged two rows of folding shelves for loading pigeon crates, or fruit baskets. The framing was teak with steel panelled sides and roof, and the floor was of fireproof material laid on galvanised dovetailed steel sheeting. Drain holes were arranged at frequent intervals for cleaning down purposes. Electric lighting was provided by sunk roof fittings protected by wire frames against damage by scenery, etc., during loading and unloading operations. The underframe was steel channel sections and the 4-wheeled bogies were of the standard type.

The "Royal Scot" in America. 284.
A correspondent in Pittsburg when the LMS train was on show at the Terminal Station there, states that it attracted 70,000 sightseers from the surrounding district; special low rates were given by the railroads to enable visitors to see the train. It took fifty to sixty policemen to keep the crowd moving. He was up early to see the train which was due to pass through Wilmerding at 07.30, but it was delayed at Altoona, and was running late. When it passed the Westinghouse Brake Company's Works the employees assembled in full force to see it. It was remarked by railwaymen how well the train ran, without noise and very smoothly. An official of the PRR shops at Pitcairn said that when leaving Altoona, on its way over the Alleghany Mountains, they offered to provide a pilot engine in front, but Driver Gilbertson of the Royal Scot declined all assistance and came over without any trouble. This was a good performance as there are some very long grades on this section, but no worse than Shap. Talking to Guard Ward of the train, who was asked for his opinion of the American railroads said he had noticed in the big cities elaborate and fine stations were provided, but in small country towns the arrangements were very primitive. The front end of the Royal Scot was a source of much curiosity to many, who thought the side buffers and screw coupling, quite out-of-date compared with the automatic mechanical ones of America; the absence of a cow-catcher, too, was commented on, the idea prevailing that there are as many level crossings here as in the States. The comments of those who inspected the interior of the train were very favourable, and the general opinion seems to be that the British railways cater more for the passengers' comfort than they do on the other side, and that this was due to the fact that probably passenger traffic was a main source of revenue, whereas in America freight traffic forms the bulk. Several locomotive drivers remarked how they admired the way the English railways kept their engines clenn and well painted, but they realised it would not be possible there to paint the engines so expensively as they were built for a certain period of hard work and then scrapped; very little re-building is done.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 284
A new series of 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines was in hand at Crewe and would bear Nos. 13245-13254: the first two were almost complete. Two additional 2-6-4 passenger tank engines ex-Derby were being run in at Crewe: Nos. 2395-6. No. 9120 has been converted from Class G to Class Gl (superheater) and provided with an ordinary round-topped boiler. Originally fitted with the steam brake it was now equipped with the vacuum brake throughout. The following engines were now running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: George V Class No, 5361; Prince of Wales Class No. 5747; 19 in. Goods Class No. 8833, and Gl Class Nos. 9092 and 9362. 0-6-2 coal side tank No. 7816 had its motor gear removed. Recent withdrawals included Engineer, South Wales which was previously Engineer, Crewe and originally No. 209 Petrel. Of the well-known 6 ft. 2-4-0 straight link, or Jumbo, type, this engine was transferred to the Engineering Dept. in July, 1914. Only two others of the same type now remain in service, viz., Engineer, Lancaster and Engineer Watford. 0-6-0T No. 1603 (formerly N.S.R. No. 75), which was built by Kerr, Stuart & Co. in 1919, has been sold to a Sheffield colliery. The other similar engine, No. 1602 (N.S.R. No. 74), by the same makers, was broken up at Crewe in 1932. The following Midland Division 0-6-0's of former MR design were now working from Crewe South shed: Nos. 2987, 3065, 3465, 3479, 3518 and 3571.

Railway Club. 284
Meeting to be held at headquarters (57 Fetter Lane E.C.4 on Friday, 6 October at 7.30 p.m.: W.A. Willox paper entitled Permanent Way.

Reviews. 284
Die Physikalische Chemie der Kesselsteinbildung und Ihrer Verhuetung. R. Stuemper, Stuttgart. Ferd, Enke. 74 pp., 18 illus.
The author, superintendent of the research laboratory at Rothe Erde Works, Belval, presented a surrey of the physico-chemical principles underlying the treatment of boiler feed water and the prevention of scale respectively.

Die Bedeutung Einer Planmaessigen Erhaltungswirtschaft. Peter Kuehne, 56 pp., Berlin. Verkehrswissenschaftliche Lehrmittel
Brochure contains papers read by Peter Kuehne on the maintenance of railway rolling stock. One-third of the total assets of the German State Railways was invested in rolling stock the maintenance of which absorbed one-seventh of total expenditure. Systematic organisation of the entire maintenance service had not only cut down the costs involved, but has considerably improved the quality of the work carried out at the various repair shops.

Notes on a locomotive war veteran. 285. 2 illus.
In last Issue (p. 233) it was noted the withdrawal from service of LMSR locomotive No. 2717, which was the only British railway engine serving overseas during the war to be captured by the Germans. This has brought to light the fact that a Nottingham man was one of the last people to see this historic engine before it fell into the hands of the enemy. He is Mr. H. J. Farmer of Mapperley, Nottingham, who is now in business in the city, and who served with the Railway Operating Division from 1917 to 1919.
"In November 1917 I was in charge at the most advanced post of the R.O.D. on the Somme, at Sorel, and I personally despatched Number 2717 with a load of railway material and a party of American construction' engineers to follow up the advance towards Cambrai," writes Mr. Farmer in recalling his experiences.
"I never saw this loco again; the driver and fireman returned many hours later, the former being slightly wounded."
Mr. Farmer still retains as a souvenir a ticket of authority for the driver to proceed, which he had written out to issue to No. 2717, and which he discovered while his coat was being cleaned when he came home on leave seven months later.
The engine was recaptured in November, 1918, and Mr. Farmer, who was then Technical Clerk in Charge at G.H.Q., made arrangements for the return of the engine to England.
The engine has just been broken up by the L.M.S. as obsolete after a working life of over 1,220,000 miles. It was one of 78 locomotives loaned by the Midland Railway for service overseas during the War.

Locomotive sanding arrangements. P.C.D. 285
A few additional particulars may perhaps be added to the recent article on the above (page 157), confining such to British practice.
Respecting the position of sandboxes, although it is true that the later practice has been to locate them below the running-plate, yet Sharp Bros. "singles" of the 1847-50 period had them so placed; these, incidentally, had sand valves of a "plug-cock" type below the bottom of the box which must have been a fruitful source of sticking and excessive wear.
The most successful valve for the hand-rod operated system is the "butterfly"; there was also a previous type, frequently used but much less satisfactory, called the "finger" valve in which a finger was attached to the end of the vertical valve-rod inside the box moving radially over the exit hole — sometimes this valve was operated from below the box and when so arranged was even more troublesome than when the others were used.
When sandboxes are combined with the splashers they are, except in the case of small splashers, not of cast iron but built-up with the splasher structure in sheet-metal. It would be interesting to know who first started this practice, possibly Stroudley when on the Highland Railway; the arrangement afterwards had considerable vogue on the Scottish lines. It should be noted, in reference to the placing of sandboxes inside the smokebox, that they were so placed in some of the earliest applications of the compressed-air operated system on the Midland Railway, but the pipes were led so as to deliver sand in front of the main driving wheels as customary. In the opening paragraphs of Brewer's article there appear a combination of considerations which might be misread as indicating that the intervention of gearing in the drive between the connecting-rod and adhesion wheels eliminated the problem of adhesion; this of course is not so, the only effect of transmission through gearing being the flattening out of the curve representing the fluctuation of power actually applied at the rails.

Joynt, E.E. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. 274-6

Number 494 (14 October 1933)

Fast passenger tank locomotive for the Turkish Rys. 287-9. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
High speed 4-6-4T supplied by Henschel & Son of Cassel and similar to Prussian State Ry. T-18 built by Vulcan AG in 1912.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Colonial railways. 289-90. illus., diagr.
Presidential Address by C.E. Williams on 28 September 1933: abstract, see also J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1933, 23, 607-40.

750 h.p. diesel-electric locomotive. P.L.M. Railway (Algerian lines). 290-1.
Designed and built by Cie des Forges et Aciéries de la Marine et d'Homécourt: Bo-Bo with Sulzer engine.

Diagram of compound locomotive No. 10000 L.N.E.R. 291.
Isometric projection drawing of locomotive and tender by H. Clark showing interior of locomotive: sold by the LNER for one shilling.

Centenary of the Shildon Railway Institute. 292.
Celebrations of the Shildon Railway Institute centenary commenced on Sunday, 24 September 1933, when the opening ceremony of an exhibition of railway stock and models took place at the L.N.E.R. works, Shildon. In spite of the rain which fell copiously during the proceedmgs which took place in the open, there was a large and representative attendance. Mr. William Whitelaw, chairman of the L.N.E.R., who opened the exhibition, was supported by Sir Murrough Wilson, Mr. William H. Carver, and Mr. Clarence D. Smith, fellow directors of the railway, together with many of the principal officials, among whom were Mr. T. Hornsby divisional general manager; Mr. H.N. Gresley; chief mechamcal engineer, Mr. A.C. Stamer, assistant chief mechanical engineer, Mr. Jenkin Jones, general superintendent, York, Mr. E.F. Wilkinson, district passenger manager, Newcastle; Mr. S. T. Burgoyne, passenger manager, York; Mr. C. Murray, works manager, Walker Gate; Mr. T.H. Bygate, district engineer, Darlington; Mr. T.B. Hare, district superintendent, Darlington, etc. The secretarial duties were carried out by Mr. George Nixon, who has been secretary of the Shildon Institute since 1921.
In. connection with the centenary celebrations an illustrated brochure had been compiled by Councillor F. F. Bainbridge, J.P., recording the foundmg progress and activities of the Shildon Railway Institute.
A few railway men gathered together in the cellar of the Globe Inn in Chapel Street, Shildon, one hundred years ago, conceived the idea of forming a Mechanic's Institute, for improving the social condition of their neighbours and associates, This was formed under the presidency of Mr. Timothy Hackworth. Fortunately most of the mmute books and annual reports since 1842 had been kept.
Many duties were freely undertaken by the successive committees, and this led to successes. They became interested m the intellectual and literary improvement of their members and undertook the responsibility of providing amenities for the general public also, including public gardens and allotments as well as of providing a supply of pure water for the district. The original members of the Institute were the first railway mechanics in the first railway works in the world. A brass tablet near the Masons' Arms crossing commemorates the fact that the first passenger train drawn by a steam locomotive began its journey at Shildon on 27 September 1825.
When the Institute commenced its career in 1833, the Globe Inn was the rendezvous of the drivers and firemen of the new railway, who earned exceptionally good wages and some of them squandered much of it. It is recorded that one evening a tremendous noise, almost a riot, occurred at the inn when some of the engine drivers placed their watches in a frying pan on the fire and indulged in a betting contest as to whose watch would be the first to stop working.
The only available room for the Institute was the Wesleyan School and it was in this room that the first library was started. Later when the Shildon Tunnel was bored in 1842 a discarded waiting room at the Masons' Arms crossing was made into a reading room. Two new deal tables, six forms, a large cupboard, a chandelier and some hat pegs were procured.
During the summer months short trips by railway were arranged, and it is on record that between 1,000 and 2,000 people travelled on these occasions which must have been the earliest railway excursions. On 2 September 1848, the Institute Committee drew attention to the trucks supplied by Mr. George Stephenson being unseated and unswept and neither comfortable nor convenient and a reduction in the fares charged for the trucks was recommended.
Apprentices and engmeers from the Shildon Mechanics' Institute were sent for railway work to all parts of the world, and the duty of introducmg the steam locomotive into Russia was undertaken by John Hackworth, one of younger members of the Institute in 1836. With him was George Thompson, foreman, and a small staff of men from Shildon. When the engine they were accompanying had worked a few days one of the cylinders cracked and Thompson went to Moscow, entailing a Journey of 600 miles, to an ordnance factory, made a pattern for the cylinder, got it cast, bored out, fitted and then fixed to the engine.
The present large and handsome Institute opened in 1913, with a lecture hall for 460 people, a library containing 4,500 volumes, billiard rooms, bath rooms, etc..' ,
The exhibition of rollmg stock included examples of the latest L.N.E.R. locomotives, with No. 10,000 and No. 66 Aerolite, and carriage stock including a Pullman car, sleeping cars, and one of the "holiday" cars described in our August Issue. There was a fine display of working models of locomotives, etc., and many models of famous bridges.

London & North Eastern Ry. 292.
Eleven former GER 4-6-0 express engines were at work on Great North of Scotland section, Nos, 8500 to 8504, 8528, 8531, 8536, 8539 and 8548, Eight were stationed Kittybrewster, one at Keith and two at Elgin, Other GER engines transferred to this section included three 2-4-2 tanks, Nos. 7176, 7222 and 7236; these had been fitted with cow-catchers for working the Fraserburgh and St. Combs branch, For working the Royal specials between Aberdeen and Ballater the two 4-4-0 tender engines George Davidson and Benachie were used.

L. Derrens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 293. illus.

Southern Railway. 293.
Last Gladstone class No. B172 (formerly Littlehampton) and last one built was withdrawn on 11 September 1933. The Lancing workman's train was the last steam stock, outside of the Isle of Wight, to retain the Westinghouse brake. The set included two Stroudley 26ft four wheel coaches dating from 1879 which retained the Rusbridge and Stroudley system of electrical passenger communication.

London & North Eastern Ry. 293.
Hunt class D49 4-4-0s completed at Darlington Nos. 292 The Southwold, 297 The Cottesmore and 298 The Pytchley.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter X. Design of valve gear components. 294-5.
Cites Dalby's Valves and valve gear mechanisms and considers: motion pins; the bushing of holes for motion pins; reversing rods (and considers American practice of tubular shafts better); weighbar shafts; eccentric sheaves (cites Unwin)

Fifty years of tank engine development on the German State Rys.  295. 2 illus., table
Contrast of 0-6-0T shunting locomotive built by Hanomag in 1883 with three-cylinder 2-10-2T built by Henschel for the Höllentalbahn in the Black Forest.

Northern Railway of France — eight-coupled side tanks. 295.
See page 260: states that outside motion was Gooch rather than Stephenson link.

C.F. Dendy Marshall. The Newcastle and Carlisle Railway. 296-9.  7 illus. (including 2 drawings), table
See page 346 for letter from R.B. Fellows and from Author correcting opening date.

Welded main-line coaches in Holland. 300-1. 3 illus.
Constructed by J.J. Beynes NV of Haarlem from steel: illus. show a luggage van and a first/second class composite.

Diesel locomotives and [rail-]cars. 301-3.
Paper presented at the World Power conference held in Denmark by P. Due Petersen of the Frichs Locomotive Works which considered pneumatic and direct transmission, then hydraulic transmission and finally electric transmission using the Leonard, Gebus or Lemb systems.

"Monarch" improved point lever and three-position indicator. 303-4. 2 diagrs.
Monarch Controller Co. Ltd. equipment

"Rapidor" Gate Saw. 304.
Heavy duty sawing machines, introduced by Edward G. Herbert, Ltd. of Levenshulme, Manchester.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. 304
Remarkable speed records were established by the L.M.S. Railway between Euston and Coventry and vice versa on Tuesday (September 19) when two special trains were run in each direction for the accommodation of guests visiting the Humber-Hillman-Commer motor works at Coventry. The fastest run of all was mnde by Flyer No. 2 returning from Coventry to London in the evening, when the 93½ miles from Coventry to a signal stop just outside Euston were run in the phenomenal time of 74 minutes 20 seconds, at an average speed of 75½ miles an hour start-to-stop, including the signal stop of two minutes duration, Euston was reached in the unprecedented time of 79 minutes from Coventry. The maximum speed attained on this run was 92 m.p.h. at Castlethorpe, while 90 m.p.h. was touched before Weedon, near Watford, and again at Wembley. The train of seven coaches weighed just over 200 tons and was hauled by the L.M.S. Royal Scot class engine, Comet, Driver B. A. Marchant and Fireman W. Aldridge of Camden. Flyer No. 1 in the up direction was a heavier train, consisting of 10 vehicles weighing 288 tons and hauled by Engine No. 6109 Royal Engineer, Driver Jones and Fireman Tomlin of Camden, and covered the 94 miles from Coventry to Euston in 82 minutes at an average speed of 68.7 m.p.h. I n the down direction Flyer No. 1 with the same engine and load and with Driver L. Earl and Fireman W. Lapham, of Camden, ran to Coventry in 87¾ minutes at an average speed of 64 m.p.h.; while Flyer No. 2 with Driver F. Brooker and Fireman W. Henson of Camden took 86 minutes, including 5 min. delays, at an average of 65.6 m.p.h. In each case the trains beat their schedule times of 90 minutes for the down run and 88 minutes for the up journey.

Cheap travel record. 304.
The Scotsman who last year establIshed a cheap travel record by covering 1,934 miles in a week with an LMS runabout holiday season ticket,  had this summer eclipsed his own record by covering 2,501¾ miles in a week, at a cost of fifteen shillings — or 14 miles a penny. He was Cecil M. Furst of Joppa, near Edinburgh, and he achieved. this record while travelling with a holiday contract ticket in the Carlisle district, studying the work of LMS engrnes from the point of view of a railway enthusiast. His record for a single day's travelling was 370 miles, achieved on two occasions. The next best "record" of this kind as yet brought to the notice of the L.M.S. was that of a Halifax boy who travelled 1,504 miles this summer with a holiday contract ticket covering the Lancashire Coast and Lake District.

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives.  305.
Concluded from page 271. Some notes of the styles of painting adopted during the period covered by the articles. The earliest pamtmg of which we have a record was that in use in the early days of Joseph Beattie's superintendency and which was probably also that of J.V. Gooch. On the authority of the late H.H. Battley's coloured sketches, this was Indian red with plain black bands. A coloured illustration from that source by E.W. Twining, of an engine thus painted, will be found in Historic Locomotives by the late A.R. Bennett, in which he illustrated Milo.
Some time in the early 1860s, the colour was changed to chocolate, the lagging bands were black edged with white lines. The beadmg of the splasher was black with a fine white line on each edge. Around the slots. in the splasher was a fine white line, outside this a vermilion line; the narrow space between being black. The same order of lining was followed on the panel plate and on the cylinders which had a rectangular panel. The front of the panel plate had only a narrow black edge with a fine white line dividing it from the chocolate panel. Most of the passenger engines were lined out thus, but a few had white lines on both edges of the black panel band, and this applied to the goods and tank engmes at this time.
The buffer beams were vermilion with a black edge separated from the vermilion by a fine white line the ends of the buffer beams were chocolate edged with black, round which on the outside, was a fine vermilion line and inside, separating the black line from the chocolate, a fine white line. The letters "No." and the number of the engine in gold shaded with black were placed on either side of and close to the draw-hook. The stiffening ring on the smokebox door was in some engines polished, as was also the strip of brass or iron along the top edge of the cylmder clothing. The dome casings were at this period of cast iron, and the safety valve casings on the barrels, of iron plate both painted. A coloured plate giving an excellent impression of the appearance of a L.&S.W.R. express engine in the 1860s will be found in the LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE, Vol. XVIII, December 1912. All the engines built by Beyer, Peacock from 1863 to 1878 had polished brass domes and safety valve casings and the first lot of their goods engines of 1866 had vermilion outside frames. The inside of the frames of all engines was vermilion, as were also the outside cranks. Later, about 1868, new engines came out with polished brass domes and safety valve casings, and the older engines were in many cases supplied with them. In some engines which had iron chimney tops these were painted apparently to resemble copper, some orange, others salmon and even bright red. A correspondent remembers Ironsides in the 1880s as havmg a red chimney top' he also remembers seeing in the 'sixties Herod at Waterloo painted purple; why, he never knew, but it seems probable that it was for the occasion of working the funeral train of some notable person.
During the superintendency of W. G. Beattie some change was made m the style of the painting. The colour remained chocolate but the cab splashers and panel plates were edged with yellow ochre separated from the chocolate panel by a fine white line, the laggmg bands were also yellow ochre similarly lined on the edges. In Mr. Adams' time the colour was changed to umber, the lining was also altered. The lagging bands were painted black with bright green lines on the edges, on the lagging about half an inch from the band on either  side was a fine orange line ; the splashers had a black edge,. inside this was a green line with a fine orange line about half an inch inside it. The buffer beam was vermilion as before but had no lining and block letters and figures shaded with black were used. From 1885 to 1887 the engines with the exception of Adams expresses were pamted dark green WIth a smgle bright green line and narrow black edgmg. From 1887 all Adams passenger engines and the rebuilt Beattie express engines were pamted pea green with a black edging and fine white hne. The oval brass number plate, the ground being painted vermilion, was used on a few rebuilt Beattie engmes these including Nos. 85, 298 and 314. . We conclude this short supplementary HIstory of the early London and South Western Locomotives with many thanks to those friends who have interested themselves in it and supplied drawings, etc., to make it as complete and interesting a record as is possible. Perhaps at some future time some more early data may come to light and furnish material for another article.

W.G. Bagnall Ltd. of Stafford. 305.
Secured an order for three 2-8-0 locomotives, with six-wheel tenders. for the metre gauge Udaipur Chitorgarh Railway (India). These were to work on the Ghat Hill section, and have cylinders 16¾ in. diameter by 22 in. stroke, coupled wheels 3 ft. 7 in. diameter, working pressure 180 psi, and a tractive effort of 22,000 lbf at 85% of the boiler pressure. As far as details are concerned these locomotives will be duplicates of the locomotives built by Bagnall in 1930 to the order of the Assam Railways & Trading Co., for the Dibru-Sadiya Railway, one of which was shown at the Liverpool & Manchester Railway Centenary Exhibition at Wavertree. These locomotives have proved most efficient in service, due to the exceptionally large boiler. and particularly to the square type of firebox and self-dumping ash pan ; they are likely to be a popular type in future in India. Six engines of similar type, but rather smaller dimensions, were recently shipped by Bagnall to H.H. the Gaekwar's Baroda State Railway.

The Giant's Causeway & Portrush Electric Tramway. 306-9. 6 illus.

Electric locomotive design. VII. Driving bogie design: motor nose suspension. 309.
Rubber suspension to minimise thrust forces.

Electric pit locomotives, past and present. 310-11. 4 illus.
Mainly the products of Siemens & Halske, later Siemens Schuckert using trolley wire. The first was installed in the Royal Saxon Coal Mine in Zauckrode in 1883 and was a small four wheel machine. Later locomotives, still using a trolley system, but were larger coupling two single locomotives in tandem fashion. In some cases the locomotives have to work on roads equipped with a trolley wire as well as on ordinary track and combined battery and trolley type locomotives were developed. The battery locomotives suppled by Wingrove & Rogers Ltd were also described.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 311
The new 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines now being turned out at Crewe are provided with taper boilers and horizontal cylinders, thus differing from the preceding engines, Nos. 13000-13244. Five of these engines have so far been put to work, Nos. 13245-9. The 4-6-2 Pacific engine, No. 6200 The Princess Royal, was now in regular service, and stationed at Camden. The second engine, No. 6201, has left the shops and is at present working trial from Crewe North shed. The third of the Pacifics, No. 6202, is to be turbine fitted, non-condensing: some interesting and satisfactory trials with a Ljungstrom condensing turbine locomotive were carried out on the Midland division a little time back.
Class D 0-8:0 mineral engine No. 9048, has been converted to Class G1 (superheater) and provided with an ordinary round-topped boiler. It is now also fitted with the vacuum brake throughout.
A further fifteen Claughtons to be converted into three-cylinder engines at Crewe during current year, and of these five, it is understood, will be fitted with taper boilers. Engine No. 6153, The Royal Dragoon, of the 4-6-0 Royal Scot class, has been fitted with compensating spring gear.
Recent withdrawals include No. 5632, Bret Harte, of the 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class. This engine was rebuilt many years ago with outside motion, and is the first of the type to be scrapped. Only one engine of the 2-8-0 MM type was now running, viz., No. 9460, all the others having been broken up.
Latest 2-6-4 passenger rank engines ex Derby bear Nos. 2396-7.
No. 7401 was a new 0-6-0 Diesel oil engine built by the Hunslet Engine Co. and recently delivered to the Midland Division.

London & North Eastern Railway. 311.
From Monday, 25 September, the London and North Eastern Railway were making an extended trial over a period of six months, under normal working conditions, with a new 60-seater stream-lined Diesel-electric railbus, designed and built by Armstrong Whitworth & Co. at Newcastle. The rail bus was intended for frequent high-speed local and branch line service. During the trial period it would run on the western branch lines from Newcastle, and would serve the North Wylam, Prudhoe, Rowlands Gill and Leamside districts.

E.E. Joynt, Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. 312-14.

The Royal Scot in America. 314.
The Royal Scot locomotive and the L.M.S. express train, after exhibition at the Century of Progress Exposition at Chicago, is making a further tour of Canada and the United States during the autumn.
Original plans were for the Royal Scot to return to this country immediately after the close of the Exposition at Chicago, but so great has been the interest aroused by the train throughout the American Continent, and so numerous have been the requests from various towns which would not have been visited under the original schedule, that it has now been arranged for the Royal Scot to visit 41 additional cities and towns in the United States and Canada, involving a further 8,562 miles travelling.
This post-Exposition tour is a request one, thousands of people throughout the American Continent having written to ask that the Royal Scot should visit their towns, and it is only being made possible by the close co-operation of all concerned. Mr. Rufus Dawes has acceded to the request of Sir Josiah Stamp, President of the L.M.S., that the train should leave the Century of Progress Exposition earlier than was intended, while Canadian and US railroad executives have evinced a spirit of helpful and practical co-operation in the revised arrangements.
The Royal Scot left Chicago on its second tour on October 11th, for exhibition at a number of places in the Middle and Far West. Included among them will be Salt Lake City, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Vancouver. Winnipeg, Minneapolis, Detroit, Toronto and Montreal. The train will arrive at Montreal on November 12 and will be dismantled for shipment home on board the S.S. Beaverdale.
During the forthcoming tour No. 6100 will be in charge of Driver Gilbertson and Fireman Jackson , who have been with the train throughout its travels, while Fitter W.C. Woods will also accompany the train. To relieve the strain on the engine staff of a tour of this nature, a relief fireman, Tom Blackett, who is also a qualified driver, left Liverpool on September 22 to join the train in America.
Nearly 2,000,000 visitors have already inspected the Royal Scot since it was first thrown open to visitors at Montreal on May 1st. During the pre-exhibition tour, which embraced 39 cities and towns and involved travelling 3,181 miles under her own steam over Canadian and American railroads, well over half-a-million people passed through the train and considerably more than a million visitors have actually inspected the train at the Chicago Exposition.

Obituary. 314.
The death occurred on September 18 of Mr. David Bain, C.B.E V.D., in his 79th year. After serving an apprenticeship with Neilson &Co. Mr. Bain joined the North Eastern Railway in 1883, and was made assistant in the carriage and wagon department in 1887. He took charge of this department in 1890, and later was appointed Cariage. and Wagon Superintendent of the Midland Railway, retiring in 1919.

Diesel fuel oils. 314-15.
Fuels for Diesel engmes vary and nature just as the different engines under the general term of Diesels also vary in type. A much used, but erroneous term for these fuels is "crude oil." Actually, few engines ever run on crude oil, which is petroleum in its untreated state as it emerges from the earth. At this stage the oil contains those fractions from which motor spirits, kerosenes, lubricating oils, and Diesel oils are obtained, so it will be seen that Diesel oils are only one branch of the many valuable hydrocarbon products originating from crude petroleum. Small oil engines, high-speed compression ignition engines, and many semi-Diesel engines, to give a good performance require a distillate fuel. Such distillates usually have the following physical properties:- Specific gravity at 60° F .... Flash point Viscosity at 100° (Redwood No. 1) 30/50 secs. Hard asphalt content Negligible. Ash - Below 0.01 % It may be observed that all such distillates come well within the B.E.A.S. Specification "A", which is as follows:- Specification "A". Item. B.S. Fuel Oil No. 1 for Heavy Oil Engines. Flash-point (closed) Not to be less than 150'F. Hard asphalt content Not to exceed 0.5%. Ash content ... Not to exceed 0.1 %. Viscosity (Redwood o. 1) at 100°F ... lot to exceed 75 secs. Water content Not to exceed 0.5%. Cold test Oil to remain liquid at 20'F. Whilst the above details are a guide in the general classification of distillates suitable for Diesel oils, they give little indication of what may be expected as regards engine performance. High-speed compression ignition engines are at present somewhat fastidious in their fuel require- ments, so it has been found advisable to investigate the ignition quality of their fuels more closely than of old. Linked up with ignition quality is spontaneous or self-ignition temperature (S.LT.). Whilst this feature as measured by special apparatus, does not necessarily give an accurate indication of ignition delay or Jag which produces knock in a Diesel engine, it is a guide to the probable behaviour of a fuel. Fuels having the most suitable S.I.T. value for operation in high-speed compression ignition engines appear to be those in which the aromatic, unsaturated, and asphaltic hydrocarbons do not predominate. In this connection it is interesting to note that the types of hydrocarbons that are valuable for their good anti-knock qualities in .845/.885. Above 150' F, T
motor SPIrIt are the ones that are not wanted in the production of high quality Diesel oils.
It is not sufficiently realised that cleanliness is . just as essential in the case of Diesel oils as for motor spirit and kerosene, therefore every care should be taken when handling this product to see that it is not contaminated by dirt, grit, and water. Faulty and cheap storage arrangements are frequently the cause of much avoidable trouble.
The larger heavy oil engine, such as the full Diesel engines (employing air injection) and the low-speed solid injection engines as used in power stations and for marine purposes, will run satis- factorily on heavier fuels than those outlined above. Such fuels contain a portion of residual oil, that is oil that has not been distilled over, but is left behind in the still after the desired cuts for other products have been made. These fuels generally come within B.E.S.A. Specification "B", which is as follows:- Specification "B." Item. B.S. Fuel Oil No. 2 for Heavy Oil Engines. Flash point (closed) Not to be less than 150°F. Hard asphant content Not to exceed 2%. Ash content ... Not to exceed 0.05%. Viscosity (Redwood No. 1) at l00°F Not to exceed 250 secs. Water content Not to exceed 1 % . Cold test Oil to remain liquid at 35° F .
Whilst it will be observed that they are heavier and more viscous than those outlined against B.E.S.A. Specification "A," they should not be confused with heavy furnace oils, which are the heavier residuals that will not distil over and contain many features unsuitable for the internal combustion engine, although with ore-heating these heavy fuels can be burnt satisfactorily in furnaces.
It is impossible in such a short article to give little more than the roughest outline of what is covered by the very broad term " Diesel Fuel Oils," further details may be obtained from the Anglo-American Oil Co. Ltd., 36 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W., who are paying particular attention to the ignition quality and cleanliness of Pratt's Diesel oils, these features being of the greatest importance,

British Museum Station. 315
At midnight on Sunday, 24 September the Central London Railway British Museum Station was closed permanently, and at 5 o'clock next morning a new station named Holborn (Kingsway) which serves both the Piccadilly line and the Central London was brought into use. Passengers wishing to change from one line to the other no longer require to go out into the street and cross the road; they only walk underground a few yards and take a ride on an escalator. A new tunnel 380 ft. long has been constructed for the C.L.R. platforms, which are nearer the surface than those of the Piccadilly line.
The reconstruction above ground has involved the abolition at the Holborn Station, of the lifts formerly in use, and the substitution of seven of the fastest escalators, four of which are also the largest in the world, each measuring 157 ft. 7in., and they are worked in the one shaft. The speed will be regulated according to the amount of traffic using them, and at rush hours they can be made to travel at 160 ft. per minute.

Great Western Railway. 315.
We are pleased to note a reform in passenger traffic, we have often advocated in these columns (see page 14 of present volume for a recent refcrence) has been adopted on the G.W. Ry. The practice of marking the word "Third" on the doors of third class compartments is to be discontinued. The word "First" however will continue to appear on the doors of first class compartments. We venture to suggest it would be more in keeping with the times to use the term "Reserved" or "Saloon." The grading of a railway company's customers into "classes" reminds one of days gone by and is entirely at variance with modern business methods. Our railway expert in the article referred to clearly confirms this view and emphasises the popularity of "monoclass." The division of restaurant car facilities into classes on some railways is even more undesirable than the seating accommodation.
After 70 years of separate existence, Bishop's Road Station has been completely rebuilt, and from Monday, September 1Ith, became merged into Paddington Station, by which it will be known in future.
Bishop's Road Station was the original western extremity of the Metropolitan Railway, and was opened on  10 January 1863, and brought Paddington into direct communication with the city. The need for longer platforms in the main station, and additional accommodation to cope with the growing suburban traffic has, however, resulted in the two stations being brought into immediate touch so that the retention of the original name became superfluous.
As a result of these alterations, four platforms each 630 ft. in length are provided instead of two of 315 ft., connected to the main line platforms, by means of a short spacious overhead bridge.
The platform numbers run on from those ill the main station, numbers 13 and 16 being used by the Metropolitan trains, and numbers 14 and 15 by the G.W.R. trains. The work of rebuilding the station has been extremely difficult owing to the density of traffic and confined space. It was pushed forward to enable the change to be made with the introduction of the winter service.

Indian railway notes. 315.
The constant advocacy for "Indianization" of the Indian railways and the substitution of highly educated natives, holding University degrees for the ordinary personnel selected for employment by prominent members of the Indian Legislative Assembly, has been very aptly replied to by one of the European members, in the Council Chamber during a recent debate on the subject. He said, "Does my honourable friend want an M.A. to drive an engine and a B.A. to repair it? If we had an M.A. to drive an engine, you would soon have to add the letter'D' to it, for he would soon go mad, and, instead of attending to the regulator of the engine, he would be reading 'Paradise Lost,' and this would end in his train being LOST, and Mr. Maswood I\hmeJ would not be here to-day to move his motion, or to show his emotion. Again, if you had a B.A. to repair an engine, you would have also to put the letter 'D' after it, for his work would be BAD. So let us have no more nonsense about having M.A. 's and B.A. 'so What we want on railways are brain and brawn, not academic degrees."

Faulty rubber fittings. 315
Considerable trouble, we understand, is being experienced in the maintenance of the automatic vacuum brake apparatus on the B.G. trunk railways by the use of faulty rubber fittings secured at cut-rate prices from Japanese and other Eastern manufacturers. As we have frequently pointed out, satisfactory working of the vacuum brake can only be obtained by insistence upon correctly made standard details. The apparatus is particularly susceptible to defects, causing leakage, increased friction, etc.

Correspondence. 316

Locomotive sanding arrangements. F.W. Brewer.
With reference to "P.C.D.'s" remarks on this subject which appeared on p. 285 I would like to say that my article in the May number was not intended to cover every little item in connection with locomotive sanding devices and practice.  Your correspondent's observations respecting combination sandboxes are interesting, but they do not affect the accuracy of my statements. I am unable to agree with his view that the opening paragraph to my article was liable to convey the impression that, no adhesion weight whatever was required by the use of gearing. What I said was: "So long, however, as either a rack-rail, or some farm of gearing, was employed, the adhesion factor, a, usually understood, was non-existent." And such was the case, in so far as the pioneer locomotive engines were concerned. The words here put in italics make clear the point that, as compared with a direct drive, the difficulty in obtaining sufficient adhesion was obviated by the means referred to, and therefore was not, in the usual sense, present. By ignoring the qualification in question, P.C.D. gives a wholly wrong interpretation to the sentence, which, moreover, should not be read apart from the pre- text. The latter distinctly mentioned the problem as being that of moving the engine by virtue of its own weight, and this naturally included both the direct and the indirect drive,

Holland Railway.  T.S. Lascelles.
Re L. Derens on the Holland Railway, on page 273 that "electric clocks" were placed at the road crossings to warn the watchmen. Is this not a mistake caused by mis-translating the Dutch expression "klokken ?" I think the statement must refer to the electric gongs, invented in Germany, and ever since widely used on many Continental lines at level crossings and elsewhere. It is hard to see how clocks could have served such a purpose. The large signal gongs which are doubtless referred to by Derens may still be seen in Holland at many places along the line.

Derens informs us that Lascelles is right in his assumption that a mistake has occurred in the translation. Electric gongs is the right expression when referring to the double-toned bells, producing two successive strokes of different tone, and forming a combination known as a "quint" in music, but n.ade false intentionally in order to attract attention which a harmonious combination of tones might not accomplish to the same degree

Low pressure cylinder diameter (Britain).. F.W. Brewer
22 in. low pressure cylinders of No. 10456 L.M.S.R. were not the largest inside cylinders fitted to any British locomotive. This distinction belonged to the Vulean Foundry 4-cylinder compound No. 1300, G.N.R. which had 23 in. inside low pressure cylinders. Also the G.W.R. French Atlantics had cylinders over 23 in. dia.

Ottoman Aidin Railway. 316.
We are informed the works of this railway are situated at Alsancak, Izmir, Smyrna. and B.S. Perrin is the Locomotive, Carriage, and Wagon Superintendent.

Reviews. 316
A British railway behind the scenes, J.W. Williarnson, London; Ernest Benn,
General review of the current organisation and activities of the London, Midland & Scottish Railway Company, by one who has made a study of industry, The first part treats in non-technical language the manufacturing operations of the company, including the design, building and repair of locomotives, carriages and wagons, and discusses those measures of scientific methods and mechanisation, known as rationalisation. The re-organisation of Crewe Locomotive Works (1926-28) and the working of the processing or belt system is described at some length. There is also an interesting account of the costing system, and its co-ordination with repair and other work. As the author's statements and figures are based on official information, they may be relied upon.
Chapters follow on the permanent way, signalling, operation and control of traffic by passenger and freight train, electric traction, and the miscellaneous undertakings of a great transport system. The author is to be congratulated on his description of the problems which faced the management of our largest railway at the time of the grouping of 1922, and the difficulties encountered during the subsequent period of consolidation, due to economic unrest, depression of trade and the competition of road transport. The book is well and clearly written and has a number of nice illustrations of locomotives and other rolling stock, signals, etc.

Vacuum brake manual. O.N. Sharma, Temple of Indian Industry.
In Hindi: appears to be a comprehensive manual on the automatic vacuum brake. The illustrations are particularly good,.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 316
Next general meeting will be held on Thursday, Oct. 26, at 6 p.m, in the Hall of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, when J.G.B. Sams, member, will read a paper entitled Some aspects of the organisation and operation of a Colonial Railway Running Department. The opening general meeting of the fifth session of the Birminham Centre would be held on Wednesday, Oct. 18, in the Dudley Room, Queen's Hotel, Birmingham. Captain G.S. Bellamy would take the chair at 7 p.m. The president, Major Charles E. Williams, will deliver his address entitled Colonial Railways.

RAlLWAY CLUB - At the mecting to be held at 57 Fetter Lane, E.C.4, on Friday, Nov. 3, at 1.30 p.m. a paper will be read by Mr. S. R. Yates on "Train Ferries, their History and Development. "

Trade Notes and Publications.
The Hotfmann Manufacturing Co., Lid" Essex,. have issued an extremely well produced catalogue of their Ball and Roller Journal Bearings. This booklet clearly sets aut the more popular sizes of these bearing of b.oth ball and roller type, with diagrams. Useful instruc- trons for mountIng have been included as well as inlorrna- tion as to lubrication and the efficient protection of bearing, from dust and moisture.

We are informed by the Societe d' Exploitation de Pro~edes Dabeg of Paris, that the twenty new Pacific type engines for the Northern Railway of France, mentioned' on page 267 of our last issue, are to be provided with the Society's  oscillating cam poppet valve gear.

Number 495 (15 November 1933)

Four-cylinder Pacific type locomotive, London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 317.
Refers to colour supplement (missing from copy inspected). Text refers to No. 6200 working up Royal Scot from Carlisle to Euston and returning on 23.00 ex-Euston daily.

New 2-6-4 type tank locomotives, L.M. & S. Railway.  317. illus.
No. 2400 illustrated (with side window cab and parallel boiler): new series Nos. 2395-2424 being constructed at Derby.

Condensing locomotive, Argentine State Rys. 318-19. 2 illus.
Metre gauge line from Santa Fe to Tucuman crossed a desert and used a Ljungstrom turbine condensing locomotive described in Loco. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36, pp. 310; 313. Henschel & Son had supplied a 2-8-2 with 18 x 22in cylinders and a 1400ft2 total heating surface with an exhaust turbine condensing tender. Trials shoed that this locomotive had covered 19,000 miles hauling trains with an average weight of 945 tons with a water consumption of only 2.9 gallons per mile. The condenser was able to cope with ash from a volcanic eruption in the Andes

2-4-2 tank locomotive, G.N. of S. Section, L.N.E.R.. 319-20. illus.
Three F4 class locomotives of this Great Eastern Railway class were modified with cow-catchers for use on the Fraserburgh-St. Combs line, which was unfenced

2-8-4 mixed traffic locomotives, Russian Soviet State Rys. 320-1. 2 illus.
J. Stalin class built at Kolomna Locomotive Works.

L.M.S.R. suburban tank locomotives. 321. illus.
Condensing tank locomotives at Kentish Town depot: 2-6-2T No. 15530; Johnson 0-4-4T No. 1377 and Kirtley 0-4-4T No. 1219. Photograph by J.E. Kite. At that time three of the Kirtley 0-4-4Ts wer still at work in the London area.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 322-5. 10 figures (drawings, diagr.), 2 tables.

Steam railcar, Belgian National Railways. 326-7. illus.
Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd with power unit supplied by the Yorkshire Patent Steam Wagon Co. Seated 20 2nd class and 62 third class passengers. Steel body. Three-cylinder engine (5½ x 8in cylinders), Joy valve gear, jackshaft drive, Yorkshire double boiler. Used on Liege branch lines and Herbesthal to Spa line.

Retired Railway Officers Society. 327.
Annual Dinner held 7 November 1933 in the Abercorn Rooms at Liverpool Street. H. Marriott was President.

London Midland & Scottish Railway. 327.
Diamond jubilee of West Coast route Anglo-Scottish sleeping car services which bean with thrice weekly Euston to Glasgow service.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. 327-30. diagr.
Valve gear control: lever reverse; reversing screws; power reversing systems including compressed air on Great Eastern.

Glass Silk for heat insulation. 330.
Manufactured by Chance Brothers & Co. of Firhill, Glasgow; Being evaluated by LMS on a locomotive boiler and several mattresses ordered for locomotive of Kenya & Uganda Railways and to be used in all-steel passenger carriages for South Indian Railway.

Electric locomotive design. VII. Driving bogie design: motor nose suspension. 330-1. 2 diagrs.
Fig. 70 shows rubber suspension for motors.

H. Vivian. Webb compound locomotives on foreign railways. 332-5. 6 illus., diagr.
Sharp Stewart supplied Combermere to the Austrian State Railways in October 1884. The name reflected a visit of the Empress of Austria to Combermere near Nantwich (near Crewe). This was a three-cylinder compound with two 13 x 24in and one low pressure 26 x 24in cylinders with uncoupled driving wheels (6ft 7½in.) with a total heating surface of 1062ft2 total heating surface and 16.8ft2 grate area. Sharp Stewart supplied a similar locomotive to the Western Railway of France in 1884 and this was not withdrawn until 1901. Dubs supplied ten smaller Webb three cylinder compounds to the Oudh & Rohilkund Railway (illustrated in Loco. Mag., 1925, 31, (14 March), p. 76). Two were supplied to South American railways and were fitted with bogies. Mariano Hædo was supplied to the Buenos Ayres Western Ry: it had two 12 x 24in and one 26 x 24in cylinders; 1096ft2 total heating surface and 17ft2 grate area. Sharp Stewart supplied Dr. F.N. Prates to the Paulista Ry in Brazil. This had 5ft 6in driving wheels; 11½ x 22 high pressure cylinders and a single 26 x 24in low pressure cylinder. 972ft2 total heating surface and 16.7ft2 grate area and 155 psi boiler pressure. Robert Stephenson & Co. supplied a 2ft 6in gauge 4-2-4-2T to the Antofagasta & Bolivia Ry in 1884: this had 695ft2 total heating surface and 11.5ft2 grate area. Beyer Peacock supplied the Pennsylvania Railroad with  a lcomotive similar to the Dreadnought class with two 14 x 24in cylinders and one 30 x 24in cylinder; 6ft 3in coupled wheels, 1241ft2 total heating surface and 20.5ft2 grate area and 175 psi boiler pressure.

Oldest rly. servant. 335.
Signal box bell at Hebden Bridge station: installed by Manchester & Leeds Ry.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Aspects of Colonial railway running. 336-7.
See Paper 316

Welded coaches in Holland. 337.
See << noted that whole of brake equipment was mounted on the bogies. Buffers were Uerdingen ring spring type.

Double deck passenger car Long Island R.R. 338-9. 2 illus.
F.W. Hawkins, Chief of Motive Power Pennsylvania RR: car largely constructed in alumium alloy to save weight: vehicle seated 120 passengers.

130 h.p. diesel-engined railcar Great Western Ry. 339. illus.
Streamlined: wind tunnel used to establish shape which was likened to a seaplane float. Seated 69 passengers. Maximum speed 60 mile/h. Manufactured by Hardy Motors of Southall with AEC bus-type 130 h.p. engine. Exhibited at the Commercial Motor Show at Olympia.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish Locomotive Works: The Daily round, the common task. 340-2.  

An old locomotive of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. 342. illus.
Photo shows a 4-4-0 engine of the style and type much used in the United States in the 1870s. The date of original construction cannot be given, but apparently it was rebuilt in 1876, as it had a plate of that date. The inclined cylinders suggest a much earlier building date and the extended smokebox and Westinghouse brake pump point to a rebuild. A feature of interest is the provision of a small lamp seen immediately behind the chimney. This when showing a red light conveyed the information to the station staff that another train was following in a similar manner to the tail-boards which used to be commonly used on the British railways and often inscribed Train following. We are indebted' to Mr. Albert Curran for the loan of the photograph reproduced.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 343.
Further new engines of the improved 2-6-0 mixed traffic class had been turned out at Crewe; the highest number at present in service was No. 13251, while others up to No. 13259 will shortly be running. Latest 2-6-4 passenger tank engines delivered from the Derby works: Nos. 2398-2409. Of these, several were fitted with enlarged cabs of the Garratt type. The fifteen additional Claughtons to be built at Crewe this year will be numbered 6030 upwards. No: 6167; of the 4-6-0 Royal Scot class, had been named The Hertfordshire Regiment, which completes the naming of the Derby series,' Nos. 6150-6169. Engines rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers included 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class No. 5812; 4-4-0 Precursor superheater No. 5294; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 9140 and 9210, and 0-6-0 18 in. goods class No. 8526. Two additional Princes had been withdrawn from ervice, Nos. 5652 Onyx and 5688 Tara, the latter of which was fitted with outside motion. The last of the 2-8-0 MM type engines, No. 9460, had also been withdrawn. No. 9069 has been converted from class G to class G1 and fitted with superheater. 0-6-2 coal side tank class No. 7816 had the motor rodding gear removed and was running as an engine of the ordinary type.

London & North Eastern Railway. 343.
Announced that the directors had authorised a development programme for 1934 which included the construction of new rolling stock and the renewal of bridges and the permanent way, involving an expenditure of £2,300,000.
One hundred mew locomotives were to be built, nine of which would be of the Pacific type, five 4-6-0 of the Sandringham class for the Great Eastern Section, 25 4-4-0 of the Shire class, 12 0-6-0 goods engines, and 10 2-6-0 mixed traffic for the North Eastern area.
Five passenger tender engines of the 2-8-2 type were to be provided for the Edinburgh-Aberdeen services, 10 2-6-2 tank engines for the North of England, while another ten 4-4-4 type tank engines were to be converted to 4-6-2 type for mineral traffic in Durham. Authority had been given to proceed with the construction of six 2-6-2 tank engines for Scotland, and eight 2-8-0 mineral tender engines for East Anglia. The programme for 62 new carriages included sleeping, restaurant and buffet cars, and two further tourist trains of open cars fitted with bucket type seats. The wagon programme included 5,579 vehicles of 10 tons, 12 tons and 20 tons capacity for goods, perishables, fish and mineral traffic. The complete renewal of 43 bridges is to be undertaken, and 371 miles of track.
Two further of the H1 class, 4-4-4 tanks, Nos. 2143 and 2147, had been rebuilt as A8 class, 4-6-2 tanks, at Darlington. The next two to be converted: Nos. 1327 and 1501.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 343.
It is announced that in consequence of the impending retirement of Mr. A. C. Stamer, assistant chief mechanical engineer, Darlington, on Dec. 31, the directors have appointed Mr. R. A. Thom to be mechanical engineer, Southern Area; Mr. E. Thompson, mechanical engineer, Stratford, to be mechanical engineer, North Eastern Area; Mr. A. H. Peppercorn, carriage and wagon works manager, York, to be assistant mechanical engineer, Stratford; Mr. Vol. H. Brown, carriage and wagon works manager; Doncaster, to be carriage and wagon works manager, York; Mr. D. R. Edge, carriage and wagon works manager, Dukinfield, to be carriage and wagon works manager, Doncaster; Mr. P. Liddell, outside machinery superintendent, Darlington, to be docks machinery engineer, Darlington,

Great Southern Railways of Ireland. 343
Harty, the chief mechanical engineer, is having constructed at Inchicore Works five 0-6-2 side tank engines to be used on the Dublin and Bray service and between Dublin and Dun Laoghaire (Kingstown). They had 5 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels and cylinders 18 in. by 24 in. and fitted with superheaters and piston valves. The tanks and cabs were welded. No. 405, a four-cylinder 4-6-0 engine, had recently. been converted to a two-cylinder, simple, and was identical with No. 402, which was converted some years back. No. 393, a 2-6-0 with 6-ft. wheels, has been transferred to the M.G.W. section and was working between Dublin and Galway. No. 304, a 4-4-0, is in the shops being rebuilt similarly to Nos. 301-303, 312 and 314. An ex-M.G.W. 0-6-0 goods, Class F, No. 627, stationed at Mullingar, was equipped for working the mechanical track layer. A pipe from the steam dome led to the buffer beam, so that this can be coupled to a similar pipe on the track-layer. Steam can then be passed from the engine to work the dynamo on the track-layer. The locomotive can therefore be used to haul the track-layer as well as to provide power for the machine. The Drumm Battery trains A and B had been connected together, with a 3rd class brake coach between; this made a five-coach unit. Further tests with these are being made in service.
The Broadstone Works of the former Midland Great Western Railway were closed on 30 June 1933. No. 562 was the last locomotive out. A good deal of the machinery had previously been removed, presumably to Inchicore. The works passed into the hands of the Irish Omnibus Co, on Aug. 1. The new large erecting shops, contemplated for some time back, are now being built at Inchicore, and are expected to be finished next May.
The whole of the track of the Cork, Blackrock and Passage Railway had been removed with the exception of the rails in Cork (Albert Street) Station, where the entire stock of locomotives, carriages and wagons was stored. The whole of the stations and the land, with the exception of the Cork Station, were advertised for sale or letting.

Great Western Railway. 343.
Details of the 1934 prograrnme of construction were: 10 Castle class 4-6-0 express engines, 10 Hall class 4-6-0 passenger engines, 30 tanks for local and suburban passenger services, 25 0-6-0 tanks, and 15 tank engines for auto-trains. Two hundred passenger vehicles to be built include 140 corridor coaches for long distance services, 50 coaches for local and suburban sets, ten trailer coacbes for branch services and eight bogie passenger brake vans. Three six-wheeled under-carriages to take milk cans are in hand. 850 12-ton vacuum fitted vans are to be built as well as 1,080 12-ton vans non-vacuum fitted.
New engines completed at Swindon comprised 0-4-2 tanks (non-auto) Nos. 5812-9, 0-6-0 pannier tanks Nos. 8750-3 and 0-6-0 combined pannier and side tank condensing engines Nos. 9701-3. The latter were used for goods train working from Acton to Smithfield over the electrified Metropolitan Railway. Several of these ran during the night when the electric current is cut off.

Southern Ry. 343.
New engines completed at Ashford Works were 2-6-0 type Nos. 1407-8-9. These were provided with wind deflectors, and had short blast pipes. It was expected to complete a further five of these engines, up to No. 1414, before the end of the year.

Trevithick Centenary. 343
About fifty stone sleepers had been removed from the site of the Penydarren Tram-road near the Great Western Railway bridges that span the river at Quaker's Yard, to be incorporated in the monument to Trevithick's memory, which was being erected outside the entrance gates to the old Penydarren Iron Works, where the locomotive was built. It was intended to unveil the monument this month [December]. The Seal of the Borough of Merthyr Tydfil includes in its design Trevithick's engine.

Obituary. 345.
H. P. Stewart
Died on 2 October: Mr. H.P. Stewart retired on 30 June from the position of Engineer and Locomotive Superintendent of the L.M.S.R. Northern Counties Committee. Mr. Stewart started his railway career in the Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon department of tlie former Belfast and Northern Counties Railway and on completing his apprenticeship left to take a position in the Belfast Works of Harland & Wolff, Ltd., and afterwards became chief engineer of one of E. Bates & Sons' steamers. In 1910 Mr. Stewart returned to the Northern Counties Ry. and from works manager was appointed in 1915 assistant chief locomotive engineer. In 1930 he was made engineer and locomotive superintendent to the Northern Counties Committee. During his term of office he supervised the construction of the new loop lines to avoid Greenisland Junction and give a direct run from Belfast to Portrush, the conversion of compound locomotives to simple, and the introduction of the 2-6-0 type of engines and petrol-engined railcars. Mr. Stewart was 63 years of age.

Correspondence. 345
Steam Locomotive Design. William T. Hoecker.  345.
The article on page 248 of your August number, though dealing primarily with British practice, contains a number of references to American valve gear design. As a supplement to Mr. Phillipson's data, the following comments may be of interest to some of your readers. Except on the smaller varieties of industrial locomotives, the Stephenson link motion has practically disappeared from new construction in America, the Walschaerts and Baker gears now being employed almost exclusively. When normally designed, both of the latter gears give a constant lead at all cut-offs, the amount allowed ranging from onc-eighth inch for shunting engines to as much a three-eighths of an inch for express passenger engines. It has long been observed in America that engines having a large amount of lead in full gear are apt to be sluggish in starting and accelerating heavy trains. About 1914, a method of overcoming this was devised, consisting of altering the position of the eccentric crank with relation to the main crank pin, so that the lead increased from full forward to full backward gear. The combination lever is, of course, proportioned in the usual way for the lead desired in mid-gear. In some earlier examples, a lead of 1/16 in. in full forward gear, increasing to 5/16 in. in mid-gear and to 9/16 in. in full backward gear was provided. The large 4-8-2 and 4-8-4 type express engines built in recent years for the Great Northern Ry. (U.S.A.) have the eccentric cranks set to give a lead of 3/32 in. in full forward gear, increasing to ¼ in. in mid-gear and to 13/32 in. in full backward motion. It is obvious that such an arrangement cannot be used on locomotives which must run equally well in either direction, but it has been successfully employed for nearly, 20 years in connection with the Walschaerts valve gear many express passenger engines, and is claimed to result in marked improvement in starting ability.
More recently, a number of 4-8-4 type locomotives built for the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railway have been equipped with a modified Walschaerts valve gear, having a combination lever of variable proportions. With this device, the lead is increased from zero in full gear to ! in. at :J5% cut-off in either forward or backward motion. This is also said to have proved an aid in starting heavy trains on steep grades and sharp curves.
Opinions on this subject, however, are not quite unanimous. several years ago, one of the large railways in the Middle West began adjusting the eccentric cranks of the Walschaerts valve gears of its main line engines to provide decrease in lead from full forward to full backward gear. With this method of valve setting, a lead of ¼ in. in full forward gear might be decreased to 1/16 in. in mid-gear and to 1 in. negative in full backward gear. The usual beneficial results were claimed, such as increased power, easier riding and less wear and tear on the driving mechanism, etc, 'the conflicting claims put forward on behalf of various "improvements" in locomotive valve gears are very' difficult to reconcile. Sometimes, one suspects that the results obtained depend very largely on the state of mind of the user. The late Mr. H. A. Ivatt once expressed the opinion that a locomotive equipped with complicated valve gear designed to produce beautiful indicator diagrams with square corners, was no better in practice than an engine fitted with the old iink- motion which might possibly turn out a diagram shaped like a leg of mutton.
VALVE TRAV'EL on modern American locomotives may attain a maximum of from 6½ to 10 inches. There are numerous large engines in service with a travel of 8½ to 9 inches, which can be attained without difficulty with the orthodox forms of either Walschaer ts or Baker gears. Some engines belonging to the A.T. & S.F. Ry. have a travel in excess of 9 inches, which is obtained by inserting an additional multiplying lever between the radius rod and the combination lever, as described on page 40 of your February number. There is nothing new about this, as drawings and photographs of the old North Eastern Ry. Uniflow locomotive No. 825 show an identical arrangement. (See "The Locomotive"-July 1919, page 102).
The usual amount of STEAM LAP provided is from 1¼  to 15/8 in. A large number of engines with limited cut-off have a much greater lap than this, many having as much as 25/8 in.
EXHAUST LAP or CLEARANCE is another controversial subject. Exhaust lap is practically non-existent in up-to- date American practice. The amount of exhaust clearance provided may be from 1/16 to ¼ in., though there are many engines running sati factorily with the valves set line and line, as recommended by Mr. Phillipson. While on this subject, it may be of interest to recall that during the discussion of ir Henry Fowler's paper on "Superheating Steam in Locomotives," before the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1914, it wa brought out that while the Midland Railway found it necessary to adept 1/8 in. exhaust clearance, the \North Eastern Railway had found it preferable to use ½ in. exhaust lap on its superheated passenger and goods engines. Probably some of your readers can say if this practice is still being followed.

Providing lead for piston or slide valves. C.A. Cardew. 345.
I have to thank Lieutenant Batt who, in your issue of June, 1933, has been kind enough to give, in full, the calculations he has used in estimating the steam saving due to reducing the clearance volume. His figures, which are perfectly correct, show that by reducing the clearance from 8% to 4% the saving is 6.57% of 10%. as claimed by me, as he points out, I have overlooked the fact that the steam in the clearance space does do some useful work, though I have often seen, and accepted without thought, the statement that such is not the case. The presence of the clearance space has the effect of course of increasing the amount of steam admitted over and above the swept volume, resulting in a lower ratio of expansion than the indicator card would suggest, and a higher expansion curve than would otherwise be obtained

The Newcastle and Carlisle Railway. Reginald B. Fellows. 346.
See page 296 Dendy Marshall refers to Carlisle being connected with Newcastle by railway throughout in May 1839, and the Railway Magazine of June, 1839, stating that on 21 May the line between Blaydon and the company's depot near the Shot Tower, Newcastle, opened for traffic, and that the train crossed the river Tyne by the new bridge at Scotswood. Although there is no doubt as to the opening in May, it appears that some time later in the summer direct railway communication between Carlisle and Newcastle was temporarily suspended, and passengers had once again to cross the Tyne by steam-boat and to take the train from Redheugh. The company's notices in the Railway Magazine and Commercial Journal in September and October stated that as soon as certain works were completed passengers would be able to travel direct from Newcastle, and, on 2 November, a notice was published that passengers need no longer go part of the way by steamboat, but can leave by train from the temporary station west of the Infirmary, Newcastle. What was the reason for the temporary discontinuance of the train service into Newcastle?

The Newcastle and Carlisle Railway. W.B. Thompson. 346.
May I add that the engine Langley 488 which you illustrate on p. 299 continued in service until about 1880. It was stationed at Carlisle and did any light work that came to hand. As late as the summer of 1879 he travelled in a passenger train hauled by it between HaltwhistIe and Alston. Another old engine stationed at Carlisle in the 1870s was more antiquated in appearance even than Langley; it was No. 2 (obviously not N. & C. 2), and had a 4-wheel tender and no cab; where or when it was built he did not know.
The Samson Inn adjoining the station at Gilsland had a painted signboard which was supposed to be an approximate represention of the engine Samson: his recollection of the painting was rather hazy, but it differed considerably from your picture of Samson on p. 299; no doubt the engine at some stage in its career had been altered or rebuilt.
He had one of the director's passes which you show on 296; it was the property of James Thompson of Kirkhouse dated March, 1840. There is a family tradition that an engine called Gilsland. (and possibly one or two more), was built at Kirkhouse for the N. & C. Company;  the name does not occur in your list, and if the engine ever existed I have never been able to trace it.

The Newcastle and Carlisle Railway. C.F. Dendy Marshall. 346.
The date 24 May 1839, given in my article on the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway in your October issue for the direct connection with Newcastle, should be 21 May.

Mr. J. H. McDowell informs us that there is a misprint in his letter, see page 215 altte, paragraph 6, line 3. The 2-cylinder compounds of the B. & N.C. Ry. were 6 ft. four wheel-coupled, not 6ft. 4in. wheels. Probably they were about 6 ft. 1~ in. with new tyres.

Publications. 346

Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd. of Leeds. 346.
Booklet entitled Elasticity through the Centuries. Contents comprised a brief study of the application of the principles of elasticity as stages in the evolution of the spring, whilst the steel diagrams present the metallurgical phenomena associated with hardening and tempering steel employed in their manufacture. The step-by-step story describes and illustrates the spring suspension of a modern LMSR 3rd class railway coach, and by graphic diagram the application of the of springs used in a modern bogie of the LNER. The heavy high-capacity omnibus presents one of the most difficult suspension problems owing to the proportion of "pay-load" to "tare," which can be nearly 100:100. Representative illustrations of French, English and German designs are shown. Woodhead specialise in spring designs for bus chassis of all types. Distinctive features of the Woodhead spring are the weldless solid end back-plate (or main leaf) and their patent lug-plate and registered clip for the prevention of rebound. Other Woodhead patents are the ingenious divided-back- plate and the trunnion end. The former acts as a double radius rod and definitely locates at all times the spring to the axle. The trunnion end has a special application to the springs of vehicles for rough-country service, as the trunnion swivels freely as the axles rise and fall and takes all distorting stresses from the spring. The latest invention is the Woodhead lubricated spring for motors. The simple and practical method illustrated will instantly commend itself to those who appreciate the value of good and consistent suspension ,

The Avon India Rubber Co Ltd. 346
S.W. Kaye, who had been attached to the Manchester Depot for two years, working in the Liverpool area, had been appointed manager of Newcastle Depot vice I.C. Churchill, who has been transferred to headquarters. lllustrated descriptive leaflets from The Avon India Rubber Co. Ltd., Melksham, Wilts, are to hand. Particulars as well as sizes of the Avon Air Cooled Duo-Tread Giant Tyres are given. Among the advantages claimed for this tyre are longer life owing to the two tough long-wearing anti-skid treads, better traction, almost puncture proof, air cooled and air cushioned.

Nizam's State Ry. 346.
Ordered from Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage, Wagon and Finance Co. a large number of standard B 8 4-wheeled open and covered wagons.

India freight rolling stock. 346
The want for new and additional goods stock was beginning to be seriously felt in India and. traders represented by the different Chambers of Commerce were making efforts to secure Government action.

Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. 346
Received an order from Messrs. Hensckell du Buison & Co. for a 12-ton 95 B.H.P. Diesel-electric locomotive for use at the sugar cane plantations and works of the St. Kitts (Basse Terre) Sugar Factory, West Indies. It had been ordered as a trial in connection with a plan to replace steam units, and to be employed in hauling sugar-cane from the plantation to the factory.

Number 496 (15 December 1933)

To our readers. 347.
Editorial: price increase; improved contant.

New mixed traffic engines, Southern Railway. 347. illus.
N class: No. 1410 illustrated: first type to be built at Ashford for Eastern Section with left-hand drive. Series 1400 to 1414 with 4000 gallon tenders; single slide bar but with supplementary bar to minimise wear in side blocks

Tank Locomotives, San Paulo Railway. 348.
Several 0-6-2 side tank locomotives had been constructed by Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. for the San Paulo Railway of Brazil, one of which we are able to illustrate by the courtesy of the builders. The engines had outside cylinders 18½ in. diameter by 24 in. stroke, driving the middle pair of coupled wheels. They had balanced slide valves, actuated by Walschaerts' valve gear, and lubricated by a hydrostatic lubricator. United States metallic packing was used for the piston rods and valve spindles. The crosshead slides were lined with Stone's white bronze. Steam reversing gear was adopted.
The coupled wheels were 4 ft. 2 in dia. while the trailing pair of bogie wheels are 3 ft. dia. The bogie is of the swing link type with 4 in. total side play. The driving wheel tyres have thin flanges. Bar framing is used. The boiler carries a working pressure of 170 psi, and had a total heating surface of 1,128 ft2., of which the steel tubes furnish 1,040 ft2.. and the copper firebox 88 ft2.; the grate area was 21 ft2.. The boiler, firebox, dome and cylmders were clothed with asbestos mattresses with planished steel clothing plates, and belts. A drum-head attachment was made between the tube-plate and boiler. "Ross" pop safety valve~ are fitted, while two non-lifting injectors deliver the feed through the top-feed clack boxes seen on the boiler.
The tank, bunker, cab and ashpan plates were of Armco iron to resist corrosion, while the interior of the tanks and inside and bottom of the bunker were painted with Everseal fluid. The spring gear was compensated in two groups – leadmg coupled and driving, and trailing coupled and pony truck. A spark arrestor is provided in the smokebox, with Draftac netting. Hand sanding gear was arranged to the front of the leadmg and to the rear of the trailing coupled wheels. Ordmary syphon lubrication was used for the axleboxes. The engines were fitted with a steam brake acting on the coupled wheels, and with the automatic vacuum brake for the train. Water capacity of the side tanks was 1,850 gallons, and of the bunker 3 tons of coal. In working order the total weight was 66 tons. The gauge was 5 ft. 3 in. Estimated at 75 per cent. of the boiler pressure the tractive effort was 20,950 lbf. The axlebox bearings, coupling rod and connectmg rod bushes were Stone's bronze. The engines had been built to the specifications and under the inspection of Fox & Mayo, consultmg engmeers to the San Paulo Railway.

Henschel & Son of Cassel. 348
Had recently completed a novel type of locomotive. using heavy oil, for express traffic. It had direct drive as on the ordinary steam locomotive, and entirely eliminated electrical, mechanical or hydraulic transmission. We are promised photographs and particulars of this interesting engine for publication when they are available.

Welsh Highland Railway. 348.
At a recent meeting of the Portmadoc Council it was reported that the Joint Committee representing local authorities with investments in the Welsh Highland Railway had decided to approach the debenture holders with a view to closing down the railway. When the railway was built Carnarvonshire County Council invested £15,000 in the venture, Portmadoc Council £5000 and various other councils £3,000 each. Mr. O. Thomas said it was important that if the railway closed down, the rails should not be taken up, particularly between Portmadoc and Croesor Bridge, as it was hoped before long to see quarries in the district re-opened. It was agreed to ask the Joint Committee to ensure that the rails were not taken up. It was also arranged to seek the co-operation of the Glaslyn and Deudraeth Councils on the question of taking over that part of the railway.

Oil electric train. San Paulo Railway of Brazil. 349-50. illus., diagr. (s. el.) and plan
Three car set with diesel electric power car articulated to set supplied by Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth for service between Santos and San Paulo with Armstrong-Sulzer 6-cylinder engine.

Great Western Railway. 350.
Diesel railcar put into service between Slough and Windsor and between Reading and Didcot and Henley-on-Thames with a daily milege of 218 miles.

Obituary. 350.
W. Montgomery Neilson Reid, a director of North British Locomotive Co. on 12 November 1933.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 351. diagram (side elevation), table

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Valve gear control. 352-4. 2 diagr., table
Comparison of link motion with radial gears. Walschaerts' gear: relative position of return crank or eccentric; eccentric rod; radius rod; combination lever; uion link and crosshead arm. See also letter in next volume on p. 29 from J.C. Cosgrave

Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Light Ry. 354.
Passenger service had been suspended from 6 November 1933. The stone traffic from the quarries at Criggion provided the bulk of the revenue of the line, as well as a certain amount of goods and coal. The bulk of the locomotive power of the line was provided by the three ex-LMS 0-6-0 tender engines Nos. 8108, 8182 and 8136. Except for fitting the vacuum brake they are unaltered. The two ex-LSW 0-6-0 tender engines Hesperus and Thisbe were still in good order, but the Pyrasnus of this class had been scrapped. Of the three ex-LBSC Terrier tanks Daphne was still in order, but Dido and Hecate weare in a dismantled condition. The very light 0-4-2 tank locomotive Gazelle was under repair. The old LCC horse tram which was used with Gazelle was still existing. The villages on the line are now being served by a 30-cwt. Chevrolet bus, but the accommodation afforded was not very luxurious.

Locomotive testing station at Vitry-sur-Seine, France. 355-8. 5 illus.
Notes earlier stationary tresting plants at Purdue University, on the Chicago & North Western RR in 1895, at Columbia University from 1899, on the Pennsylvania Railroad at Altoona in 1904 and at Swindon in 1905. The Vit4ry plant used Froude hydraulic brakes which could absorb a total of 7200 horsepower (1200 hp per  driving wheel pair). The maximum speed accommodated was 160 km/h. Amsler hydraulic dynamometer. Built by Heenan & Froude of Worcester

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 358.
No. 13260 was latest 2-6-0 mixed traffic engine to be completed and turned out at Crewe. Of this series, the first five engines, Nos. 13245-9, had been allocated to the Northern Division. New 2-6-4 passenger tank engines ex Derby, Nos, 2405-2409, were at work on the Central Division. Three-cylinder 4-6-0 No. 5971 which was rebuilt at Derby in 1930 without the original name Croxteth was now running with new name plates affixed bearing that name.
The following engines have been rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: 4-4-0 Precursor superheater No. 5286 Dunrobin; 4-6-0 19 in. goods Nos. 8736 and 8841; 0-8-0 Class G1, Nos. 9023 and 9382; 0-8-0 Class G2 Nos. 9441 and 9449.
Recent withdrawals included two further 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class engines, Nos. 5600 Prince of Wales and 5610 Robert Southey. 4-6-0 19 in. goods No. 8750 (Central Division), and 0-6-0 coal class Nos. 8134 and 8195 had also been withdrawn.
New construction at Derby  would comprise additional 2-6-4 passenger tank engines, of which some were to be provided with three cylinders; these will commence with No. 2500. The order for two-cylinder type ended with No. 2424, which was almost ready for traffic.
Contracts have been let for the construction of fifty 4-6-0 2-cylinder mixed traffic engines to be built by the Vu1can Foundry Ltd. and fifty 4-6-0 3-cylinder passenger engines to be built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd.

An Early Railway Signal. 359. illus.
The ancient disc and crossbar signal illustrated was on the Church way single-line branch of the Great Western Railway' near Bilson Junction station in the Forest of Dean. Erected over 60 years ago, it was designed to protect mineral trains at a crossing where a private narrow-gauge railway leading from the adjacent Trafalgar Colliery (now disused) to some iron mines three miles away passed over the G.W. line indicated and was a simple and economical method of four-way signalling. In its normal position the top disc of the signal showed towards the colliery line being "all clear" in whichever direction their train approached; the cross-bar standing at "danger" for up or down Great Western trains. The reverse was obtained by a lever movement causing the combined signals to turn the space of a quarter circle. Signalling during the hours of darkness was provided for by a lantern-type lamp having four bullseyes. This was attached to an upright spindle and revolved in unison with the day signals, two red and two green lights corresponding with the position of these. Of a pattern designed by Brunel in the early 1840s, so far as is known this signal was the only one remaining in situ.
An interesting feature is the signal-post itself, consisting of a 20 ft. length with a shorter length joined of a Barlow saddle-back wrought iron rail. This was one of the very early types and subsequently superseded on all running lines by bridge rails hid on longitudinal sleepers. Until a few years ago the signal was in active use, but the narrow-gauge railway referred to, of which the track formation can plainly be seen, was taken up shortly after the closing of Trafalgar colliery at the end of 1925.
The relic is certainly on historical ground as the main line of the Bullo Pill-Forest of Dean tramroad described in the Loco. Mag. for January, 1931, p. 26 at this spot passed alongside.

L. M. S. Ry. Cheadle branch diversion. 359.
Excavation of 145,000 cubic yards of earthwork and the construction of three new bridges had been involved in an important improvement scheme brought into use by the LMS Railway on Sunday, 26 November, whereby the Cheadle branch line in StafIordshire, had been diverted for over 2 miles.
The branch which is single track throughout runs from Cresswell station, on the main line from Burton and Derby to Stoke-on- Trent, to Cheadle, a length of 3½ miles. It was constructed independently by the Cheadle Railway Company, in 1898 under Parliamentary powers obtained ten years previously. The line was promoted primarily for mineral traffic, but a passenger and goods service is also provided from the two stations on the branch, Tean and Cheadle, to the main line at Cresswell, The line was acquired by the North Staffordshire Railway in 1907, and on grouping, became L.M.S.
In recent years it had become apparent that some scheme of improvement was necessary on account of the condition of the Cheadle Tunnel, half-a-mile in length. This was in an unsatisfactory state owing to settlement of the ground, and after various schemes had been examined a diversion of the line to avoid the tunnel was decided upon and Parliamentary powers for the present alternative line round the hill were obtained in 1931, work being started in 1932.
The new line, which is single, in the open, and about 2½ miles long, leaves the old line just north of Tean Station to rejoin it again near Cheadle station. The original line from Tean station to a point. on the north side of the tunnel is to be abandoned, but the remaining length from this point to Cheadle station will be used as sidings to serve the New Haden Colliery. The gradient of the diverted line is an improvement, a considerable length of the old line at the Cheadle end being 1 in 37; the new line nowhere exceeds 1 in 60.

L. M. S. Ry. Wembley station. 359.
Workmen engaged on alterations to Wembley LMS station brought to light a 96 year old cast-iron plate bearing the initials of the London and Birmingham Railway, London's first main line railway. The plate, which was affixed to the bridge carrying Wembley High Road over the railway, dates from the opening of the line from Euston to Boxmoor in 1837.

Campbeltown & Machrihanish Lt. Ry. 359
By a Court Order obtained on the 17 September this narrow gauge railway is to be wound up. An article on this railway appeared in Loco. Mag., 12 (15 October 1906) p. 173.

Southern Railway. 359
The latest School class locomotives completed at Eastleigh Works were Nos. 920 Rugby, 921 Shrewsbury, and 922 Marlborough. Nos. 923 Uppingham, and 924 Haileybury are to be finished by the end of the year.

A.C.W. Lowe. The Llanelly Railway and its locomotives. 360-5. illus., map
In August 1861 a further Act was obtained, authorising the construction of lines from Llandilo to Carmarthen and from Pontardulais to Swansea and Penclawdd. The former involved mixing the gauge of about a mile of the Carmarthen and Cardigan, which was a broad-gauge line, and over which it was proposed to run from Abergwili Junction into Carmarthen. As the financial position of the Carmarthen and Cardigan prevented it from carrying this out, the Llanelly obtained power to do it itself. The Carmarthen line was opened for general traffic on 1 June 1865, and the Swansea line, together with the Penclawdd branch, on 14 December 1867, although goods trains had been running over both of them for several months previously, These lines did not long remain in the hands of the Llanelly. The lease of the Vale of Towy having expired in March 1868, a new one was entered into in which the LNWR became joint lessees with the Llanelly, the former having reached Llandovery by means of the Knighton, Central Wales and Central Wales Extension Rys., all of which it worked. This brought the LNWR to Llandilo, and when, in 1871, a new arrangement was come to by which the Carmarthen, Swansea & Penclawdd branches of the Llanelly were constituted a separate company, known as the Swansea & Carmarthen, the LNWR entered into arrangements to work it, and took it over on 1 July of that year.
In the following year the gauge of the S.W.R. was narrowed, and this put the GWR. into the position of being able to satisfactorily arrange for the working of the Llanelly, the remainder of whose lines it took over on 1 January 1873.
As might be expected of a railway which began operations at so early a period, the Llanelly Co. possessed some interesting examples of early locomotive construction, whilst the later types, which were taken over by the GWR, were described in this journal by E.L. Ahrons, in September and October 1926.
Horses only were used on the Dafen branch, whilst this form of traction was also resorted to when the first portion of the main line was opened. The directors had, however, previously decided to employ locomotives, and in January 1839 had contracted with T. Hackworth, of Shildon, to supply them with one engine and tender for £1,200; whilst, in the following March, a second engine was ordered from the same maker on the same terms as the first. An interesting side light on the views of the Board is shown by their decision, "that it be ascertained whether the chimney could not (without any disadvantage) be so constructed as to have a joint within two feet of the top, to lower the same down, as in steam vessels, when going under an arch." What resulted from this query does not appear to have been recorded, but the height of the over bridges must have been low.
The date of delivery of these two engines has not been put on record, but in December 1839 the directors decided that the first should be named Victoria and the second Albert. It may therefore be safely concluded that they were then nearing completion, and delivery probably took place early in 1840. Moreover, in the Directors' Annual Report, dated 1 June 1840, it was stated that "the two new locomotive engines are now at Llanelly, and one of them, the Albert, is engaged in traversing the line in hauling coal down to. Llanelly," and further that they "have proved themselves most efficient and superior machines, frequently taking at one time a gross load of I50 to 160 tons."
Two further locomotives were delivered, one in 1842, and the other early in 1843, the builder of which is not specified, but these very probably also came from Hackworth. They were ordered to be named Prince of Wales and Princess Royal. All these were six-coupled tender engines, and it is unfortunate that very few particulars of them are known. The most definite are those in the Report of the Gauge Commissioners, from which it appears that all four engines had 4ft. wheels, two having inside cylinders 14½ in. by 16 in., and the other two outside cylinders, one being 14 in. by 18 in., and the other 12 in. by 24 in. The weight of the engine with the last named cylinders is given as 17 tons, whilst that of the other three is stated to have been 14 tons. The two so-called inside cylinder engines were the first delivered, and it seems probable that they had vertical cylinders at the trailing end, in accordance with Hackworth's practice at about this period.
The Victoria exploded at Pantyffynnon on January 29, 1858, killing three men and injuring thirteen others and, from the enquiry held by Col. Yolland we have further particulars with regard to this engine, and which are no doubt equally applicable to the Albert. At this date the diameter of the cylinders had been increased to 14½ inches, probably due to wear, or re-boring; the wheels remained 4 ft. in diameter; and, as the total wheelbase was only 8 ft. 6 in., they must have been very close together. Of the boiler, Col. Yolland says "it was of wrought iron plates, 7/16 in. in thickness, was 12 ft. long and 4 ft. 3 in. diameter. It contained an internal main tube of wrought iron 1 in. thick, 8 ft. long and 2 ft. in diameter, which tube carried the firegrate at one end, and had a combustion chamber, also of iron ½ in. thick attached to it at the other, the furnace, smokebox and chimney being at one extremity and the combustion chamber at the other, and 68 small iron tubes, 2 in. exterior diameter, led from the combustion chamber through the boiler to the smokebox and chimney. A steam dome was placed over the centre of the boiler. Originally the boiler had only one main longitudinal stay secured to the two ends of the boiler, and had side stays placed over the combustion chamber. . . . ***It is stated that there were 294 ft2 of surface in the small tubes, and 99 ft2 in the main tube and combustion chamber, making together 393 ft2 of heating surface, and that it would evaporate 64 ft3 of water per hour." It appears that the working pressure had at one time been 80 psi, but had been reduced to 60 psi at the time of the explosion. The Inspector further remarks: "From the peculiar construction of the engine, the driver, having the regulator, steam-pressure gauge, water gauge glass and water cocks immediately under his control, rode at the leading end of the engine, and the fireman, who had to look to the fire and attend the feed cocks, rode at the other." Apparently the engine had done but little work for some time prior to the accident, and it was found too light for the mineral traffic, particularly in the winter, but had been repaired in December 1857 and put to ballasting.
There is no further mention of the Victoria after the explosion, and it was presumably scrapped. The Albert was withdrawn from service in 1859, and offered for sale at a reserve price of £200, but no purchaser seems to have come forward at the time. In 1861 a Mr. G. Young offered to exchange it for a new truck, but there is no record of its ultimate disposal. The Prince of Wales and Princess Royal were probably of Hackworth's well-known type, with outside sloping cylinders and long connecting rods, but no details of these engines are on record. The Prince of Wales was rebuilt in 1854, when McConnell of the LNWR. was consulted as to the firebox being adapted for burning anthracite, but this was found to be impracticable. It was in the shops for re-conditioning in September 1868, when it was proposed to fit it with a new boiler barrel, but it is doubtful if this was carried out as it was sold to Philip Richards for £250 in October 1872.
The Princess Royal was repaired and reconstructed in 1858. In the following year it was let to the Mynydd Mawr Company for service above the inclines at a charge of £2 per week. How long it remained at this work does not appear, but there is no record of it having taken any further part in the traffic of the railway.
These four engines were for a long time the only ones in use on the Llanelly Ry., horse-power being still employed to a considerable extent. The speed of the locomotives at this period was limited to eight miles per hour. In March 1843 the Board contracted with Messrs. Hugh Waddle & Loftus Margrave, of Llanelly, for the working of the locomotives, paying them at the rate of £1,230 per annum, the contractors providing labour, fuel, etc., for running and maintaining the engines. This contract terminated in March 1850, when a new one was made with Messrs. James I' Anson, of Bishop Auckland, and George Fossick and Thomas Hackworth, of Stockton-on-Tees, who took over the locomotives and rolling stock. After three and a half years this contract was also determined, and in August 1853 the Board took over the locomotive working, and appointed as locomotive superintendent, Joseph Hepburn, who had acted in a sunilar capacity for the late contractors.
The financial difficulties which prevented the completion of the line until 1857 also precluded the purchase of any new locomotives, and the additional ones necessary to meet the development of the traffic during this period were obtained second-hand. All these came from the LNWR, and all were of the well-known 0-4-0 type, constructed by Edward Bury, of Liverpool. The first, which cost £1,050, was purchased in 1847. It had been originally delivered to the LNWR Southern Division, on which it was numbered 74, in July 1839, and by the Llanelly Ry. was named Princess Alice. The next, purchased in October 1853 for £660, was No. 77 of the LNWR., and came new in September 1839. This was named Princess Helena. The third, purchased in April 1855 for £500, had been No. 64 of the LNWR delivered new in January, 1839; and this was named Alfred. These three engines were originally all of the same type, and all had four 5-ft. diameter wheels, cylinders 13 in. by 18 in., and a wheelbase of 5 ft. 10 in., the total weight being 13 tons 12 cwt. No. 64 had, however, been partially reconstructed at Wolverton in 1845, the boiler being lengthened by about 2 ft., the wheel- base extended to 8 ft., and the cylinders increased to 14 in. by 20 in. The weight was then 15 tons 12 cwt.
The Princess Alice was rebuilt at Llanelly in 1859 as a 0-4-2 by the addition of a pair of trailing wheels behind the firebox. After this it was apparently known as the Alice, the Princess being dropped, and on being taken over by the GWR became No. 896. The Alfred was similarly rebuilt at Llanelly in 1863, and became GWR No. 897. The Princess Helena was re-boilered at Llanelly in 1857, and provided with an iron instead of a copper firebox, but in this engine no alteration appears to have been made in the wheel type. It was apparently withdrawn about 1870 whilst both the engines, which became GWR property, were scrapped in December 1877.
The seven engines just described, and which cost in all £7,355, were all the company possessed at the time it was decided to proceed with the completion of the main line to Llandilo, whilst of these the Victoria and Albert were of primitive design and too light for the mineral traffic of the railway. Additional power was therefore indispensable, and it was decided to purchase two mixed traffic engines to replace the Victoria and Albert. These were ordered of Messrs. Beyer, Peacock & Co. in November 1856, at a charge of £4,750, and delivered early in the following year. They were of the builders' design, and contained several features characteristic of that firm, such as the copper-topped chimney, polished brass dome cover, splasher beadings, etc. When first re- ceived they appear to have been known only by the makers' Nos. 46 and 47, but in April 1859 they were ordered to be named Victoria and Albert, respectively, in place of the two engines they superseded and which had then both been withdrawn from traffic. Ahrons gives the follow- ing dimensions of these engines: Cylinders, 16 in. by 24 in.; coupled wheels, 5 ft. dia.; trailing wheels, 3 ft. 6 in. ; wheelbase, leading to driving, 7 It. 9 in. ; driving to trailing, 7 ft. 1 in.; heating surface of 192 2-in. tubes, 1,130 sq. ft.; firebox, 82 sq. ft. Total, 1,212 sq. ft. Grate area, 14 sq. ft. Weight in working order: leading, 9 tons 10 cwt.; driving, 9 tons 5 cwt.; trailing, 4 tons 15 cwt., total, 23 tons 10 cwt. They had 6-wheeled tenders, with 3 ft. 6 in. wheels, equally divided over an 11 ft. wheelbase. When taken over by the G.W.R. they became Nos. 898 and 899, respectively, and, according to Ahrons, the former engine had the cylinders subsequently en- larged to 17 in. by, 24 in. This, however, is almost certainly incorrect, as the engine was in bad repair and was scrapped in 1874. No. 899, on the other hand, had been extensively recondi- tioned, and fitted with a new crank axle in July 1869, and it lasted until May 1883.
On the completion of the Vale of Towy Railway, in April 1858, the company purchased a small engine from Mr. Hutchings, the contractor for that line, for the sum of £275. It was known as the Vale of Towy, but whether it actually carried that name is uncertain. It was probably a. light engine of the contractor type, but no particulars of it are available. Doubtless it was treated only as a stop-gap until further engines could be obtained, and was disposed of about 1860.
Two mineral engines were ordered from Fossick & Hackworth, of Stockton, for £2300 apiece, one in April 1858, and the other in August 1858. Although the actual date of delivery is not on record it probably took place early in 1859, as in April of that year the Board decided that they were to be named Arthur and Leo respectively. The builders had somewhat primitive ideas regarding locomotives, and these two engines, which were of the six-coupled, long-boiler type, had outside cylinders high up on the sides of the smokebox, with long connecting rods driving the rearmost pair of wheels. In this respect they resembled the Hackworth type of the early 1840s, this being perhaps accounted for by the fact that Thomas Hackworth, who was George Fossick's partner, was a brother of Timothy Hackworth, and was partial to the latter's designs. They had 4 ft. 9 in. wheels, and cylinders 16 in. by 24 in. Both these engines were handed over to the GWR, Leo becoming 902, and Arthur 903. The latter did not survive for long, and was condemned practically in its original condition in November 1876. Leo, on the other hand, underwent extensive alteration. In July 1871 the Board decided that this engine should be adapted for the working of the inclines, and it was accordingly taken into the shops with a view to converting it to an eight-coupled tank engine, by the addition of an extra pair of wheels behind the firebox. New cylinders 20 in. by 24 in. were also to be provided. This work was still in hand when the engine was taken over by the GWR, and Mr. Armstrong then proposed, "that no further expense be incurred in reconstructing the Leo tank engine, as from our experience in working engines of very similar class on the Vale of Neath Railway, I do not think that it will be worth your while to complete it in its proposed form." Apparently , however, the work was found to be too far advanced to be abandoned, and the engine was completed as an eight-coupled tank. Like the Vale of Neath engines referred to by Mr. Armstrong, however, it did not give satisfaction, and was sold in February 1877 to the Landore Siemens' Steel Co., the pioneer works started by Dr. Siemens, although he had previously done experimental work at Birmingham.
A passenger engine was also supplied by Fossick & Hackworth, in 1860, at a cost of £2,000, and was named Beatrice. Apparently some delay occurred in its completion, as in April 1860 the Board insisted on its immediate delivery, and in July of the same year ordered Mr. Phillips, the General Manager,. to report on its working. Very little appears to be known of the design and construction of this engine, but it is. believed to have been of the 0-4-2 type, with 5 ft. driving wheels and cylinders 16 in. by 20 in. It became No. 895 on the GWR, and lasted until June 1882.
No further locomotives were obtained for several years, and when it became necessary to augment the stock an arrangement was made, in 1864, with the United Kingdom Railway Rolling Stock Co. for the supply of locomotives. This arrangement apparently did not preclude the company from building or rebuilding for themselves. The first engine delivered under this arrangement was the Victor, which came early in 1865. It was built by Fossick & Hackworth in 1864, and was/precisely similar to the Arthur and Leo. It was constructed to the order of the U.K.R.R.S. Co., who supplied it to the Mid Wales Ry., with whom they also had a contract. It was not apparently approved of by that railway, and after working there for some months was transferred to the Llanelly. Complaint was made of the tyres wearing badly, and the U.K.R.R.S. Co. were written to on the matter, it being stated that those on the Arthur and Leo were equally bad. It did not remain long in the service of the Llanelly Ry., and in December 1872 was disposed of to the Carmarthen & Cardigan Ry. This line was taken over by the GWR on  1 July 1881, but the Victor was at once withdrawn from service and never numbered in the GWR stock. It was, however, preserved at Swindon as a curiosity for about ten years, after which it was broken up. At this period, a six-coupled engine, which is enshrouded with a certain amount of mystery, was constructed by Hepburn at the Llanelly Co.'s shops. It was put to work in 1865, and named Louisa. It was stated to have been of the same design and construction as the mineral engines supplied by Fossick & Hackworth, and certainly the recorded dimensions, so far as they go, correspond with these. If this were really the case, it may be suggested that it was merely erected at Llanelly from parts sunplied by Fossick & Hackworth, but too little is known concerning the engine to form any definite conclusion. In any case, it had a very short life, as after being numbered 904 by the GWR it was condemned in November 1876.
The subsequent engines supplied to the Llanelly were, if less interesting, of decidedly more modern design. In 1865 Thomas Hackworth retired from the firm of Fossick & Hackworth, and his place was taken by George Blair, the firm being henceforth known as Fossick & Blair. The new firm still appears to have retained its connection with the United Kingdom Railway Rolling Stock Co., but, freed from the somewhat antiquated predilections of Thomas Hackworth, brought out an entirely new type of six-coupled engine, with inside cylinders, designed on more up-to-date lines. Four of these engines were built for the Llanelly Railway, of which two were constructed to the order of the U.K.R.R.S Co., by Fossick & Blair, and the other two were built in the Llanelly shops, doubtless from parts supplied by the same makers. The two built by the company were completed in 1865, and were named Alexandra and Wales, whilst the two which came from Stockton were named Ernest and Edinburgh, and were delivered in April and September 1866, respectively. Ahrons gives the following dimensions of these engines: Wheels, 5 ft. dia.; cylinders, 16 in. by 24 in. ; wheelbase, leading to driving, 7 ft. 9 in. ; driving to trailing, 7 ft. 2 in. ; boiler barrel, 11 ft. by 4 ft. ; outside firebox, 4 ft. long by 3 ft. 7 in. wide by 4 ft. 8 in. high. The boilers had raised fireboxes, the domes being on the latter. The tenders were on six 3-ft. 6-in. wheels, with a base of 13 ft., equally divided. They were numbered by the GWR as follows: Ernest 905, Edinburgh 906, Alexandra 907, Wales 908. The last named was fitted with 17 in. by 24 in. cylinders at the Llanelly shops in 1873, and was withdrawn in May 1880. 906 and 907 were condemned without alteration in October and December 1881, respectively, whilst 905 was somewhat modified at Swindon, and fitted with a cab, in which condition it lasted until 1887.
Two more engines were supplied to the Llanelly Railway by the U.K.R.R.S. Co. These were built by Hopkins, Gilkes & Co., of Middlesbro', and, like the Beyer, Peacock engines previously mentioned, were at first known only by the makers' numbers, 207 and 208. They were delivered in August and September 1865, and were saddle tank engines of the 2-4-0 type — not tender engines, as stated in Ahrons' articles. They had 5 ft. coupled wheels and outside cylinders, 14 in. by 20 in. In December 1867 No. 207 was named Loughor, and 208 Amman. In 1871 the Amman was converted at Llanelly into a tender engine and was numbered by the G.W.R. 900, Loughor becoming 901. No. 900 was condemned in June 1884 and 901 In December 1886. Of the remaining engines, there is little to add to the particulars already given in Ahrons' articles. The 2-4-0 passenger engine Napoleon 1 Il, although apparently not put into service until April 1868, was certainly built in 1867, and was purchased in December of that year for £2,300. As built it had 5 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels, 4 ft. leading wheels, and inside cylinders 16 in. by 22 in. It was numbered 894 by the G.W.R., and was rebuilt at Wolverhampton in July 1882 and June 1892, and fitted there with new cylmders, 17 in. by 24 in., and latterly had a cab and G.W.R. mountings. It lasted until Jan. 1907. Of the six goods engines built by Beyer, Peacock & Co., in 1868-70, the first two were ordered in November 1867 at a cost of £2,300 each. They were named Dunvant and Towy, by the Llanelly Co., and numbered 913 and 914 respectively by the G.W.R. The first of these was scrapped in 1877, but No. 914, which had been somewhat modified at Swindon, lasted until. ovember 1886. They had 4 ft. 6 in. wheels, and cylinders 16 in. by 24 in. The other four, which had 4 ft. 8 in. wheels and cylinders 17 in. by 24 in., were ordered in April 1869 at a cost of £2,150 each, and delivered early in the following year. Their names were originally, Grongar, Stradley, Teilo and Dryslwyn, and were numbered by the G.W.R. 911, 910, 912, and 909, respectively. The Dryslwyn was, however, renamed Royal before coming into the hands of the G.W.R., this change probably taking place after the old Princess Royal had been withdrawn. They did not last long on the G.W.R., No. 909 being condemned in 1877, 910 in 1879, 912 in 1880, and 911 in June 1886. Joseph Hepburn continued in charge of the locomotive department until June 1871. During the ten years ending May 31st 1868, however, he had maintained the locomotives under contract, the directors of the Llanelly having apparently always had a liking for this method of carrying on their business. Although, as has been noted, three engines were said to have been built at Llanelly during this period, they were certainly not designed by Hepburn, and were most probably merely assembled under his supervision, the parts being supplied from elsewhere. He was succeeded by his assistant, Robert H. Hepburn, who was still in office when the line was taken over by the G.W.R.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. The roller bearing as applied to locomotives and rolling stock on railways. 365-6.
Abstract of Paper No. 317 J. Instm Loco. Engrs., 1934, 24, 2-90 by P.A. Hyde.

Mixed traffic oil-electric locomotive tried on the L. & N.E.Ry. 367-70.4 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els., section and plan)
880 b.h.p. 2-6-2 locomotive manufactured by Armstrong-Whitworth with Armstrong-Sulzer engine trialled between Newcastle and Berwick on freight and passneger services

New articulated electric trains, South Indian Railway. 370-3. 2 illus., 2 diagrs., plan.
Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. had completed an order for steel reduced weight three car articulated sets for the Madras to Tambaram line to the design of consulting engineers Robert White & Partners.

F.W. Brewer. The invention of the link motion. 373-5.
Considers the conflicting claims of William Howe and William Williams, both of whom were employed by Robert Stephenson & Co. What, then, is more probable than that it suggested, more likely to the inventive mind of Williams, than to Howe's, the change which was necessary to make it a success? Williams, who afterwards became chief draughtsman at the Ashford Locomotive Works of the South Eastern Ry., always emphatically declared that he invented the English link motion, notwithstanding that Howe claimed to have been instrumental in getting it arranged in its ultimate form.. In his own case, Williams had the strong support of a man named R. L. Whyte, who eventually went to America, but who was in charge of Stephenson's drawing office at the time when the link motion was evolved there. In Whyte's opinion, Williams was the true inventor. Summing up the available evidence, the truth may have been that the idea of merely connecting the link to the eccentric rods occurred to both men, but that it was Williams, as an experienced designer, who worked out the whole thing in a really practical manner, including the use of a slotted curved link fixed to the ends of the eccentric rods and connected by a sliding quadrant block to the valve spindle, the whole motion thus working harmoniously, and enabling the steam to be used expansively and economically. Also notes that in 1832 W.T. James invented a crude form of expansion link motion as used on a Baltimore & Ohio RR locomotive and may have sent drawings of it to Forrester & Co. of Liverpool in 1834 or 1835. See letter from E.A. Forward in next Volume.

Tour of the "Royal Scot" train to the Pacific Coast. 375.
On Tuesday, 5 December 1933 the Canadian Pacific steamer Beaverdale, arrived at Tilbury from Montreal having on board the Royal Scot engine with eight coaches of the L.M.& S. Ry , which have been on show at the Century of Progress Exposition at Chicago. On the way to Chicago the engine visited Ottawa, Toronto and Hamilton, and then went via the New York Central route through Buffalo, Rochester and Albany to Boston. By the New Haven R.R. through Providence and New Haven it reached New York, and then visited Trenton, Philadelphia, Atlantic City, Wilmington, and Baltimore arriving at Washington on May 20.
To afford an opportunity of visiting the Middle West and the Pacific Coast the Exposition authorities kindly allowed the train to leave before the closing date. Leaving the Union Station, Chicago, at 8.30 a.m. on Oct. 11 the Royal Seot travelled over the Burlington route as far as Mendota, escorted for 40 miles on an adjoining track to Aurora by a train of the C.B.Q & R.R. At Mendota thousands of coins were placed on the rails by school children, making it difficult to move the train. The police at Bloomington had the greatest difficulty in handling the crowd, and at Terre Haute next morning the queue was 300 yards long at 8 o'clock. Indianapolis station was packed with people and at Louisville special trams had to be put into service to relieve the block near the station. At Holsington the engine stalled due to poor coal and "alkali" water causing it to prime badly, the only time on the whole tour. An assisting engine had to be taken to Pueblo. After refuelling the Royal Seot passed over the summit of 6,150 ft. at the Rocky Mountain divide in Colorado, unaided.
At Revelstoke, B. c., the church services were advanced on the Sunday to enable the train to be visited. A reader who was present at the Royal Seot's visit to Vancouver on Oct. 27, sends an interesting account. The train arrived in the middle of the night in a downpour of rain. He was at the station at 7 a.m. and had a real thrill when he looked over the parapet of the bridge across the tracks and saw the first English locomotive and train since he left this country 14 years ago. At the loco. shed, two miles out, a cow catcher was fitted in an hour and a half the boiler washed out, firebox and smokebox cleaned. Canvas screens were fitted to the cab sides, and from the roof to tender, in preparation for cold weather in the Rockies and on the prairie. Good coal was provided but not like Welsh steam coal. A 31 sq. ft. grate is not suitable for North American coal. After 5 hours' work the engine left the shed and rejoined the train at the C.P.R. Station. An engine with 6 ft. 9 in. drivers had never before been seen in Vancouver.
Next morning it left at eight o'clock on the long Journey to Montreal. The 1 in 40 gradient on the Canadian Pacific main hne over the Rockies was negotiated without difficulty. The tour ended over the tracks of the Canadian National Rys. at Montreal on Nov. 12. The journey from Chicago covered 8,562 miles.

Correspondence. 375.
Disposal of Mersey Ry. engines. M.A. Park. 375.
Author was Secretary, The Railway Circle of Australasia. See page 147 of the April, 1932 issue. Messrs. A. & J. Brown purchased four of the M.R. 0-6-4T engines as tabulated. The Liverpool ran for a time on Brown's line with the original name-plate still on the engine.

Mersey Ry No. Name


Date J. & A. No.


The Major



















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