A UK Registered Educational Charity

Kevin Jones' Steam Index

Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 52 (1946)

Number 641 (15 January 1946)

Jubilee of "The Locomotive". 1

The issue of last month's number completes 50 years' continuous publication of The Locomotive. Older readers will remember the early efforts in January, 1896, when the first number, then known as Moore's Monthlv Magazine, appeared in an unpretentious style with a small circulation of some 2,500 copies. Success was quickly established by the perseverance of a few enthusiasts, some ambitious young men, and the support of subscribers. By the end of the' first year we were able to enlarge the scope of activities, extend our organisation, and from that time the paper acquired its present title, known somewhat affectionately by many as the Loco Mag. We are thankful to have survived two world wars, although not without loss, and the last six years has been a period of trial. During the great raid on London in December, 1941, our Amen Corner premises were destroyed with many valuable records. Our printers' works were also severely damaged on more than one occasion, but with an admirable effort and a sense of duty to subscribers the staff brought the pages off the presses with commendable punctuality. In common with other publishers, our work during the war period has been mainly controlled by restrictions in the use of paper, and we welcome the time when they are sufficiently relaxed to enable us to add more pages.
Contributors, many of' them authorities on special subjects, have enabled us to accumulate a collection of technical and historical information which now constitutes an encyclopaedia on locomotives and railway rolling stock in the fifty-one volumes (two were published in 1903, when weekly parts were issued). This we trust to make even more complete in the future.
In the present transition era of transport and the preference that is being shewn to education, it is a matter for consideration whether an endeavour should not be made to form a Museum of Transport in this country. In the past, opportunities to acquire exhibits have been neglected, and their destruction has robbed the community of the opportunity to possess unique examples of railway history and progress. The amalgamation of existing collections and the acquisition of irreplaceable objects by gift or purchase would be a fitting tribute to the achievements of transport and the sacrifice of its workers during the war, and should not even at the present stringent time offer insurmountable difficulties. It may be that in the replanning of London, the site and buildings of an abandoned terrminus or length of railway could be reserved as a location for the purpose.

Jubilee of "The Locomotive". P.C. Dewhurst [letter]
The Jubilee of The Locomotive provides a pleasing opportunity for one who has been .a reader since the beginning of the century—and a contributor for a much lesser period — to send his congratulations upon the successful accomplishment over the long period of fifty years under the same direction. The journal was launched at a time when effective interest in locomotive development was reserved to those within severely professional limits. and the dispersal and/or destruction of valuable records pertaining to locomotive history had become accentuated. The awakened general interest in the subject, of which The Locomotive was the stimulus, if not the forerunner, is not — as sometimes mistakenly supposed — limited to an amateurish dilettante group, but has a definite professional value. Without doubt the changed atmosphere in the British locomotive world deriving from the existence of such a journal prevented in many cases, unfortunately not in all. the destruction of much data invaluable for an adequate detailed knowledge of what had previously taken place in the development of the art;' which knowledge—not susceptible of isolation in balance-sheets, although the lack of It can be a prolific time and money waster—is afforded by The Locomotive in the multiplicity of examples from the earliest period to the present time. For such reasons, as also that undoubtedly much valuable personnel has been attracted by The Locomotive to the profession, its influence has been a power for good of con- siderable effect in the locomotive world, and those who have steered it through its half-century—some, unfortunately, no longer with us—are entitled to the satisfaction of a worth-while job of work worthily carried out.

Automat buffet cars on G.W.R. 1
The cars will enable passengers to purchase snacks, smokes and drinks at any time on a journey by simply putting sixpence or a. shilling into the slot of one of the many hundreds of snack compartments. These will contain varieties of sandwiches, salads, savouries, cakes, fruit, chocolate. confectionery, ice cream, cigarettes, matches, stamps, medical requisites and even drinks, complete with wax cups. Stand up counters will be fitted in front of big observation windows on each side of the cars for the convenience of passengers who prefer to take their refreshments there. Entrance to the cars will be by a centre door at each end. The new cars will probably be used on short main line services.

Converted K4 type loco., L.N.E.R. 2. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations).
The diagram was not of a K4, nor of its two-cylinder conversion, but of a J39 0-6-0 for which the locomotive was designed as a prototype for its replacement. Notes the number of standard components, including a shortened version of the B1, alias Gresley B17, boiler. No. 3445 MacCaillin Mor in black livery with NE on tender illustrated.

L.N.E.R. class B2 locomotive. 3. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Two cylinder conversion of B17. No. 2871 Manchester City illustrated.

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 11-13. 3 illustrations

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 13-15.

Number 642 (15 February 1946)

The economics of the gas turbine locomotive. 17.
Elsewhere in this issue is described the first gas-turbine locomotive, which has been operating in Switzerland for some years past. This engine has given satisfactory service, but the decision to use a particular form of motive power is naturally based very largely on its economics. In weighing up the economic value of the gas- turbine locomotive it is best to consider the subject first from the point of. view of traffic density, which is the determining factor of any traction system. If a dense traffic has to be dealt with, full electri- fication will always receive the first consideration. Wherever this is justified, any other form of locomotive is immediately excluded, which means that the principal competitors of this form of motive power will be steam and compression-ignition locomotives.
When compared' with the steam locomotive, it should be noted that coal cannot yet be employed as a fuel for the gas-turbine locomotive. This fact restricts its use to countries in which oil occurs or can be obtained relatively easily and cheaply, unless there are special reasons in favour of the use of oil instead of coal, such as avoiding pollution of the atmosphere. In countries rich in oil resources, or where oil is readily available and is even used for firing steam locomotives, the reduc- tion of the oil consumption to a little more than half is likely to be a deciding factor in favour'of the gas-turbine locomotive. Where fuel oil is obtainable at about h3,1£ the cost of Diesel oil, the fuel costs of the gas-turbine will be equal to those of the compression-ignition engine—in each case being between 50 and 75 per cent. of those of comparable steam locomotives.
Considerable saving is also realised in lubricating oil costs, as experience shows that the consumption of lubricants of purely rotating machinery is extremely small, whereas according to American authorities the lubrication costs of steam locomotives amount to 10 per cent. of the fuel costs. The corresponding figure for compression-ignition engines is from 20 to 30 per cent., and in the case of the gas-turbine less than 1 per cent. A big advantage of the gas-turbine locomotive, doubly reflected in the operating costs, is the absence of water. This does away with the necessity of having to carry a supply of water, as much as 100 tons in modern American practice,and also with all the arrangements connected with obtaining, delivering and treating it. The absence of water also results in increased availability,. since there are no interruptions for boiler cleaning and repaumg.
The wear of continuously rotating machinery is less than that of reciprocating, .and according to Swiss experience with electric locomotives, far less maintenance should be required for the electrical part and hence fewer interruptions of service than with the steam locomotive.
The initial cost is, of course, an important factor because of the investment and amortization charges. Only pre-war prices are available, but according to American data the cost of a steam locomotive was then about $35 per H.P., and that of a compression-ignition locomotive with electric transmission about $88 per H.P. The price of a gas-turbine engine should lie between these two, somewhere in the neighbourhood of $65 per H.P., assuming the manufacture to be carried out on similar lines to those now in use for the production of standardized types of locomotives. . The efficiency of the gas-turbine also falls mid- way between that of steam and compression-ignition locomotives; the percentage efficiency at the draw-bar being 15 to 16 for the new prime- mover, 6 to 8 in the case of the steam locomotive, and 26 to 28 for the Diesel-electric. Compared with a Diesel-electric of equivalent power, there is, in the case of the engine described this month, a saving in weight in favour of the gas-turbine of 20 tons.
When discussing the expectancy of life, the question most frequently raised is the durability of the turbine blading. The operating temperature range has been conservatively fixed at 850- 1,.100 deg. F.; for this range of temperature considerable experience is available, e.g., with gas-turbines for Houdry oil-refining plants, and pro- viding the maximum admissible temperature is not exceeded for any appreciable time, the blading may be depended upon. The life in years of the gas-turbine locomotive should equal that of the steam locomotive, being in turn between 50 and 100 per cent. longer than that of the compression-ignition engine. Due to its greater availablity, the annual mileage will be about the same as that of the Diesel.
If it is possible to solve the problems inherent to the pulverized-coal gas-turbine, the future of the gas-turbine locomotive would be very bright; the results obtained by the makers from a turbine of this type justify hopes of it becoming available in the near future.

L. Derens. 3-cylinder goods locomotives. Netherlands Railways. 18-20. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Dutch Government in exile in London ordered35 goods and 15 passenger locomotives from Nydqvist & Holm of Trollhattan in Sweden. The freight locomotives were similar to those supplied to the Grangesberg & Oxelosund Railway: three-cylinder 0-8-0 with SKF roller bearings, Walschaerts valve gear, 3  m2 grate area, drop grates, Schmidt superheatrers, 148.2  m2  evaporative heating surface, driving wheels 1350 mm diameter.  Golsdorf type tender.

Ian G. Duncan. Locos. by Markham &; Co. Ltd. 20. illustration, table
Markham & Co., Broad Oaks Works, Chesterfield, better known as constructional engineers and mining machinery makers than as locomotive builders, between the years 1889 and 1914 built no less than 19 steam locomotives for use on industrial lines. (See table below.)
At least 17 of these are still at work to-day, adequate proof that good design and workmanship had gone into their production. To-day enquiries are received by Markham's for the supply of similar engines, although for the last 30 years the firm has built no locomotives at all. Despite the fact that Markham's do not build locomotives now, they still undertake to supply spares and renewals to those of their products still in use, and in this way several of the early loco- motives with 13 in. cylinders have been supplied with 14 in. ones.

WN date


cylinders gauge


owner at publication
101 1889 0-4-0ST 8in x 10in metre


Cranford Iron Co.
102 1889 0-4-0ST 8in x 10in 4ft 8½in

The Baronet*

Waltham Ironstone Mines.
103 1891 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Staveley Coal & Iron Co.
104 1891 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in

St. Albans

Bestwood Coal & Iron Co.
105 1891 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Staveley Coal & Iron Co.
106 1891 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in

Hickleton Main Colliery Co.
107 1893 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in

G. Bond

Staveley Coal & Iron Co.
108 1893 0-4-0ST 8in x 10in metre


Clay Cross Co., Crick Quarry.
110 1893 0-6-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Staveley Coal & Iron Co.
109 1894 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Staveley Coal & Iron Co.
111 1897 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in


W. Cooke & Co., Sheffield.~

1909 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Bullcroft Main Colliery.

1909 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Markham Main Colliery.

1909 0-4-0ST 13in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Staveley Coal & Iron Co.

1909 0-4-0ST 14in x 20in 4ft 8½in


DalmelIington Iron Co.

1909 0-4-0ST 14in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Vickers, Ltd., Sheffield.§

1909 0-4-0ST 14in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Parkgate Iron & Steel Co.

1913 0-4-0ST 14in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Parkgate Iron & Steel Co.

1914 0-4-0ST 14in x 20in 4ft 8½in


Parkgate Iron & Steel Co.

* Originally Cranford Ironstone Mines.
~ Used as a stationary boiler.
.§ Built to stock in 1909: sold August 1912 to Viackers and works plate added then with date 1912: then owned Slater's scrap dealers, Brighton
Two locomotives with 13in cylindeers increased to 14in
Illustration: Metre gauge engine Tommy (Photo by Stoyal)

The locomotive in Persia. 21-5
Concluded from page 11 At the outbreak of war the locomotive stock of the Persian Railways comprised approxiinately 120 units—no more precise figure was obtainable in this land where records are not treated with the respect which is accorded to them in some other parts. This figure is made up as follows:

4-8-2 + 2-8-4 4 Beyer-Garratt
2-8-0 5 Beyer-Peacock
2-8-2 12 Nohab
2-10-0 16 Hensche
2-8-0 49 Krupp Henschel and Esslingen
Miscellaneous 34
Total 120

The Miscellaneous heading covers a very mixed assortment of locomotives, some fairly new, some second or third hand, and all unfit for main-line. service. The most interesting were some 0-10-0 two-cylinder Goldsdorf compounds built at Wiener-Neustadt for Turkey in 1912. The Garratt engines, weighing 201 tons, were intended to tackle the 1 in 36 grades from Pole Sefid up to Gaduk and the rather less severe ascent on the southern side, but after covering only about 60,000 miles each on this service they were all withdrawn because of cracked firebox crown plates. This failure was in no way due to faulty design or construction, but to lack of washing out, to the rapid fluctuation of temperature which is always possible with oil firing and to very excessive use of the tube expander. During the British occupation one of these engines was given a new firebox and is known to have run at least 18 months subsequently on this extremely severe section without further repair apart from the usual shed maintenance, which had, incidentally, by that time been taken over by the Russian forces. The Garratt locomotive appears to be very suitable for Persian service, since it combines ample steam- ing capacity with moderate track loading. The added complication is, of course, a disadvantage and, in fact, when the British troops arrived at Teheran in 1942, appeared to have been regarded as an insuperable difficulty, since one of these engines was in the erecting shop with the boiler lifted, but for the last six months no one had been able to think of a way of proceeding further. When a number of L.M.S. Rly. fitters appeared on the scene, however, the monster capitulated and was soon resolved into its component parts!
The other Beyer-Peacock product, the 2-8-0, is rather too small for serious main line work except south of Andimeshk, and tends, consequently, to be relegated to shunting service. At the end of 1941 they were all in traffic and had never been shopped. It seems therefore that they possess some quality which is more resistant to the "charm" of Persia than is the case with other classes in service in that country. These locomotives weigh 70 tons each. The 86-ton three-cylinder 2-8-2 built by the Swedish Nohab concern has a nominal tractive effort of 38,000 lb., and on paper, therefore, appears likely to put up a good performance on the Trans-Iranian route. In practice, however, these engines are unable to keep their 19½ in. cylinders supplied with steam and must be written down as failures. One of them has been rebuilt with smaller cylinders, but initial trial results were disappointing. Some research and experiment anent the oil-firing system would probably yield improved results, but when the British forces left the Persian Railways in 1943 eleven of the twelve engines were in storage and the remaining one was used only for shunting and local freight trips. Up to 1942 almost all the heavy main-line work was in the hands of the German built 2-10-0 and 2-8-0 engines. These locomotives are of standard German pattern, apart.from .the oil-firing equipment, which has been applied in a successful manner. Their chief defect is that frame stretchers, saddle and motion plates are of light fabricated construction, these details being presumably incorporated in place of steel castings owing to the demands of German re-armament. The carrying axle and the leading coupled axle are combined in an arrangement known as the Krauss 'truck, forming in effect a distant relation of the four-wheeled bogie. This device, however, did not prevent heavy flange wear on the leading coupled wheels. The leading wheels of the tender bogies were also very prone to flange wear, the bogie wheelbase being short in relation to the gauge. A most successful feature of the design is the single bar crosshead , w.hich is provided with mechanical lubrication via a drilled slidebar. The wear on the sliding faces of both bar and cross-head was negligible. A further most attractive feature, if perhaps somewhat superficial, is the chime whistle, the melodious yet powerful notes of which echo from hill to hill in a manner most pleasing to the enthusiast's ear. British railways please copy! Both these classes, when in good condition, steam very freely and perform excellently on the Teheran-Ahwaz mail train, being able to maintain 30 m.p.h. up the 1 in 67 grades with 300 tons. The 2-10-0, which weighs 98 tons by comparison with the 80 tons of the 2-8-0, is naturally the more powerful and is an excellent all-round performer under Persian conditions il reasonably maintained. In spite of the ten-coupled wheelbase, no trouble was experienced in round ing the sharp curves encountered so frequently while on the 1 in 36 grades this class was invalu able in handling war-time traffic. The 2-8-0. although a fairly large engine, is really somewhat on the smal1 side when standards of maintenance are taken into consideration, and of all the loco- The Miscellaneous heading covers a very mixed assortment of locomotives, some fairly new, some second or third hand, and all unfit for main-line. service. The most interesting were some 0-10-0 two-cylinder Goldsdorf compounds built at Wiener-Neustadt for Turkey in 1912. The Garratt engines, weighing 201 tons, were intended to tackle the 1 in 36 grades from Pole Sefid up to Gaduk and the rather less severe ascent on the southern side, but after covering only about 60,000 miles each on this service they were all withdrawn because of cracked firebox crown plates. This failure was in no way due to faulty design or construction, but to lack of washing out, to the rapid fluctuation of temperature which is always possible with oil firing and to very . excessive use of the tube expander. During the British occupation one of these engines was given a new firebox and is known to have run at least 18 months subsequently on this extremely severe section without further repair apart from the usual shed maintenance, which had, incidentally, by that time been taken over by the Russian forces. The Garratt locomotive appears to be very suitable for Persian service, since it combines ample steam- ing capacity with moderate track loading. The added complication is, of course, a disadvantage and, in fact, when the British troops arrived at Teheran in 1942, appeared to have been regarded as an insuperable difficulty, since one of these engines was in the erecting shop with the boiler lifted, but for the last six months no one had been able to think of a way of proceeding further. When a number of L.M.S. Rly. fitters appeared on the scene, however, the monster capitulated and was soon resolved into its component parts! The other Beyer-Peacock product, the 2-8-0, is rather too small for serious main line work except south of Andimeshk, and tends, consequently, to be relegated to shunting service. At the end of 1941 they were all in traffic and had never been shopped. It seems therefore that they possess Miscellaneous 34 120 some quality which is more resistant to the "charm" of Persia than is the case with other classes in service in that country. These locomo- tives weigh 70 tons each. The 86-ton three-cylinder 2-8-2 built by the Swedish N ohab concern has a nominal tractive effort of 38,000 lb., and on paper, therefore, appears likely to put up a good performance on the Trans-Iranian route. In practice, however, these engines are unable to keep their 19! in. cylinders supplied with steam and must be written down as failures. One of them has been rebuilt with smaller cylinders, but initial trial results were disappointing. Some research and experiment . anent the oil-firing system would probably yield improved results, but when the British forces left the Persian Railways in 1943 eleven of the twelve engines were in storage and the remaining one was used only for shunting and local freight trips. Up to 1 942 almost all the heavy main-line work was in the hands of the German built 2-10-0 and 2-8-0 engines. These locomotives are of standard German pattern, apart.from .the oil-firing equip- ment, which has been applied in a successful manner. Their chief defect is that frame stretchers, saddle and motion plates are of light fabricated construction, these details being pre- sumably incorporated in place of steel castings owing to the demands of German re-armament. The carrying axle and the leading coupled axle are combined in an arrangement known as the Krauss 'truck, forming in effect a distant relation of the four-wheeled bogie. This device, however, did not prevent heavy flange wear on the leading' coupled wheels. The leading wheels of the tender bogies were also very prone to flange wear, the bogie wheelbase being short in relation to the gauge. A most successful feature of the design is the single bar crosshead , w.hich is provided with mechanical lubrication via a drilled slidebar. The wear on the sliding faces of both bar and cross- head was negligible. A further most attractive feature, if perhaps somewhat superficial, is the chime whistle, the melodious yet powerful notes of which echo from hill to hill in a manner most pleasing to the enthusiast's ear. British railways please copy! Both these classes, when in good condition, steam very freely and perform excel- lently on the Teheran-Ahwaz mail train, being able to maintain 30 m.p.h. up the 1 in 67 grades with 300 tons. The 2-10-0, which weighs 98 tons by comparison with the 80 tons of the 2-8-0, is naturally the more powerful and is an excellent all-round performer under Persian conditions il reasonably maintained. In spite of the ten-coupled wheelbase, no trouble was experienced in round ing the sharp curves encountered so frequently while on the 1 in 36 grades this class was invalu able in handling war-time traffic. The 2-8-0. although a fairly large engine, is really somewhat on the smal1 side when standards of maintenance are taken into consideration, and of all the loco- The Miscellaneous heading covers a very mixed assortment of locomotives, some fairly new, some second or third hand, and all unfit for main-line. service. The most interesting were some 0-10-0 two-cylinder Goldsdorf compounds built at Wiener-Neustadt for Turkey in 1912.
The Garratt engines, weighing 201 tons, were intended to tackle the 1 in 36 grades from Pole Sefid up to Gaduk and the rather less severe ascent on the southern side, but after covering only about 60,000 miles each on this service they were all withdrawn because of cracked firebox crown plates. This failure was in no way due to faulty design or construction, but to lack of washing out, to the rapid fluctuation of temperature which is always possible with oil firing and to very . excessive use of the tube expander. During the British occupation one of these engines was given a new firebox and is known to have run at least 18 months subsequently on this extremely severe section without further repair apart from the usual shed maintenance, which had, incidentally, by that time been taken over by the Russian forces. The Garratt locomotive appears to be very suitable for Persian service, since it combines ample steam- ing capacity with moderate track loading. The added complication is, of course, a disadvantage and, in fact, when the British troops arrived at Teheran in 1942, appeared to have been regarded as an insuperable difficulty, since one of these engines was in the erecting shop with the boiler lifted, but for the last six months no one had been able to think of a way of proceeding further. When a number of L.M.S. Rly. fitters appeared on the scene, however, the monster capitulated and was soon resolved into its component parts! The other Beyer-Peacock product, the 2-8-0, is rather too small for serious main line work except south of Andimeshk, and tends, consequently, to be relegated to shunting service. At the end of 1941 they were all in traffic and had never been shopped. It seems therefore that they possess Miscellaneous 34 120 some quality which is more resistant to the "charm" of Persia than is the case with other classes in service in that country. These locomo- tives weigh 70 tons each.
The 86-ton three-cylinder 2-8-2 built by the Swedish N ohab concern has a nominal tractive effort of 38,000 lb., and on paper, therefore, appears likely to put up a good performance on the Trans-Iranian route. In practice, however, these engines are unable to keep their 19! in. cylinders supplied with steam and must be written down as failures. One of them has been rebuilt with smaller cylinders, but initial trial results were disappointing. Some research and experiment . anent the oil-firing system would probably yield improved results, but when the British forces left the Persian Railways in 1943 eleven of the twelve engines were in storage and the remaining one was used only for shunting and local freight trips. Up to 1 942 almost all the heavy main-line work was in the hands of the German built 2-10-0 and 2-8-0 engines. These locomotives are of standard German pattern, apart.from .the oil-firing equip- ment, which has been applied in a successful manner. Their chief defect is that frame stretchers, saddle and motion plates are of light fabricated construction, these details being presumably incorporated in place of steel castings owing to the demands of German re-armament. The carrying axle and the leading coupled axle are combined in an arrangement known as the Krauss 'truck, forming in effect a distant relation of the four-wheeled bogie. This device, however, did not prevent heavy flange wear on the leading' coupled wheels. The leading wheels of the tender bogies were also very prone to flange wear, the bogie wheelbase being short in relation to the gauge. A most successful feature of the design is the single bar crosshead , w.hich is provided with mechanical lubrication via a drilled slidebar. The wear on the sliding faces of both bar and cross- head was negligible. A further most attractive feature, if perhaps somewhat superficial, is the chime whistle, the melodious yet powerful notes of which echo from hill to hill in a manner most pleasing to the enthusiast's ear. British railways please copy! Both these classes, when in good condition, steam very freely and perform excel- lently on the Teheran-Ahwaz mail train, being able to maintain 30 m.p.h. up the 1 in 67 grades with 300 tons. The 2-10-0, which weighs 98 tons by comparison with the 80 tons of the 2-8-0, is naturally the more powerful and is an excellent all-round performer under Persian conditions il reasonably maintained. In spite of the ten-coupled wheelbase, no trouble was experienced in rounding the sharp curves encountered so frequently while on the 1 in 36 grades this class was invalu able in handling war-time traffic. The 2-8-0. although a fairly large engine, is really somewhat on the smal1 side when standards of maintenance are taken into consideration, and of all the locomotives so far seen in Persia the 2-10-0 Henschel would probably on average take pride of place.
When, during the latter half of 1941, it was decided to use the Trans-Iranian route as a means of transport to Russia, barely half the locomotive stock was fit to handle main-line traffic, and so heavy were the· repairs required that it was obviously essential to import a large number of locomotives. The choice fell upon the L.M.S. designed 2-8-0, a locomotive of good repute and generally substantial construction. Unfortunately no thought had been given to the operation of these engines in countries where coal cannot readily be obtained, and so the first 43 engines were supplied in coal fired condition and mostly without Westinghouse brake. As a result, this batch was confined to the level, south of Andi- meshk, where coal stacks were instituted, apart from three engines which were handed to the Russians for use between Pole Sefid and Bandar Shah. The Soviet authorities expressed themselves as well pleased with these engines. The remaining 140 engines which followed were fitted with oil firing and Westinghouse brake. They were immediately put into main line service be- tween the Persian Gulf and Bonekuh, the section from Teheran to Bonekuh being under Soviet administration. The 2-10-0 Henschels were at the same time concentrated on the steepest section north of Bonekuh, and the British engines operated the whole of the remainder together with assistance from such of the German 2-8-0 engines as could be maintained in reasonable condition. It will be seen, therefore, that the mainstay of Persian motive power during 1942 was the L.M.S. 2-8-0, without which the task could not have been approached. At the same time this locomotive by no me~ns came fully up to expectations, for the followmg reasons:
(1) This engine is basically' too small for a route of such severity, even if it functioned perfectly in all respects.
(2) The oil firing arrangement was inefficient and prevented results comparable with those obtainable with coal fuel. The burner was satisfactory, but too much air was admitted towards the front of the ashpan and none was admitted at the firehole door. As a result, cold air was drawn directly into the lower tubes, while there was insuffi- cient air in the upper part of the firebox to ensure complete combustion at high rates of firing. In addition the smokebox vacuum was too weak. Thus when working hard the engines emitted dense black smoke and would hardly steam against one injector. whereas it was necessary for them to steam against both on long inclines. The firehole doors became almost red hot and rapidly warped and cracked. The original L.M.S. pattern of hollow door with air slots would have been very much better. Several of the coal-fired engines were converted to oil at Teheran with the aid of fittings recovered from disabled Persian engines, and gave rather better if not entirely satisfactory results.
(3) Superheater elements, after a few months' service, gave considerable trouble by burning out at the firebox end. Only one spare set of elements was provided for these 143 engines, but by cutting a length of 15 inches from the existing elements and welding on locally improvised return bends the trouble was eventually overcome. These elements are of rather light gauge material for British practice, and certainly too thin for use in oil-fired locomotives. Two engines were experimentally fitted at Teheran with snifting valves on the header, the cylinder air relief valves being removed, but no improvement was noted.
(4) These engines were fitted with one live steam injector and one exhaust steam injector. These functioned well enough in cool weather, but on the advent of summer to Southern Persia injector failures became frequent. The exhaust injector manufacturers, when apprised of the predicament, manufactured and rushed out hot-water cones and fittings with commendable rapidity, and these enabled feed water at 135°F. to be dealt with. New live steam injectors of hot water pattern were obtained from India and a large proportion of engines so fitted with good results.
(5) Top feed clacks gave some trouble with sticking, a fault traditionally dealt with by means of a large hammer, but recalci- trant engines had to be temporarily with- drawn from traffic. The later engines of "Austerity" design have the luxury of shut-off valves, a fitting which should be standard practice.
(6) Water gauge drain cocks gave continuous trouble by blowing through, and the gauge itself is by no means easy to read under cerfain conditions, especially at night. As stated previously, the Klinger type is very much better in all respects except perhaps first cost.
(7) Cylinder drain cocks, as in home service, were prone to blow. In British practice a halfpenny is often inserted to effect a temporary cure; in Persia the half Rial piece was used with equal, efficacy although at twice the expense!
(8) The L.M.S. hooter whistle is temperamental. A more reliable signal is desirable, in Persian practice at least, although this is a minor point by comparison.
(9) Electric headlights were supplied only on a few engines. A number were transferred from unusable stock. In such an uninhabited and wild' country it is difficult at night always to be sure of one's position without this fitting, and it may also prevent head-on collision in certain circumstances.
(10) As stated already, sand-boxes should be ample and the sand supplied through the medium of compressed air. As these desiderata were lacking, on the worst section Southern goods brake vans were propelled at the head offreigfit trains to perform the· necessary sanding, and proved a valuable palliative, although reminiscent of the use of a steam-hammer to crack a nut.
The above catalogue of misdemeanours may appear somewhat formidable, but they serve to show that a locomotive which gives .every satisfac- tion in British service is not necessarily just as reliable when operating in a country of completely different type. It is to be regretted that sufficient previous thought was not applied to the .problem, since the transportation task in Persia was made unnecessarily difficult and the prestige of the British locomotive in that country, and perhaps others, has suffered bycomparison 'with American and German products. At the same time these engines did in fact literally deliver the goods to Soviet territory, and it is only fair to point out some of the good features in which they excelled, and which enabled them to keep the wheels revolving, albeit rather slowly at times.
(1) Frames and frame details stood up very well indeed, and were much superior to the German engines in this respect. In the event - of collision they were easier to repair than the American 2-8-2. Only one case of a cracked frame is known, this being at the usual place at the rear corner of the driving horn gap.,
(2) The L.M.S. cast steel axlebox, originally imported from Swindon, is well known to be an excellent product, and it well main- tained this reputation in Persia. Only one hot box occurred, and this was due to a fractured oil-pipe.
(3) Cylinders, pistons, valves and motion generally stood up very well, the wear being no more than is usual in British practice.
(4) All boilers were in very good condition when sent to Persia, and gave excellent service (from a mechanical, as distinct from a steam raising, point of view), It should be noted that these boilers are not fitted with any of the flexible stays usually con- sidered essential in such circumstances. The screwed flue tubes were very reliable in ser- vice, 'but difficult to replace, especially at running sheds. The engines converted to oil firing at Teheran had the original roof and side stay nuts left in position. Contrary to general opinion, no trouble was experienced with the burning off of these nuts by the oil flame.
(5) On a line containing so many sharp curves it was anticipated that pony truck tyre wear would be rapid, but in practice the wear was found to be very small indeed. Possibly this was due to the well-lubricated rails!
(6) Separate suspension of all wheels was a con- siderable advantage when dealing with de- railed engines.
(7) The engines rode very steadily on the somewhat light permanent way.
(8) The capacity to run freely at high speed was outstanding. In Persia, however, this is an advantage only. in the hands of an expert crew, and even then the track is too light .to admit of full utilisation. On one occasion the Teheran - Ahwaz mail was observed to reach 62 m.p.h. on a straight and fairly level stretch. Five miles of track were badly damaged as a result.
As in the war of 1914-18, the aid of the United States was sought with a view to the supply of additional railway equipment. Consequently there appeared in Persia towards the end of 1942 the first of a large order of 2-8-2 locomotives. These engines were designed, constructed and shipped ~ith commendable urgency, The principal dirnensions are:
Cylinders 21 in. by 28in.
Driving wheels 5ft. 0in. dia.
Pressure 2001b. per sq. in.
Weight of engine 89 tons
The builders were Baldwin, Alco and Lima, and the detail work and minor dimensions varied slightly according to the maker. In particular the reversing gear had three distinct variations according to origin. On some engines the nut was at the front in fore gear,. in others at the back. It as not, therefore, surprising that one of the class went through. the shed wall at Bonekuh during its second day in Russian territory. A feature which immediately became apparent was the ability to mamtam full steam pressure under almost any' condition of load and gradient. Although the firebox was of the wide pattern, and thus, nomin- ally, not quite so suitable for use with oil firing as the narrow type used on the L. M. S. engines, the design and application of the oil fuel components had evidently been founded upon the best American practice. The fireboxes were of steel, some of them having circulating or arch tubes. The firehole door was a massive hollow casting which, when shut, registered with a vertical air flue designed to take air from below the cab flooring. The design of the big-end bearings (said to be of British derivation) was interesting in that it pre- supposed the ability of lubricating oil to penetrate the oilholes in a floating bush in defiance of the law of 'centrifugal force. This arrangement was tolerable on level ground, although it resulted in rapid wear, but on long inclines where the engine was kept punching away for upwards of half an hour at a time, the bushes became red hot and even the surrounding parts of the rod began to assume a red glow which could be distinctly seen at night. I t was clear that such a thing could not be allowed even on the Trans-Iranian, and a complete cure was effected by the provision of grease lubrication. These engines were provided with screw couplings which were much less robust than the British pattern" and a lot of trouble was experienced on this account. The steam sanding gave unsatisfactory results, like that on the L.M.S. engines, and was altered to air sanding. When their various minor, . though important, troubles had been rectified, the full. tractive effort of these locomotives was realised. The writer has known one of them to maintain 45 m.p.h. up a continuous grade of 1 in 67 with a train of 310 tons and to blow off violently the whole time. Speed would probably have gone higher but for the severity of the curves. It may be said that the basic design of these locomotives was adequate, with a capacity for steam generation which must be termed outstanding. While the importation of these 2-8-2 locomotives gave much-needed relief to the motive power situa- tion, the problem of feed-water supply became no less acute and was now the limiting factor. The decision was taken to import diesel locomotives for use on the southern portions of the route, where the shortage was most intense. The type selected was the standard Alco 1,000 h.p. diesel-electric, but owing to the loading six-wheel bogies were sub- stituted for the normal four-wheel pattern. The engines thus modified' weighed 11'2 tons. A further modification consisted in providing a motor on all six axles, thus giving a nominal motor h.p. of 1,500. At starting these engines give a tractive effort of 54,700 lb., but this drops to 28,000 lb. at 10 rn.p.h., 14,000 lb. at 20 m.p.h., and 6,500 lb. at 30 m.p.h. The maximum speed is 60 m.p.h. These engines were handled from the start by American crews and quickly ousted steam loco- motives from all main-line work south of Andi- meshk. This arrangement somewhat upset the established· practice of the natives in this arid region where water had hitherto been obtainable in buckets supplied from the injector overflow pipe, provided the footplate staff were in benevolent mood, as the Tomrny usually is. The natives were quite unable to understand why this type of engine could not be similarly "milked," and many touch- ing scenes were daily enacted for weeks after this innovation became established. North of Andimeshk the class gradually took on a larger share of the working, and on this section double-heading was the rule, only one footplate crew being necessary. At the outset these engines gave every promise of a successful reign, but the writer is unaware as to what troubles, if any, were developed subsequent to the Americans assuming complete control of the railway south of Teheran. A further interesting importation was a batch of Krupp 2-10-2 'engines originally built for a Chinese line, but diverted by the Allies to India, where they were fitted with oil fuel apparatus. As supplied they would scarcely steam themselves along level track, but were taken in hand by the U.S.A. authorities, who finally handed them over to the Russians for use on the 1 in 36 grades, where they are reported to have behaved well. The following locomotives were erected by British troops in Persia, mainly by personnel of the 155th Railway Workshop Company Royal Engineers, a unit which had served with the B.E.F. in France in 1940 and was later to serve in Iraq, France, Belgium and Holland, and Ger- man. Locomotive erection was carried out at Ahwaz. It was in no sense a complete building, but usually necessitated lifting to examine journals and axleboxes in order to rectify damage caused by sea water. The motion had also to be checked over and fitted up, the cab unpacked, and so on. It finally came coupling up and steam test.

2-8-0 W.D. (LMS) 143
2-8-2' U.S.A


2-10-2 Krupp


4-6-4T ex Hong Kong


4-6-2T ex Hong Kong


0-4-0 American diese


0-6-0T Henschel



The three Henschel tank engines were discovered in packing cases lying at an uncompleted steel works near Teheran and erected in the workshops at the latter place. The 0-4-0 diesel engines were deliveries on a Persian contract, but were too small for effective war-time service except in isolated cases.
The above account is by no means a complete story of the Trans-Iranian Railway and its locomotives, but it is hoped that enough has been said to suggest the conditions which are likely to be encountered by the railwayman who goes, whether as soldier or civilian, to such a venue, and who can hardly fail to return a wiser and, perhaps, in some respects, a sadder person!

Canadian Pacific. 25
Four locomotives built for the Canadian Pacific Railway between 1882 and 1887 were still doing excellent service on branch lines in Ontario and New Brunswick. When new, these 4-4-0 engines were the latest in wood-burning locomotives. To-day, with the old "cow-catchers" removed, reboilered, and equipped to burn coal, there is little evidence of their great age. The oldest of the quartet, No. 105, is an 1882 product of Dubs & Co., of Glasgow. She ran out of Winnipeg from 1896 until 1935, when she was transferred to the Chipman-Norton run in New Brunswick. where her mileage now is 1,300,000. No. 105 is teamed up with No. 144, built by the C.P.R. in its old Delorimier Avenue Shops in Montreal in 1886. Between Renfrew and Eganville in Ontario the other two 60-year-old locomotives haul mixed passenger and freight trains. The senior engine of this pair, No. 136, is American built, first seeing service out of Montreal in 1883. No. 136 was engine No. 30, another product of the Delorimier Shops, built in 1887.

The L.M.S. Railway. 25
Announced following appointments consequent upon the death of C.E. Fairburn: H.G. Ivatt, Chief Mechanical Engineer; R.C. Bond, Techanical Engineer, Locomotive Works; E. Pugson, Mechanical Engineer, Carriages and Wagons; F.A. Harper, Mechanical Engineer (Electrical).

G.W.R. 25
Two further 4-6-0 engines, No. 1005 and 1006 completed at Swindon. Nos. 9622 to 9627 were new 0-6-0PTs. Nos. 2854, 2872 and 2888 2-8-0 tender engines had been converted to burn oil fuel.

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 25-6. 2 illustrations, table
Continued page 62. In 1902, as the company was short of engine power, it arranged to purchase six 2-4-2 tank engines from the L. & N.W. Railway; these were of F.W. Webb's smaller type, having 4-ft. 6-in. wheels, the alteration of gauge being carried out at Crewe, where the engines were painted the standard D.W.& W.R. green, and all carried D.W.& W.R. plates with date 1903; the dimensions were: cylinders 17-in. by 20-in., wheels 4-ft. 6-in. and 3-ft. 3-in., heating surface 971.6 ft2., grate area 14.2 ft2, boiler pressure 150 psi, tanks 1,450 gallons, coal 2½ tons, weight in working order 45.9 tons. The following is a list with numbers and names carried by the engmes:

Number WN Built Number Name
2070 2856 Aug 1885 59 Earl Fitzwilliam
25'02 2683 Oct 1883 60 Earl of Courtown
2496 3677 Sep 1883 61 Earl of Wicklow
842 3604 Sep 1887 62 Earl of Meath
1017 2726 Apr 1884 63 Earl of Carysfort
2251 3605 Jan 1877 64 Earl of Bessborough

(Nos. 842 and 2251 had been originally 2-4-0T type with Crewe Works numbers 2122 and 2102). These engines were not an entire success at their new duties, the coal consumption being rather heavy; for the most part they worked on the Dublin passenger service, but were also in use on goods and ballast trains. In 1913 No, 64 was rebuilt at Grand Canal Street with a higher pitched boiler, the dimensions being 9-ft. 4-in. by 4-ft. 51/8-in., length of firebox 5-ft. 31/8-in., heating surface 724.5 + 107.5=832 ft2, grate area 15.3 ft2, centre line 7 ft. 10 in., pressure 150 lb., tanks 1,480 gals. coal 2½ tons, weight, adhesive 23.75 tons, total 50.0 tons; the coupled wheel diameter was increased -to 4-ft. 9-in., probably by thicker tyres. In 1923 this engine was cased in armour-plate and used to draw an armoured train during the Irish Civil War. It became G.S.R. No. 427 in 1925, with classification F3, and was withdrawn in 1936, but remained at Inchicore shed for some time after.
As the five remaining engines of the class were capable of conversion to the 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge, they were sold to the British Government during WW1, three during 1916, and two in 1917; Nos. 60/2 were used at Richborough Port, and Nos. 59 and 61 were afterwards sold to the Cramlington Colliery, becoming 13 and 14 in their list; No. 63 worked at Shoeburyness; all had been scrapped many years. These engines are interest ing as the only ones ever converted from 4 ft. 8½ in. to 5 ft. 3 in. and then re-converted to 4 ft. 8½ in.
A new design of goods engine was buIlt at Grand Canal Street to the design of Richard Cronin, of increased power and having a large cab with two side windows; five of this class were built in all, but two of them came from Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1905. The dimensions were: cylinders 18-in. by 26-in., wheels 5-ft. 1-in., wheelbase 7-ft. 3- in. + 8-ft. l0-in. = 16-ft. 1-in., boiler 10-ft. 3-in. by 4-ft. 8=in., length of firebox 6-ft. 0-in., heating surface 876.5+94.3=970.3 ft2, , grate area; 20.0 ft2, boiler pressure 160 psi, weight of engme m working order 43 tons; tender, with 2,600 gals. and 3½ tons of coal, weight 30.4 tons. No. 13 Waterford was built at Grand Canal Street in 1904, and No. 14 Limerick in 1905; these two engines became G.S.R. Nos. 442/3 in 1925 with classification J8; No. 442 was scrapped in 1930 on account of cracked frames, and 443 was fitted in 1940 with a Belpaire boiler, presumably off another ex D.S.E.R. engine.
Two further engines of the same class, Nos. 65 Cork and 66 Dublin, were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1905 (WN 4647/8), the heating surface being 1,074.7+118.5=1,193.2 ft2., and boiler pressure 175 psi the cylinders at first were 18`-in. diameter, but were later returned to 18-in; these engines became; G.S.R. Nos. 445/6, and were still at work with the pressure reduced to 160 psi and classification J8. Nos.  443/5 were fitted with flush top 351 class GSW boilers,
A fifth engine, No. 18 Enniscorthy, was built at Grand Canal Street in 1910, but differed in a few respects: the wheels being 4-ft. 11½-in. diameter, total heatinhg surface 1200 ft2, boiler pressure 170 psi, weight ofengine inworking order 47 tons; it became GSR No. 444 aand was still at work. This engine had a la rge cab, but without side windows. Illustrations: Webb 2-4-2T No. 60 >Earl of Courtown  in DWWR green; 0-6-0 No. 13 Waterford

The first gas turbine loco. 26-9. illustration, 2 diagrams
The First Gas Turbine Loco HE gas-turbine locomotive depicted in Fig. 1 was ordered in 1939 by the Swiss Federal Railways from Brown, Boveri & Co., Ltd., of Baden, who were responsible for the whole of the design and construction, with the exception of the frames, running gear, etc., which were supplied by the Swiss Locomotive & Machine Works, of Winterthur, to the order of the first-mentioned firm. The engine was intended for use on branch lines where the traffic density was .insufficient to justify electrification. Some idea of the importance attached to this development may be gathered from the fact that notwithstanding the exceptional difficulty in obtaining fuel oil during the war period, the Federal Government released to the Railways sufficient to put the locomotive into regular service. Since May, 1943, it has operated on the. Winterthur-Stein-Sackingen line, covering 94 miles daily on mixed trains of up to 300 tons.

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 29-31. map
The Glasgow & Belfast Union Railway had hoped to extend the railway which had reached Ayr in 1840 by an inland route to Girvan and thence along the coast to Stranraer, but this foundered, but Girvan was reached in 1860 and on 5 July 1865 Parliament approved a further extension to Stranraer,
Construction developed, but very slowly. Three very heavy works, the Glendoune cutting, the Pinmore tunnel and the Kincaer viaduct were concentrated at the Girvan end, and by the beginning of 1874 none of these had been completed, Another Act was passed on July 7, 1873, once more reviving powers, and extending the period of construction for another two years from 20 June 1873. Early in 1873, John Miller, engineer of the line, became seriously ill, and was replaced for the next period of construction by Edward L.I Blyth, who was responsible for certain amendments to the original scheme, the 65 lb. rails originally specified being altered to 70 lb., with 28 lb. chairs, and he also proposed a station at Luce Abbey, about 1½ miles from the south end of the line. Though the station was never constructed, some progress had been made with the project, for a grass bank that was to have been the platform can still be seen on the west side of the line near Milepost 29¼.
Better progress was made in 1874, and early in that year the first locomotive made its appearance. This engine came to work at the Girvan end, and was an 0-6-0 saddle tank named Sambo, cylinders 12 in. by 17 in., built by Manning, Wardle (makers' number 427) and delivered the previous year to Pilling. There is evidence that Sambo proved too stiff for some of the curves, and worked for some time as a 0-4-2T.

Correspondence. 31-2

"Trend of locomotive design." Bernard Bramall.
May I refer to your leading article for December last, and in particular to your remarks concerning roller bearings.
Whilst not intending to deprecate the advantages of roller bearings in general, I am inclined to question a policy of applying them initially to long-distance rolling stock. The reduced frictional losses incurred by the use of these bear- ings show to advantage more especially at low speeds; at high speeds the difference is very small. Their supremacy is evidenced to an even greater extent on starting from a standstill. Before a plain bearing can function properly a film of oil must be built up. Consequently on starting from rest, until this film has been built up. high resistances are encountered. Starting resistance may be of the order of 18lb. per ton (Phillipson). a figure which under oil film conditions is appropriate to speeds of sixty or seventy miles per hour. The roller bearing, on the other hand. is not dependent on maintenance of a film of lubricant. and has extremely low starting resistance.
In view of these considerations, it would seem logical to apply this type of bearing, in the first instance at least. to local and slow passenger stock, where its cardinal advantages can be exploited more fully. In regard to un braked goods and mineral stock. it rarely occurs that all the axles along a train start in motion at the same instant as is the case with close coupled passenger rolling stock. 'Nevertheless, the benefit of reduced resistance at speeds of 10 to 15 mile/h. would show to greater benefit than in high-speed trains.
While considering the subject. it might in justice be noted that roller bearings call for rather more stringent inspection than the plain type. Generously proportioned as they may be. failure is generally due to fatigue cracks, which. once in evidence rapidly proceed to complete failure. whereas a plain bearing, given adequate lubrication, can be said to wear out rather than fail.

The First Locomotive in Natal. G.V. Bulkeley. 32
In your issue for September 1939, page 269, there appeared a photograph of 0-4-0 locomotive No. 5 of the Melbourne & Hobson's Bay Railway, South Australia, at work on Sandridge Pier, Adelaide.
I enclose a booklet by T.J. Espitalier giving illustrations and details of the first locomotive to work in Natal. This was of 4ft. 8½in. gauge. (The S.A. Railways are now entirely 3ft. 6in.
You will note that the Natal engine is of practically identical design to No. 5 engine of South Australia above mentioned. The small wheel at the side of the enginemen's footplate is the flywheel of a small boiler pump engine. The Natal engine is gradually being rescued, bit by bit, from the river bed where it was dumped many years ago. It has been reconstructed (partly in wood) and will stand as an historical object of interest 'in the Durban terminus of the S.A.R.
It occurs to me that if the builders of the No. 5 S Australian engine can be traced, it may be found that the Natal engine also came from their shops, and perhaps they still have the original drawings from which it could be accurately reconstructed in detail here.

Compound locomotives. Henry W. Davis.
I have read with interest the various letters " from "compound" enthusiasts in your November number. One of your correspondents. in order to overcome the very definite difficulty regarding width of driving axle bearings to which Sir William Stanier has called attention, suggests placing two H.P. cylinders, 15½in. diameter by 28in. stroke. between the frames, and two L.P. cylinders 22in. diamefer by 30in. stroke outside the frames. This would not develop the power of, say, the L.M.S. 7P class without considerable increase of boiler pressure, and although from a balancing point of view, with the heavier outside reciprocating parts and longer stroke, this cylinder arrangement is not desirable, no doubt a satisfactory balance for practical purposes could be accomplished. But in order to keep 22 in. outside cylinders within the loading gauge it will be found necessary on a six-coupled engine to offset the axes of the coupling rods from the axes of the piston rods (on the L.M.S. Pacifies the centre line of the coupling rods is 107/8 in. from the frame) and such a design, for obvious reasons, is condemned as thoroughly bad practice.
Having seen something of Smith's system in its earlier days, and having had a number of de Glehn compounds under my supervision in Egypt for a period of years, it is a source of regret to one that the compound with superheater, so ably developed by M. Chapelon and described in his treatise, Locomotives a. Grande Vitesse, is not a practical proposition for express locomotives in this country owing to the restrictions imposed. It is a commentary on the interest taken in the subject that there are so many desirous of helping British locomotive engineers to design that which eminent members of the profession, like Sir William Stanier, to refer to one man only, have found impracticable. Incidentally", I did not say that the Midland compounds represented the limit of power obtainable here, but that they represented an approximation thereto. Perhaps I should have qualified the statement by adding "with modern boiler pressures." See letter from C.M. Keiller & erratum page 80

William Dean. H.C. Wallace.
It is curious that descriptions of Dean's 4-6-0 No. 36 of 1896 always seem to omit reference to the most interesting feature of this engine, the wide firebox, the first, I believe, in British practice. Churchward's paper on Large Locomotive Boilers read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1906, includes a dimensional diagram, which shows that the firebox casing was 5ft. 10in. wide and 7ft. 0in. long, with a grate area of 35 sq. ft. The Krugers also had similar fireboxes with a slightly smaller grate area. These fireboxes extended over the trailing coupled wheels and inside frames, but fitted between the outside frames.

St. Helens Railway locomotives. E.K. Kirby.
I cannot think that the view of your correspondent, B. Baxter, that the old Sharp locomotive L.N.W.R. 419 was taken over by the St. Helens Railway is correct.
I have it on very good authority that 419 was remembered by the L.N.W.R. in the duplicate list 1174 in 2/65. I again remember 181A in 1/79. The St. Helens Railway was absorbed by the L.N.W.R. in 1864.

Jubilee of .The Locomotive. E.A. Phillipson.
I am very pleased and interested to read that The Locomotive has attained its jubilee. Please include my congratulations and good wishes for its continued . success in the future with the many which you have no doubt received. In view of the position achieved and held by The Locomotive in the field of technical journalism, I cannot help- feeling that the announcement of the anniversary was unduly modest. It certainly understated the great difficulties which arose during the war years, and omitted all mention of the manner in which they were overcome. Perhaps, too, the greatly valued pleasures of friendships made in and throuh the editorial office could have been given greater emphasis, although it is difficult to express these things in words. eedless to say, readers and contributors alike sincerely reciprocate your good wishes. With apologies for my carping criticisms,

Number 643 (15 March 1946)

The "Merchant Navy" engines. 33
Editorial on Bulleid paper presented in the Lecture Theatre at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers which was crowded on Friday evening, 14 December 1945. Bulleid described his "Merchant Navy" Class locomotives, built for general main-line service on the Southern Railway, and it can confidently be said that none of those who heard the paper, supported by some excellent lantern slides, were in any way disappointed.
Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of the ensuing discussion, which was rather disappointing; this is rather a pity, because in so revolutionary a design as Bulleid's one might reasonably have expected there might have been some criticism of some of the features which characterise these engines, and which, moreover, yery definitely distinguish them from normal British standards of design
Are we to assume from this that all are in agreement and that in the future others will go and do likewise? or are we, on the other hand, to infer that the mechanical engineers of other lines had no opportunity either to applaud or condemn Bulleid's ideas themselves or to send their nght- hand assistants to voice their opinion
Bulleid certainly had a large and, we think, a highly appreciative audience,. as well. it might be, for the-design of these engmes is certainly interesting and it is seldom we have seen or heard a paper better presented. Elsewhere in this issue we print what we fear is a very much abndged version of the paper, but in doing so have attempted to mention some of the important details of the make-up of these locomotives, noting more particularly the steel firebox with thermic syphons, the valve gear and the complete enclosure of the motion for the middle cylinder. A glance at the design as a.whole enables it at once to be seen that Bulleid has been influenced to some extent by his old chief, I vatt; the short piston stroke and the wiIde firebox make this apparent, while later Doncaster practice is seen in the use of three cylinders, all driving through one axle, the "Pacific" wheel plan and the streamlining, or whatever one may. care to call It. So far as the use of steel for the internal firebox is concerned, Bulleid seemed somewhat apologetic for its inclusion, though It Iis difficult to know why. Steel for fireboxes is almost the universal material and, if applied correctly, especially m so far as the design and arrangement of the roof and water-space staying is concerned, should not be expected to be other than successful. There is plenty of experience available for the asking. Whether or not syphons are applied is another matter; some prefer to be without them. They are not a necessity when a steel box is employed. The welding of firebox seams has been practised for many years, one of the pioneers being the Norfolk & Western in U.S.A., a line noted for an enterprising policy in motive power matters.
Considering the new valve gear arrangement, while this is certainly ingenious, we find it rather difficult to agree that it had to be used for want of space to do otherwise. Any shortage of space is, we should say, of the designer's own making, because it can hardly be said that a three-cylinder "Pacific" cannot be built to the weights prescribed if cylinders and valve gear follow usual practice. The "Little Oil Bath," as one speaker called the enclosed motion arrangement,. is excellent in its way, and all one might be inclined to ask, if this plan is so advantageous, was It not applied to the new six-coupled freight engines. Here surely was a chance to enclose the whole of the motion, as these engines have "inside" cylinders. These thoughts are simply those which rather naturally present themselves when reading the paper and studying Bulleid's design. No doubt much more might be said. In the meantime the engines are in traffic and are, we believe, doing what is expected of them. What we now should be told is how they perform from the point of view of coal and water consumption for the work done, and how they compare in this respect with other engines. A paper on the performance of the lomotives, both from the point of view of the boiler and the cylinders, would, we feel sure, agam attract another large meetmg.

South African Railways. 33.
The first locomotives of the G.E.A. class 4-8-2+2-8-4 wheel arrangement had been shipped to Port Elizabeth. These engmes had been built at the Gorton works of Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., to the specification and requirements of M.M. Loubser, Chief Mechanical Engineer.

"Merchant Navy" locomotives, Southern Railway. 34-7. 3 diagrams.
Based on Bulleid's IMechE paper

Ireland. 37.
Locomotives scrapped by Coras Iompair Eireann: No. 7L 4-4-0T (Caven & Leitrim Section); Nos. 8, 43 and 45 (Kerrie bogie class); Nos. 45, 47 and 49 (0-4--4T built 1883-6); No. 92 (0-6-4T Inchicore cab); No. 165 (101 class 0-6-0); Nos. 465 and 469 (4-6-0T ex CB&SCR); No. 531 (4-4-0 ex-MGWR D bogie class); No. 622 (ex-MGWR 0-6-0).

L.N.E.R. 37
Exhibition of power-operated hand tools at King's Cross Station organized by Chief Engineer's Department.

Inspection coach for D.D. Rys., Cologne. 38. diagram (side & end elevations & plan)
Control of German State Railways via tours of inspection: a modern first and second class corridor coach had been converted for this specific purpose. The selected vehicle was built by Creda, at Kassel; it was partially streamlined, mounted on four-wheel bogies with roller bearings, and was 20.52 m. over headstocks, with an overall length of 21.82 m. . It was originally numbered 11680, and had been bomb damaged.
The removal of a toilet, three second-class compartments and the contiguous corridor at one end standing, connection may be made by means of a plug to the 220 volt station supply. An electric bell system was provided with connection to the engme. The train heating system included three radiators located in the vestibule (hand-brake end), conference room and corridor respectively.
The coach, which had been renumbered 10357, is finished externally in sea blue, lined in cream. The crest of the Royal Engineers and the lettering "D.D. Railways, Cologne" in yellow are arranged centrally below the waist line. The conversion was carried out in the Deutsche Reichsbahn workshops at Opladen, on the orders of Col. B. M. Strouts, M.B.E., To the detailed instructions of Lt.-Col. E. A. Phillipson, R.E., A.D. Tn. (Loco- motive Carriage and Wagon Running). Both officers were on the staff of the L.N.E.R.

LM.S.R. 38
The following new locomotives have been put into traffic: 4-6-0 Mixed Traffic Tender, Class 5, 4915 to 4922 (built at Crewe); 4941 to 4946 (built at Horwich); 2-6-4 Tank, Class 4P, 2209 to 2218 (built at Derby); 0-6-0 Diesel-electric Shunter, 350 h.p., No. 7125 (built at Derby).
The following engines have been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 4P No. 25683 Falaba, 25749, No. 25725 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-8-0 Class 6F No. 12729 (ex L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F No. 12265 (ex L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2F Nos. 3079, 3280 (ex Midland Ry.); 0-8-4 Class 7FT No. 7940 (ex L. & N.W.R.); 0-8-2 Class 6FT No. 7898 (ex L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT No. 7807 (ex L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2FT No. 27484 (ex L. & N.W.R.), No. II366 (ex L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT No. 1816 (ex Midland); 2-4-2 Class 3PT Nos. 10942 (ex L. & Y.R.); 2-4-2 Class 1PT No. 6699 (ex L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F No. 12420 (ex L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2F Nos. 3083, 3430 (ex Midland Ry.); 0-8-4 Class 7FT No. 7957 (ex L. & N.W.R.); 0-8-2 Class 6FT No. 7870 (ex L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 3FT No. II628 (ex Furness Ry., class extinct); 0-6-2 Class 3FT Nos. 16921, 16922, 16926 (ex G. & S.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT Nos.  27616, 27645 (ex L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-0 150 h.p. Diesel Mechanical Shunter No. 7051

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 39-40. 3 illustrations (line drawings: side elevations)
Continued from page 31.   Connections with the Portpatrick Ry. were now laid in at the south end, at a point called Challoch Junction, and a second engine was brought there about May of 1874. In order to assist the contractor, the G. & P. J. purchased this engine from Boulton, of Ashton-under-Lyne. This engine is of particular interest, as it has been identified as the "mystery" engine shown in Fig. 84 of The Chronicles of Boulton's Siding, page 254, but unfortunately its connection with the G. & P.J. has not revealed any of its previous history save that two local men were sent to bring it from London. It was a 2-4-0 saddle-tank, with inside cylinders, outside framing on the leading wheels and inside on the coupled wheels. Rather grimy on coming to Challoch, it was repainted dark green or perhaps brown-green, and bore the name of Duchess (illustrated). The name-plates, on each side of the saddle-tank, were of cast brass, well burnished, with a very narrow border, and a four-petalled rose cast in each corner. Duchess had no cab on arrival, but a bent sheet-iron cab was presently fitted, cover- ing the entire footplate, and blocked in with wood as extra protection. There is no recollection of a maker's plate on the engine.
With locomotive aid progress was more brisk; by the end, of the summer of 1874 Glendoune cutting, Pinmore tunnel and Kinclaer viaduct were all completed, and a congratulatory dinner was held in the King's Arms Hotel, Girvan.
Satisfaction, however, was short-lived. By the late autumn the contractor was in serious difficulties. It was a period of a trade boom following the Franco-Prussian War (still remembered in Scotland as "the time o' the big money") and wages and prices of material had risen very greatly, and he had had trouble in realizing the shares taken by him in payment of his contract. On the report of the engineer it was agreed to make a substantial increase to the contract price, and on 13 May 1875,. an Act was passed by Parliament authorizing the creation of an additional £65,000 of preference stock. Work went ahead, but the two ends of the line were far from making a junction when on the night of 26-27 September 1875, came a crushing misfortune. For a flood of enormous dimensions came down from the hills. The newly-erected stone viaduct over the Stinchar at Daljarrock, one mile north of Pinwherry, was swept away utterly, not a stone being left standing, while culverts and embankments were destroyed at several other points on the line.
The promoters might well have lost heart. not only was there very serious loss of money, but the breachmg of the line had entirely upset the working of the two engines in their transport of material. But these stout-hearted men refused to be appalled. Once more they came to the assistance of the contractor. From Boulton, Ashton-under-Lyne, they hired three engines, paying for each £50 per month. Some, and probably all of these came to the Girvan end. The contractor himself hired .another engine from Mr. Wheatley, lately left his job of locomotive superintendent of the North British to become lessee and manager of the Wigtownshire Railway, then in process of extension from Newton-Stewart to Whithorn. This engine came to the south end of the line. A contract was set for an iron bridge over the Stinchar to replace the stone one, the new bridge to be erected in three months.
The 1875 engines were an interesting lot. Of Boulton's trio, named respectively Amy, Black Knight and Rigg, Amy was a very diminutive machine, a little 0-4-0 saddle-tank built by Hughes & Co., of Loughborough, having outside cylinders 10in. by 16in. and wheels 2ft. 5in. Black Knight was more substantial, a sturdy 0-6-0 saddle-tank with inside cylinders 12 in. by 18 in., and wheels 3 ft. nominally a brand-new engine constructed by Boulton in that year, 1875, Black Knight's chassis contained parts of a Sturrock steam-tender purchased by Boulton in·1870. The boiler was of the cross water-tube variety, constructed by Boulton under his 1870 patent. The engine weighed 19 tons in working order.
Rigg (illustrated), however, was the most interesting of all. Her first recorded appearance in history was on the St. Helens Railway, as No. 24 Alma, a 2-4-0 tender engine with 12 in. by 18 in. cylinders, and coupled wheels 5 ft., and her origin was attributed to the works of James Cross, of St. Helens. There is good reason to believe, however, ,that Alma had had an earlier incarnation as one of the Liverpool & Manchester's later 2-2-2 engines. Taken. over from the St. Helens Railway in 1864 by the L. & N.W., Alma was re-numbered by the latter 1390, and subsequently 1816 on the duplicate list, and as such was sold to Mr. Boulton on  23 January 1874. For an account of the romantic career of this engine while in Boulton's service we must refer readers to the delightful pages of The Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. She arrived at Girvan in December, 1875, rebuilt by Boulton as a 2-4-0 saddle-tank with 3 ft. 6 in. driving wheels, and 12 ft. 1 in. wheelbase, and bearing the name Rzgg. She laboured at Girvan until a fateful Saturday night, when, says Mr. Bennett, "a scoundrel at Guvan, who had a spite against her driver, let all the water out of the refilled boiler. Rigg was kmdled on the Sunday night with disastrous results, the firebox being ruined and lagging burned off. She was taken back to Boulton's Sidmg. m September, 1876, and lay there for a long time rn a dismantled condition, for she appears m a photograph taken as late as 1880-1. Ultimately she was purchased by a Manchester broker, who scrapped her in Ardwick yard.
Wheatley's engme had also a. considerable history, bemg none other than the 0-6-0 saddle tank Bradby, which had officiated at the construction .of the Wigtownshire Railway, and was later destmed to return to that railway as their No. 6. Bradby, which was Manning, Wardle's No. 196 of 1866 had also been No. 7 of the Solway Junction Railway and later No. 539 of the Caledonian by whom she was sold to the contractor for the Wigtownshire construction. From this contractor she came in the summer of 1874 into Wheatley's possession. .
The .question of working the G. & P.J. had now arisen. The Glasgow & South Western Railway was approached and signified its willingness to work the. G. & P.J. in return for 75 per cent. of traffic receipts. This figure, however, was considered to be excessive, and other possibilities were explored. In March, 1876, an informal meeting took place at Stranraer between certain G. & P.J. directors and T. Wheatley, who advised them to acquire their own engines and rolling-stock gave an estimate of six engines for adequate workmg of the line, and indicated' six engines which might be available. These were:
(1) Four 4-4-0 side tanks outclassed and for sale by the North London Railway. These were four .(Nos. 30, 31, 32 and 34) of the class of eight engmes (Nos. 30-37) built for the 1861 by Slaughter, Gruning & Co., of Bristol (makers' numbers 438-440 and 442).
(2) A six-wheeled four-coupled engine which he (Mr. Wheatley) has purchased from the N.B. This was evidently No. 20, a 0-4-2 well-tank, sold by the N.B. to Wheatley in 1875. .
(3) The small six-wheeled engine which he has hired to the contractor. Evidently Bradby . He also offered to ask the contractors to give the company the first chance of purchasing "the other. ballasting engine. This must refer to Sambo, since Duchess had been purchased by the company. It was not a very robust collection to operate such a heavy road, and the directors were not impressed.
Still further locomotive power was, however, necessary for construction work. The contractor could do no more; the contract had virtually ruined him. Still, he agreed to complete the job, and to help him the G. & P.]. obtained "a seventh and powerful engine." This came to the south end in May, 1876. The engine was obtained from Wheatley and was none other than ex-N.B. No. 20, mentioned by him two months before. No. 20, illustrated and described in Locomotive Mag. February, 1931, page 70, was a 0-4-2 well-tank with cylinders 12 in. by 18 in. and coupled wheels 4 ft.,9 in. She was designed by W. Hirst, and built at St. Margaret's Works, Edinburgh, in 1857, being the third engine built there. It is rather remarkable that St. Margaret's first three products should all come to Wigtownshire. No. 20 was the pioneer of a class used for light passenger traffic, she herself working the Jedburgh branch for some years. The No. 20 which reached the G. & P.J. had, however, suffered a few Wheatleyan changes. A stovepipe funnel was probably an earlier substitution by Wheatley while at Cowlairs, a small auxiliary saddle-tank had been fitted, together with a cab, and the engine had been newly painted in green, lined out with black, with the name Lochinvar (illustrated: line drawing) on the sides of the saddle-tank, and the usual "T. Wheatley, Owner" on the bunker. Vertical screw reversing gear was fitted on the 1eft-hand side of the footplate, with hand- brake on the right-hand side.
With this substantial help, construction work went forward with much energy. Storm damage was rapidly repaired, the big job of New Luce viaduct was completed early in 1876, by October of that year all except one iron bridge had been erected, and rails were in place at all points save this one.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.41-3. 3 illustrations
Continued from page 15. Just prior to his death Canner had designs ready for a 2-4-0 type tender engine larger than any presently on use on the system. The original scheme drawing showed a leading wheel 3 ft. 9 in. in diameter, but this had been altered to 4 ft. 2 in. with a query about cylinder clearance. Whether the builders queried the suitability of the design for a main line engine, or whether they were asked to submit an alternative scheme for the use of a leading bogie cannot now be traced. The builders certainly appear to have had some part in the matter, for the original diameter of the leading wheel is referred to in their records. Conner was very ill at the time and Brittain was acting as locomotive superintendent, so whether it was Brittain's or the builders' idea to have a leading bogie must remain unknown. It is, however, well known that Brittain was a believer in the leading bogie for fast work, while Conner preferred small leading wheels. The class as turned out was the first on the system to have a leading bogie and was of the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement. The cylinders were outside, and single framing was used. The builders wanted the wheels reduced to 6 ft. 8 in. diameter, but the diameter originally specified was retained to the detriment of the design. The cylinders measured 18 in. diameter by 24 in. stroke. The bogie wheels were 3 ft. 4½ in. and the coupled wheels 7 ft. 2 in. respectively. The heating surface was as follows: tubes .905.262 ft2., firebox 82.00 ft2, total 987.262 ft2.; grate area 14.6 ft2.; working pressure 140 psi. The boiler barrel was 4 ft. 2 in. inside diameter throughout made from ½ in. thick plate. The distance between the tube plates was 10ft. 6½ in. and the boiler centre line was 6 ft. 9 in. above the rail level. The cylinders were placed at 6 ft. 3 in. centres. Length of frame 27 ft. 5¾in. 'The bogie axle centres were 6 ft. 0 in. apart, coupled axle centres 8 ft. 7 in., and from rear bogie axle to driving axle centre 6 ft. 7 ½in., making a total wheelbase of 21 ft. 2½ in. Copper tubes and firebox were used. The springs on the coupled axles were connected to a compensating beam. The weight of the engine in working order was 41 tons 7 cwt. total, made up as follows: bogie 12 tons 14cwt. 2 qrs., driving axle 15 tons 7 cwt. 2 qrs., rear ooupled 13 tons 5 cwt. The tender ran on six wheels 4 ft. 0 in. diameter spaced at 5 ft 8¾ in. centres, making a wheelbase of ll ft. 5½' in. The axles were of Krupps cast steel. The capacity of the tenders as built was 1,880 gallons of water and 4 tons of coal. The weight in road trim was divided as follows: leading axle 10 tons 5 cwt., middle axle 9 tons 2 cwt. 1 qr., rear axle 10 tons, making a total of 29 tons 7 cwt. 1 qr. The weight empty was 16 tons. The total wheelbase 0 f the engine and tender was 42 ft. 3i in., and the total' length of both over the buffers 51 ft. 3 in. The slide valves of the engine were operated by Gooch fixed link motion. When new the engines were put on to the Carlisle road as purposed when ordered, but were quite unable to put up a performance equal to the single-wheeled engines despite the fact that the new engines were coupled. After a few months of bad time-keeping they were withdrawn from the Carlisle road and sent to Perth and Dundee, but owing to a rearrangement of turns shortly afterwards the engines were located at Dundee and Glasgow (St. Rollox), Nos. 125 to 127 at Dundee and Nos. 128 and 129 at Glasgow. It should be recorded that one of the causes of bad time-keeping by these engines was the difficulty in keeping the firebox filled to generate all the steam required. Firemen were not infrequently relieved by the drivers en route, and even then after a return trip the fireman was about all in. The easier timing on the North road helped the engines a little, but even then they were not a real success. One of the Dundee engines got the Lon- don connection from Dundee to work to Carstairs and legend states that the time was never kept. The engine left' with the 3.3 p.m. for Perth with four intermediate stops, arriving at the "Dundee platform" at 3.52 p.m. After train duties the . Mail left Perth at 4.4 p.m. and ran non-stop-to Stirling in 56 minutes. Here the train divided and the Carlisle portion set off after a wait of ten minutes for engine duties for Coatbridge, Motherwell and Carstairs. Coatbridge was reached at 5.53 p.m. after a stop of two minutes at Larbert (which was 14 minutes from Stirling). The other timings available are an arrival at Motherwell Junction 6.08 p.m., Lanark (Cleghorn) 6.41 p.m., Carstairs 6.50 p.m. and Carlisle at 8.40 p.m. In 1887, Drummond brought all five engines into St. Rollox and rebuilt them with boilers of his design, new cabs and modified motion. The engines were slightly improved in steaming qualities, but the heavy coal consumption of the class was still pre- dominant, The new boilers had a heating surface made up as follows: tubes (177) 837.95 sq. ft., firebox 101.07 sq. ft., total 939.02 sq. ft. Grate area 17.0 sq. ft . Working pressure 150 lb. per sq. in. The weight of the engine in working· order as rebuilt was slightly altered, becoming: bogie 12 tons 15 cwt., driving axle 15 tons 9 cwt. 2 qrs., rear coupled axle 13 tons 5 cwt. 1 qr., total 41 tons 9 cwt. 3 qrs. The tenders were slightly altered and the coal capacity could be made 4½ tons if necessary. After the rebuilding the engines were again put on to the Carlisle road, but again failing were put on to the Edinburgh and Glasgow run. Time could be kept, but the engines rolled at an alarming rate when running, so once more they returned to the Dundee and Glasgow turns. From the fact that they spent almost their entire life on this section they became familiarly known as the "Dundee Bogies." Towards the end of last century four were brought to Glasgow for working' the Boat trains on the recently opened Lanarkshire & Ayrshire Railway which connected Ardrossan with Lanarkshire. No. 126 remained at Dundee and finished its days there. The others. ended their days on the Ardrossan trains. On May 20th, 1892, No. 128, with 2-4-0 No. 424 as pilot ran with seventeen carriages from Perth to Bridge of Allan non-stop in 40 minutes exact. No. 127's. boiler was put on to 2-4-0 No. 586 to wear out. The five engines were made by Neilson & Co. in 1877 (makers' numbers 2126 to 2130) and had C.R. Nos. 125 to 129. No. 126 was renumbered 1126 in 1909, and No. 127 was renumbered at time of scrapping to 1586. The dates of withdrawal of the class were: 125 7/1906, 126 8/1910, 127 3/1905, 128 11/1907, 129 4/1907.
For use in the workshops at St. Rollox a small four-coupled crane tank was got from Neilson & Co. in 1878 (makers' number 2408). The cylinders were inside and measured 11 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke. The wheels were 3 ft. 3 in. diameter and wheelbase 5 ft. 9 in: The boiler had a pressure of 120 psi. and a heating surface made up as follows: tubes 400 ft2, firebox 39 ft2., total 439 ft2. Grate area 7.0 ft2. The tanks held 200 gallons and 5 cwt. coal was carried.. The weight per axle was 6 tons 11 cwt. on leading and 11 tons 6 cwt. on trailing, making a total of 17 weights are by no means uniform in design, and no standard practice even exists as yet in regard tons 17 cwt. The crane had a lifting capacity of 2 tons' at the fixed radius of 8 ft. 6 in. About 1904 the engine lost its crane and chimney, and received a chimney of the pattern generally fitted to class 812 goods (18½in.) with which it carried out some odd shunting, but its days were nearly over. Originally numbered 485, it was put on the duplicate list in 1899 as 1368. In 1900 the engine was renumbered 1485 and was taken from service in 1908. The engine was a useful acquisition to the works for both official and unofficial duties. A number of the old Conner tanks had the regulator in the smokebox, and this was often liable to corrode and jam. The workmen soon found that a pull by the "pug" on a conveniently placed chain was equal to much hard work by them. The engine was thus used unofficially a lot. There were also other uses for the "pug" when the "gaffer" was absent and the apprentices' braces withstood the strain of suspension. The engine was affectionately referred to by many of the hands at the works as "the wee puggie."Illustrations: No. 125 4-4-0 passenger engine, Caledonian Railway, 1877; No. 251 0-4-2 tender engine (see final note) , Neilson & Co. 1878 0-4-0 crane tank (WN 2408)
.The block of No. 251 0-4-2 tender engine, rebuilt, shown on page 42, was accidently inserted instead of the one at the top of page 61 illustrating No. 126 4-4-0 rebuilt.

Locomotive wheels. 43-4.
Although little attention has been paid until recently to the detail design of locomotive driving wheels, changes in certain sections of the railway world in regard to these items are causing many locomotive engineers to sit up and take notice. So long as the wheels were strong enough for their duty, correctly machined and, usually, suitably balanced, no further point seemed to call for attention. But this attitude is now in process of disappearing;, fortunately, since the future steam unit will survive, not through major modifications, but through the aggregate of more or less minor improvements which will go to the making of a still more effective power unit. Possibly the most drastic departure is in evidence on the Southern Railway, where the spoke wheel has given place on the latest express engines to the B.F.B. type, a ribbed and corrugated design having some rather striking features. Whether the advantages expected from so startling an alteration are realised, time alone will reveal, but the experiment is certainly one worth watching. An objection can be raised to the spoke design of wheel in that it is a prolific dust-raiser, and can provide a lot of grit and dirt — and, therefore, trouble—for the adjacent bearings, crankpins, slidebars, etc., on outside cylinder engines. It acts somewhat in the manner of a fan—a crude design, admittedly, yet one that can add appreciably to the maintenance bill.
So far as the orthodox type of wheel is concerned, no uniformity of design can be said to exist in the spoke sections or proportions, examples being in service where smaller sections carry heavier loads, in both cases steel castings being the material employed. Some designers prefer the elliptical spoke, while others use the rectangular shape; some adopt a uniform ellipse, 'others an unsymmetrical section which is influenced obviously to a very large degree by consideration of the patterri-maker's problem and the joint-to-be in the moulding box.
The design of the bosses for crankpin and axle are frequently far from ideal in the proportioning, metal being placed where it is definitely not to the best advantage. The largest section should always be well outside the mid-point of the section length for the crankpin boss, and within this line for the wheel-seat boss, the assumption being in each case that the bar (crankpin or axle) will act as a lever tending to burst open the bore in the wheel. This design admittedly creates some little difficulty for the patternmaker, but such as can easily be surmounted, and afford an almost ideally proportioned batch of castings.
The ratio of length to diameter, when related to axle or crankpin seats, might be standardised, as, indeed, might be the bore—parallel or taper, and, if taper, the rate of taper per foot. The radial thickness of each boss often seems to have been settled according to the designer's own idea of what is the best practice, and has no really fixed proportion in everyday practice; it is frequently influenced, indeed, not so much by correct proportioning as by the necessity, or otherwise, of economising in material in order to limit the total engine weight to a minimum. The shape of the axle boss. inner face when machined may be flat or grooved-more usually it is flat, though investi- gations made some time ago into axle stresses set up during the forcing-on of the wheels indicated easier stresses where this face is suitably grooved just outside the axle bore.
The design of the rim section varies tremendously in its 'proportions, as well as in the total sectional area provided to carry a given load. Likewise in the method of tyre fastening, and, therefore, the shape of the rim section. Balance to the balancing of reciprocating parts. It is well known that while some designers balance a percentage of these, others favour the total omission of any balance whatever. Presumably both schools of thought cannot be right.
It is a curious fact that apart from possessing a British Standard specification for the material when of steel, no further steps towards standard practice appear so far to have been taken. True, very few accidents in the last 50 years, if indeed any, are traceable to faulty wheel design, but this fact is no justification for perpetuating the casual methods which appear to exist to-day in the design of so important a component, nor can the lack of eo-related wheel design be glossed over in a day when such care is expended on other sections of an engine, on the successful running of which so much and so many depend.

"Eastern". Old G.N.R. locos at Hatfield. 44-6. 5 illustrations
The writer had been loaned prints of engines at Hatfield Loco Depot in the 1880s, and as illustrations of these types are uncommon, they deserve notice.
The special features include double couplings, one with screw shackle and the other with links and hook attached to the leading buffer beam, absence of the usual draw-bar hook, the provision of side chains, passenger cord communication gear, large headlamp and the personal appearance of the men. In the early days many G.N. engines underwent extensive conversions and alterations; this will be seen in No. 242, and the location of different types of the same wheel arrangement at one depot gives some indication of the large number of these engines in use at that period.
Engine No. 11. The photograph represents the second engine of this number used on the G.N., with the tender of the original engine, a Sharp's single-wheeler built in 1847. The second No. 11 was built in 1869 at Doncaster, it being the 24th engine to be constructed there.
It was one of 153 engines of almost similar type used on that line round about this period, and was designed by Stirling for working "mixed traffic" ; it was broken up in 1903. The lever to which was attached the communication cord is fixed on the right-hand side of the cab. Engine No. 102A. This was one of 15 engines built by R. & W. Hawthorn in 1848. As the first portion of the G.N. system was not opened until 1848, this was one of the first engines to be in service.
The illustration shows the engine after it had been rebuilt with a Stirling boiler, and the compensating spring gear to the leading and driving axles removed. The absence of a brake on the engine and the wooden buffer beams at both ends, of the engine are examples of early design. The engine and tender foot-steps have been: altered and behind them plates provided for the, safety of users. The tender, of robust and large dimension for the period, is of a typical Hawthorn. design and, unlike No. 11,. it is not provided with side chains, denoting a want of uniformity in the: equipment. Other features are the exposed position of the Giffard injector and delivery pipe, and the multiplicity of lamp brackets.
Engine No. 242A is of special interest, as it shews, an engine of Sturrock's design, one of ten built in 1865 by the Avonside Engine Co., maker's. number 608, after it had been rebuilt with a Stirling boiler, new outside frames and the compensating spring gear removed.
The original frames were not so deep and of insufficient strength, which necessitated stronger ones as fitted to similar engines built in .1866 by the same firm. As this alteration was carried out in 1886 and the photo shews a newly-painted engine, we can safely assume the date it was taken as that year.
These engines worked the underground traffic between King's Cross and the City, and were fitted with a large diameter pipe to convey the exhaust steam to the water tank placed in the bunker, the ventilating pipe of which can just be seen behind the cab.
Brackets to support the destination boards are fixed on the leading sandboxes, and there is a knob to assist in opening the smokebox door. Engine No. 562, one of 50 built by Messrs. Sharp, Stewart & Co. and Messrs. Kitson & Co. in 1875-6, came from the former in 1875, bearing their number 2575. It was as shewn afterwards provided with a brake on the engine, and the footsteps made safer; it was withdrawn in 1905. No. 547. This photo shews the engine on a down train, and calls for no special comment except that it represents one of the class in its original condition and shews the old types of signals. I am indebted to K.A. Ledbury for the loan of the photographs, and to Mr. Thompson, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L. &N.E.R., for the dates on which the engines were broken up. Illustrations: GNR 0-4-2T No. 242A built by Avonside Engine Co.; 0-4-2 mixed traffic engine No. 11; 0-4-2 No. 102A built by R. & W. Hawthorn in 1848 andrebuilt with Stirling boiler; 0-4-2 No. 562 bui;t by Sharp, Stewart & Co. in 1875; Stirling 8-ft single 4-2-2 No. 587? at Hatfield on northbound t rain.

G.W.R. 46
Three further 4-6-0 engines, Nos. 1007-1008 and 1009, had been completed at Swindon. Nos. 9628 to 9632 were new 0-6-0 tanks. No. 3865 had been converted to burn oil fuel. The following engines had been withdrawn: No. 2921 St. Dunstan, No. 2525 (0-6-0); No. 207 0-6-2T; No. 2758 0-6-0T; No, 3573 and 3580, 0-4-2T.

Mr. Robert Angus McLellan. 46
With the death at Church Stretton on 7 December 1945 of Mr. R. A, McLellan, at the advanced age of 84, another link with what may perhaps be termed the early Middle Ages of the Locomotive has been severed. McLellan, who was born in 1861, served his apprenticeship at the Stoke-on-Trent Works of the North Stafford- shire Railway, of which his maternal grandfather, Robert Angus, was Locomotive Superintendent. On the completion of his apprenticeship, he studied under Prof. .Osborn Reynolds at Owens College, Manchester, and afterwards obtained marine engineering experience with the Barrow Shipbuilding Company. Following this he was engaged at the Bute Docks, Cardiff, and later returned to Barrow as a marine engineering draughtsman.
In 1886 he entered the service of the Locomotive Department of the London &North Western Railway at Rugby, where he remained until 1895, and in that year was appointed Locomotive Foreman at Burton, being promoted to Shrewsbury in 1902, and Willesden in 1914. In 1916 he was transferred to Abergavenny, from which place he retired in 1922 with the rank of District Locomotive Superintendent.
As a young man, Mr. McLellan had met a number of locomotive celebrities, among whom were David Joy, Henry Dubs, Geo. Brittain, Robert Mason, Benjamin Conner and others. After joining the L.N. W .R., his work brought him into contact with Messrs. F.W. Webb, A.L. Mumford , Geo. Whale and Bowen Cooke, and when at Rugby he assisted the latter in the preparation of his book, British Locomotives, being responsible for most of the diagrams of engine details, and for the chapter on valve gears. He also collaborated with Mr. Cooke in designing a 4-4-0 express passenger engine which foreshadowed, in a remarkable degree, the "Precursor" of 1904.
McLellan was one of the pioneers of technical education for enginemen and for many years ran classes, into which he .put an enormous amount o( work at the various sheds at which he was stationed. At Abergavenny he also ran a technical class for the apprentices under his super- , vision. He was very interested in any of his staff who were at all' ambi tious, and after his retirement liked to keep in touch with them, although he was of a somewhat retiring disposition.
. In addition to his keen interest in railway and locomotive matters, McLellan was an enthusiastic antiquarian. He was buried on December 20, 1945, at Church Stretton, where he had resided since his retirement.

Eastern. Early coupling and brake. 47. diagram
One of the earliest records of a screw coupling for use between vehicles is a patent obtained by Henry Booth, of Liverpool, on 23 January 1836, and the drawing, taken from an authentic source, explains the arrangement. The design is interesting as it includes a lip on the hook to prevent the shackle inadvertently lift- ing off, a detail which was not adopted until the beginning of the present century, after many cases of freight trains parting by the link lifting off. The same patent included a system for retarding the motion of a locomotive which was later copied by Richard Allen. The specification reads as follows: "And my improvement applicable to the locomotive which draws the carriages I declare to be a new mode of checking the speed of the engine or stopping it altogether which is effected by introducing a throttle valve, slide or damper into the exhausting steam pipe of the engine, commonly called the blast pipe, which is usually placed in the chimney in front of the engine and which throttle valve may be most conveniently introduced when the two exhausting pipes are united into one below the place where the pipe is contracted in area for the purpose of producing a blast in the furnace. "From the throttle valve must proceed a rod or long handle extending through the chimney to the back part of the boiler, so as to lie within convenient reach of the engineman, who by moving the said handle can close the slide or throttle valve either partially or altogether as may be required. "And the throttle valve need not be steam tight, but should be made to work freely in its place. "The engineman when he wishes to stop or slacken the speed of the engine closes or contracts his throttle valve without shutting off the steam in its passage from the boiler to the engine. The pistons by that means are speedily, but not suddenly or violently, checked, and the driving wheels of the engine no longer revolving or revolving very slowly, the engine is soon brought to a stand." Diagram gives date as 23 January 1836

L.N.E.R.  47
A comprehensive re-numbering scheme designed to place all engines of one type in numerical groups so that engine types may be readily identified by the locomotive number is to be introduced by the L.N.E.R. Although the scheme is not to be carried out in its entirety at the present time, certain locomotives have been, or will be, re-numbered so that a large fleet of class B.l standard mixed traffic 4-6-0 locomotives now on order from the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd., may be given the numbers allocated to them under the scheme.
When the new re-numbering is completed, locomotives will be numerically grouped as follows:



4-6-2 (classes A1, A2, A3, A4 and A10) and 2-6-2 (class V2)' tender engines and future high-powered passenger and mixed traffic tender engines


4-6-0, 2-6-0 and 2-6-2 .(class V4) tender engines and future 4-6-0 (such as B1) tender engines


4-4-2, 4-4-0 and 2-4-0 tender engines


2-8-0 and 0-8-0 tender engines and future 2-8-0 tender engines


0-6-0 tender engines


Electric locomotives


2-6-2, 4-4-2, 2-4-2, 0-4-4 and 4-4-4 tank engines and future tank engines other than 0-6-0


0-4-0, 0-4-2 and 0-6-0 tank engines, future 0-6-0 tank engines and existing and future diesel shunting locomotives (the latter having the earlier numbers)


4-6-2, 2-6-4, 0-6-4, 0-6-2, 0-8-0, 0-8-4, 4-8-0 tank engines and 2-8-8-2 (Beyer Garratt) ...


It will be seen that all tender engines will be numbered below 6000 and tank engines from 7000 upwards, with the solitary exception of class W1 4-6-4 tender locoruotive  No. 1000'0, whose number will remain unaltered.

L.N.E.R. 47
With the approval of His Majesty the King, L.N.E.R. locomotive No. 1671 (formerly No, 2871) Manchester City, which has been allocated to haul the Royal train, is to be re-named Royal Sovereign. The engine has been repainted apple green.

Canadian Pacific Rly. 47.
F.A. Benger had been appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer and R.A. Smith had been appointed Mechanical Engineer (locomotive)

A record of achievements during the .23 years  of its existence has recently been issued by the L.M.S. in the form of a booklet of 20 pages.
In 1923 the L.M.S. had 10,316 locomotives of many different designs, which fell into about 400 different classes. At the end of 1945 the stack had been reduced to 8,049 steam and 40 diesel locomotives comprising 133 classes. Of these 8,049 steam locomotives, 4,438 fall into the 17 classes which are the company's standard types. With reduced numbers, however, the average daily mileage of each locomotive increased between 1923 and 1938 by 30 per cent. Time spent in the running sheds has been considerably reduced, and the provision of good boiler water reduced the servicing which the boilers require. The time spent in the works during heavy overhauls has, too, been greatly improved by a complete change of practice, which, in addition to reducing the stock of locomotives needed, enabled several of the smaller works to be closed since the output from the main works—Crewe, Derby, Horwich and St. Rollox—could be increased sufficiently to meet the needs of the whole system. This essential change of practice was the introduction of a "progressive" system of repair. Under this new system, the locomotive moves through the erecting shop in a series of steps according to a strict schedule, at each stage the allotted part of the work being completed by a set time. This provides a strong safeguard against delay, not only in the erecting shops, but also in the subsidiary shops which deal with the components. Several other innovations have been introduced.

Correspondence. 48

[Locomotive exchanges]. Albert E. Clow]. 48
In your issue for August, 1945, I read with great interest the first page on the interchange of locomotives on the British railways. A few pages on, in the article on Standardising S.R. Locomotives, Central Section, therein was an account of the trials between George Whale's L.N.W. "Precursor" class saturator 4-4-0 Titan No. 7 and one of Marsh's 13 superheater tanks, each working the Sunny South express in turn south of Rugby. I have before me a letter from Peter Clow, of Rugby, dated May 27, 1910, wherein he gives certain details of these trials. He was working the L.N.W. engine Titan No. 7, while the L.B. & S.C. men had two superheater tank engines: the latter had two failures and lost time on several occasions through avoiding to stop for water before reaching Croydon. Coal consumption for the L.N.W. engine was 30 lb. per mile, while the L.B. & S.C. was under 2 lb. per mile less. I may say that I hold the Stephenson Centenary Medal given to Clow for this work by the L.B. & S.C. Superintendent, J. J. Richardson, of whom he writes most highly. Clow was mv uncle, one of five brothers all drivers on the L.N.W. Rly·. in days now past. This I think should prove interesting to some of your readers.

[Appreciation]. Lionel E. Willis.
I started as a subscriber with the January, 1898, number of "The Locomotive Magazine," when I was an apprentice to the old Great Northern Railway, and have taken every number since. What, a wealth of information one gets by browsing over the old issues; and what a feast for the eyes looking at the beauties' of a bygone age before the days of streamlining and dirt! Young people to-day cannot realise what an engine looked like beautifully cleaned and gleaming in the old Companies' liveries. A valuable, feature of the "L.M." has ,been the various "locomotive histories" and technical essays, many since issued in book form. So here is wishing continued success to the good old "Locomotive," even though we may be condemned to only a few standard types of locomotive if State ownership ever comes.

Compound locomotives. L. Derens
Referring to the interesting discussion on compound locomotives in the November, 1945, issue about the maximum cylinder dimensions with regard to the available space, none of the correspondents seems to recall the two 4-6-4 Baltic type compound express locomotives built in 1910 by the Nord France to the designs of Asselin. In these engines, which were the most powerful then built on the Continent,. L.P. cylinders as large as 620 mm. dia. were required between the frames. As the position of the large inclined L.P. slide valves, overhanging the frames, did not allow slotting the frames, Asselin solved the problem by the simple method of "stepping" the cylinders one behind the other, not only avoiding the slotting of the frames, but also narrowing the distance between the frame plates to 1,095 mm. (A complete description of these engines appeared in "The Locomotive" of October, 1910, July and December, 1911, and June, 1912, as well as in "The Engineer" of November 25, 1910, February 10, September 1 and December 29, 1911.)
On the P.O. 4-8-0 locomotives the width of the outside firebox is 1,205 mm. and the distance between the frames thus probably 1,245 mm., between which the 640 mm. L.P. cylinders cannot be placed without making slot-holes. With the Nord arrangement, however, cylinders as large as 695 mm. could be got into the available space. The limit of power in compounding is thus as yet by no means reached. The Nord engines, with their symmetrical outline, through the uniform construction of all the bogies for both engine and tender, presented a very handsome appearance. Their power was far in excess of what was needed then. In ordinary service they' easily worked 800-ton trains at 125 km. (78 m.p.h.) and on a trial run No. 31.102, the engine with the Brotan water-tube firebox, hauled a train of 1,200 tons at a speed of 110 km. (68 m.p.h.).

Reviews. 48

British Railways. Arthur Elton.
Worthy addition to the "Britain in Pictures" series, with which 'many of our readers will he already familiar. The task of condensing the salient features of Britain's railway history into 48 pages cannot have been an easy one, but it has been carried out very well. The took is excellently produced and the illustrations well chosen and reproduced—especially'so the coloured ones. There are a few minor points upon which some readers will disagree with the author. On page 14 Brunton is credited with the construction of two locomotives, in 1813, with mechanical legs. Dendy Marshall, in his book "Early British Locomotives," expressed the opinion after a careful survey of all the available evidence, that it was uncertain whether more than one "walking engine" was constructed. On page 23 the caption below the illustration refers to the "Rocket and train"; while this title is no doubt taken from the picture reproduced, the fact still remains that the engine depicted is the "North Star." , This book may be relied upon to arouse an interest in railways. among many as yet uninterested, while at the same time it is worthy of a place in the library of anyone whose interest is serious and of long standing.

Number 644 (15 April 1946)

L.M.S. locomotives. 49-50
The history of the locomotive on the L.M.S. Railway during the first ten years of its existence after grouping in 1923 is told in an exceedingly able manner by E. S. Cox in a paper recently read before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. In evolving what ultim- ately became fourteen standard locomotive designs suitable for the requirements of so vast a railway system as the L.M.S., much hard and patient work had to be done and this unifying process, as Cox calls it, was not—so we are told—achieved without "stress and strain." Quite apart, however,. from the subject of Personalities and Policies, we learn much about the development of the different L.M.S. locomotive designs which have actually been put into service. This is itself of great interest, but what perhaps is of even greater interest is the account given by Cox of others which never advanced beyond the drawing board stage.
Those engines actually built have, as Cox points out, all, at one time or another been described in the technical journals, our own pages included, but those projected but never built are not so well known; in fact, in some cases, probably not at all. It is for this latter reason, therefore, that in alludmg to the paper elsewhere in this issue we refer more particularly to suggestions embracmg theconstruction of certain compound types in the belief that the information given by Cox will be considered interesting by our readers. The first locomotive engineer of the L.M.S. was, of George Hughes, who, it is of interest to learn, had so long ago as 1924 developed a four-cylinder "Pacific" locomotive for express passenger traffic, thus ante-dating by some nine years the "Pacifics" designed by Sir W. Stanier, which have smce proved of such sterling worth to the traffic department of the L.M.S. Railway. Further subsequent events have shown that had Hughes been allowed to have his way, it is probable that the traffic department might have been saved from those difficulties which they faced before the commg of the "Royal Scots" in 1927. As Cox so ~ustly observed: "Hughes knew the value of the big engme, master of its job. While the Hughes "Pacific" and also a large freight engme of his design were never built, there is, .however, .the Horwich 2-6-0 Mixed traffic engme, of which 245 are at work all over the line. They remain a tribute to his designing genius and, as Cox puts it, "the best monument to hIS work" and "the only non-Derby inspired design to become a standard type in the period under review."
Hughes, who had been C.M.E. of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway since 1904, retired from the L.M.S. in 1925 and was followed by Sir Henry Fowler, himself a Harwich man. Under Fowler, Midland locomotive practice now became paramount and, in fact, save for the Horwich 2-6-0 engines, which themselves received Midland standard fittings, all the real L.M.S. standard engines were based entirely upon Derby practice. This policy of taking as a standard the designs of one only of the constituent Companies rather than branch out on completely new standard parts' 'produced overnight a block of 3019 engines having standard parts."
But Midland practice was not adopted as a basis for L.M.S. standard engines due to Fowler's influence alone. The system of Individual Costing, summarised in our review of the ,paper, had indicated that Derby designs were demonstrably productive of the lowest repair costs and that coal consumption was, in general, lower for comparable power due, it seems, in a measure to ruggedly designed valve gear producing accurate 'valve events and to boilers well endowed with grate area, giving reasonable rates of combustion. Concerning details, Cox has something to say regarding valve gears, and mentions that Stephenson and Walschaerts motions both give good results and are low in maintenance costs. Narrow rings for piston valves are preferred as retaining a better degree of steam tightness between shoppings compared with those having wide rings. While no direct tests have been made, it is stated that it seems probable that poppet valves may maintain a higher standard of steam tightness than the piston valve. Small or negative savings shown when all is new, in comparison with greater savings apparent over a period of years, seem to indicate a better average tightness.
Apart from the various proposals for different designs of compound engines, fully described by Cox and reprinted on another page, Fowler's work is recent history and; as such, is well known. The circumstances surrounding the introduction of the "Royal Scot" engines during 1927, while "somewhat dramatic," to say the least of it, were fairly well known at the time to many who follow locomotive development, and from all accounts the railway company was fortunate in finding at what was, apparently, short notice a firm of locomotive builders with the capacity required for quick construction.
Before the conception 'of the "Royal Scot," there appeared in September, 1926, in daily working on the L.M.S.,. G.W.R. "Castle" Class engine No. 5000, first, between London and Crewe and, later, on the Carlisle road. The performance of ibis engine, we are told, made a profound impression, so much so that work on the Compound "Pacific" was stopped and a decision made that the new engine should conform to the Operating Department requirements: "Thus was the ' Royal Scot' engine born, owing its inception to a measure of G.W.R. experience, foreshadowing the much more extensive G.W. influence which came with Stanier five years later."

Queensland Railways 2-8-2 Type AC16 class locomotives. 50-1. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
In June, 1943, No. 223A, the first of a series of 20 locomotives built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works of U.S.A. was placed in service on the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge Queensland Railways System. These 2-8-2 type engines, the second of which is illustrated, are not by any means the most powerful on the system, but are as large and heavy as can ·be permitted to operate over branch lines laid with only 40 lb. rails and carrying an intensity of traffic for which they were never intended.
A bar frame  was employed, and the cylinders which have a diameter of 16 in. and a stroke of 24 in., were cast in two pieces in the usual American style incorporating the smokebox saddle. The 8 in. diameter inside admission piston valves were actuated by conventional Walschaerts valve gear, and lever type reversing gear for manual operation was mounted at the right-hand side of the cab, right-hand drive being a feature of Queensland locomotive practice.
The boiler was wagon top type with a grate 6 ft. 0¼ in. in length and having an area of 27.7 ft2. The working pressure was 185 psi, the 95 two in. diameter tubes provided a heating surface of 817 ft2. and the 19 53/8 in. diameter superheater flues added 439 ft2. Firebox heating surface was 107 ft2 and the two 3 in. diameter arch tubes contributed 8 ft2. to an evaporative total of 1,371 ft2. The 19 type A superheater elements provided 374 ft2 of superheating surface, giving a ratio of evaporative to superheating surface equal to 3.66. The tractive force at 85 percent. of boiler pressure was 20,128 lb., the factor of adhesion being 4.11.
Pyle National electric lighting equipment was fitted, the turbo-generator being situated on top of the smokebox immediately behind the stack. Mechanical lubricators were mounted just behind the steam chest back covers and driven by links coupled to extensions on top of the valve gear combination levers.
The Westinghouse American 6 ET brake system was employed.

A modern locomotive history. 51-55. 7 diagrams including 4 side elevations.
Long precis of Cox classic ILocoE Paper 457 which concentrates upon the Fowler proposed large compound designs which viewed from the 21st century have a remarkable likeness to the Royal Scot class and the Stanier Pacifics. See also letter from G. Carpenter.
A paper of quite unusual interest was read before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers on 2 January by E.S. Cox of the Chief Mechanical and Electrical Department of the London, Midland & Scottish Railway, beanng the above title, with a sub-title: "Ten Years' Development on the L.M.S. — 1923 to 1932." We give below a few extracts dealing with :that part of the paper which describes the means adopted to decide the merits of the chief engine types and classes taken 'over on the formation of the new Company and which formed the basis of the standardisation of locomotive types to meet the varied requirements of a great railway system. When the L.M.S. came into being, there were in all 10,316 locomotives owned by the Company, made up of 393 different types (classes). During the period 1923-1932, being the period under review, 2,165 new locomotives were built for the L.M.S. and, of these, 1,387 were constructed in the Company's shops. "The construction of these locomotives, amongst other factors, allowed of 4,123 existing engines of inferior performance and effiiciency being broken up, so that with various subsidiary adjustments the stock fell to 8;450 by the end of 1932, a reduction of 18 per cent. The number of different classes came down at the same time from 392 to 230. No less than 2,002 of these new engines were to 14 standard designs. It is the account of the development of these standards that forms the main theme of Cox's paper. Under the sub-heading "Personalities and Policies," Cox states that five men particularly influenced what was done in the first ten years — George Hughes, the first C.M.E., Sir Henry Fowler, who succeeded him, and J. E. Anderson, the first Superintendent of Motive Power, H.P.M. Beames, former CM.E. of the L.N.W.R., and John Barr, in charge of Motive Power on the old Caledonian and subsequently on the Northern Division of the L.M.S. The influence. of these men was great, but the selection of engme types finally standardised and built, as well as those broken up, was not based on their personal opinions alone. The-principal means adopted to decide the merits of the various locomotive types and designs taken over at groupings was the trymg-out of different locomotives over different sections of the line where clearance limits would permit, by intensive dynamometer car test- mg and a system of statistics initiated some time after grouping, called "Individual Costing," which aggregated and related to mileage run every pound of coal used, and every penny spent' on repairs for each individual engine on the system. sub-divided to throw up the figures for the principal parts.
."Coal Consumption and Repairs, Costs, Yard- sticks of Efficiency. The Fowler designs for 4-cylinder compound 4-6-2 and 2-8-2 reflected French practice for which Cox states some cylinders were cast were impressive looking and certain components were fitted into the Stanier Pacifics, notable thr trailing trucks and the long combustion chambers (Coronation type mainly). Diagrams: 4-4-0 4P compound (side elevation); regulator of previous; enlarge Midland comound 4-6-0 (side elevation); Fowler 4-cylinder compound 4-6-2 (side elevation); composite diagram of cylinders and bearing centres for previous; 2-8-2 freight 4-cylinder compound; cylinder block of No. 10456 Hughes 4-cylinder compound 4-6-0.

L.N.E.R. 55
B. Holroyde appointed Carriage and Wagon Works Manager. Stratford. E.H. Baker appointed District Locomotive Superintendent. Gorton.

L.M.S.R. 55
Skipton  made the concentration depot for Sheds 20F (Skipton). 20G (Hellifield) and 20H (Lancaster). These depots were previously under the control of Leeds (20A).

G.W.R. 55
H. Randle appointed works manager (Carriage and Wagon) Swindon. A.G. Snell appointed divisional locomotive superintendent Oswestry, and L.G. Morris succeeded . R.J. Armstrong at Worcester. J.C. Metcalfe appointed locomotive works manager. Caerphilly.

3ft. 6in. gauge Beyer-Garratt locomotives, South African Railways. 56-8. 3 illustrations
Beyer Peacock & Co. order for fifty 4-8-2+2-8-4 articulated locomitces with a tractive force in excess of 60,000 lbs. Cast iron was used for the four 18½ x 26in cylinders. Designed to meet requirements of M.M. Loubser, Chief Mechanical Engineer under inspection of W.H. Maass Acting Advisory Engineer, but latterly th under L. Douglas, the present Advisory Engineer. The first locomotives had been shipped to Port Elizabeth for erection at Uitenhage, from where they were distributed.

G.W.R. 58
Five further 4-6-0 engines, Nos. 1010 to 1014, had been completed at Swindon. Nos. 9633 to 9639 were new 0-6-0 tanks .. The 1000 class engines were being named after English and Welsh counties. The first is County of Middlesex. The other twenty-nine to be named after the following counties: Bucks, Berks. Wilts, Oxford, Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, Dorset, Brecknock, Cardigan, Carmarthen, Carnarvon, Cheshire, Denbigh, Glamorgan, Merioneth, Monmouth Gloucester Hereford Leicester, Northampton, Hants, Montgomery, Pembroke, Radnor, Salop, Stafford, Warwick and Worcester. The following engines had been withdrawn: 4-6-0, Nos. 2914 and 2971; 2-6-0, Nos. 2619 and 2660; 0-6-2T, No. 242 (ex Barry 44); 0-6-0T, Nos; 1712 and 2725.

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways (II). 58-60. 2 illustrations
Since the previous notes (see Vol. 48) appeared on the Eaton Hall Railway, it has been brought to the Author's notice that they were not complete. In addition to the 0-4-0T Katie and the 0-6-0T Shelagh mentioned there was a further 0-6-0T Ursula, also a product of Duffield Bank Works (1916). Sir Arthur Heywood died in 1916, so this engme must have been his last piece of work. The locomotives were:
Katie—0-4-0T built Duffield, 1890. Sold and later appeared (in the twenties) on the Fairbourne Miniature Railway, where its chassis survives as a truck.
Shelagh—0-6-0T built Duffield , 1904. Name changed to Katie when the original Katie was sold. Finally scrapped 1942.
Ursula—0-6-0T built Duffield 1916. Finally scrapped 1942.
As mentioned in a recent letter from a correspondent, the Cuckoo's Nest Branch had been dismantled and presumably the materials had been utilised as replacements for the main line.
The Surrey .Border & Camberley Railway had its begmmngs in the Farnborough Miniature Railway, the property of A. Kinloch, When first begun in 1934, it was merely an ordinary pleasure line of the 10¼ in. gauge, but as successive additions were made to the layout, it became quite a formidable system. The main line was roughly a mile in length and was situated in fields bordering on the Frimley-Farnborough road. It was mainly single track, except at stations, and these were very elaborate. The main station was "Foxhill," where there were three island platforms served by five tracks, with two running round lines in addition. Other features of this station were a running shed, including a turntable, a long covered siding for carriage stock,. and a signal box controlling the station points and signals, which were in conformity with orthodox main-line practice. The other terminus of the line was "Hawley," where there was a large turning circle, on the far side of which the station was situated. It was on much simpler lines than "Foxhill," possessing a platform and booking office and a passing loop, although once again signalling was installed. Midway between the two termini there was a passing loop, with signals and signal box, the latter having telephone communication with "Foxhill." The line excited such interest among the public that in 1938 it was decided to transfer its ownership to a company and reorganise it on a larger scale. The new owners were the Surrey Border & Camberley Railway Ltd., of which the directors were Messrs. A. Kinloch, H.M. Gulland, E.H. Edwards and D.V. Frank. The length of the line was increased by rather more than a mile, and at the same time approximately one mile was doubled. Later a branch was laid to Blackwater, and this was brought into use in 1939. The new terminals were Farnborough Green, close to the Southern Railway's Frimley Station, and Camberley. At Farnborough Green there was a booking office, waiting rooms and concourse, the latter covered by a 60 ft. x 40 ft. glass roof which extended over the platforms. Loudspeakers and a train indicator were installed. Other features of the layout were carriage sidings and a locomotive shed with a turntable. As on the original line, very complete signalling was installed, being controlled from a forty-lever frame. The intermediate stations were Cove Woods and Watchett Woods between Farnborough Green and Cove Woods the track was double, and a passing loop was installed at Watchett Woods, from which station the branch ran to Blackwater. At Camberley station the line had its loco. repair shop. The opening took place on July 23, 1938, but the full layout was not finally completed until the end of the summer. A timetable issued at the time read:
Farnborough Green. Camberley.
dep. 10.30 arr. 10.45
then hourly until'
2.30                  2·45
then every thirty minutes.
Carnberley.      Farnborough Green.
dep. 10.50                    arr 11.5
then hourly until
2.50,                  3·5
then every thirty minutes.
The line was laid with flat-bottomed rails, spiked direct to the wooden sleepers. Its course was somewhat undulating and there were a number of curves. The maximum gradient was 1 in 150. Through the woods a permanent speed restriction was in force. The only bridge of any size on the line was over the River Blackwater. but even this was only a. small girder bridge. The locomotives of the line were as follows:
Farnborough Miniature Railway.
*4-6-2—Harvester. Gresley type.
*4-6-2—Western Queen. Free-lance.
*4-6-2—King Edward. Free-lance.
4-4-4—Princess Elizabeth. Free-lance.
4-4-0—Wendy. Free-lance.
4-2-2—Modelled on Stirling's G.N.R. type, but funnel cut down.
*0-6-0PT—Great Western type.
* Retained on S.B. &C.R.
Surrey Border & Camberley.
4-6-2 H arvester 1934'
1003 4-6-2 Western Queen, Bullock 1934
2005 4-6-2 Silver Jubilee, Bullock 1938.
2006 4-6-2 Edward VII, Bullock 1934
2011 4-6-2 Coronation,  Bullock 1938-
3008 0-6-0PT, Bullock 1934
4012 2-6-0+ 0-6-2, Kitson 1938
4013 2-6-0 + 0-6-2, Kitson 1938.
The 4-6-2s were of approximately 28 horse- power. The Kitson articulated locomotives, which were a somewhat radical departure for, so small a gauge, were of approximately 50 horsepower. Their leading dimensions were: cylinders (four),. 3½ in. x 5 in.; boiler pressure, 140 lb.; weight, 2 tons 5 cwt. Steam brakes were applied to the engme.
The passenger coaches of the line consisted chiefly of eight-seater open cars articulated into four-car sets, one of which formed the usual weekday train .. There were in addition a number of closed coaches, but the space in these was extremely restricted, and their use was generally confined to wet weather.
The locomotives .were painted green with the: exception of the Garratts, which were black lined in red, and were lettered "S.B. & C.R." A sad fate overtook this interesting railway. The outbreak of .war made such. inroads into the receipts of the railway that it was unable to carry on, and it passed into receivership. Since this. event, the line has. been closed and much of the stock has been sold, some of it wandering as far afield, so it is rumoured, as India. Despite this setback, it is hoped to reopen later and to bring at: least that part' of the line between Farnborough Green and Cove Woods into use again.
The Trentham Miniature Railway (2 ft. gauge) is in Trentham Gardens, on the outskirts of Stoke-on-Trent The miniature railway, which forms part of the attractions of the gardens, was laid in 1934. It is roughly a mile in length, and there were three stations. From the outset the line was a great suocess, and the decision was taken in 1938 to relay it with heavier rails and to ease the curves in order to permit the use of a six-coupled locomotive. The expenditure was fully justified, and on Whit Monday, 1939, a record day, no fewer than 5,028 people travelled on the line. The original rails weighed only 18 lb. per yard, but those laid in 1938 are 30 lb. per yard, flat bottomed. The track was supplied by the Stafford Coal & Iron Co., Stoke-on-Trent. There was a passing loop midway along the line equipped wirh spring-operated points. The main terminal is near the entrance to the gardens and is roofed over. The other terminal is called The Chalet and is beside the ornamental lake.
There were three locomotives, numbered 1, 2 and 3. All were built by E.E. Baguley, Ltd., Burton-on-Trent, and are petrol-driven machines with the exterior built to resemble a steam tank locomotive. Nos. 1 and 2 were 0-4-0 machines built in 1934. No. 3 was a large six-coupled engine built in 1938. Main dimensions are given.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 61-2. 2 illustrations
Continued from page 43. The next addition to stock was an enlarged. design of the 0-4-2 type tender engine for goods traffic, of which Dubs & Co. built ten in 1878 (WN 1138 to 1147) and twenty in 1881 (WN 1485 to 1504). The 1878 series were delivered without tenders, being given tenders from other engines which in their turn had received old tenders from engines being broken up. The 1881 series had new tenders when delivered, and as time went on some of the class got tenders from the close coupled 0-6-0 engines, while a few got for a time four-wheeled tenders from engines being broken up. The entire class was reboilered, some of the earlier rebuilds getting boilers which had been made from the shell of old Drummond ones, but with new tubeplates and firebox. The safety valves were retained on the dome. Of the few Drummond boilers used two or at the most three were actually put on without alteration just as they had been taken from the rebuilt 2-4-0 engines, but by 1912 any unaltered were made standard with the others and equal to the Class, 29 0-6-0T boiler which was regarded as standard for the rebuilds. When the class was reboilered, McIntosh withdrew them from goods traffic and fitted. the engines with the Westing- house brake so that they could be used on local passenger trains or on branch line duties, although prior to this several had been fitted with the air brake. Those fitted by 1900 were Nos. 249, 252, 276, 281,· 670, 672, 675, 676 and 678. By 1904 all had been fitted with the air brake and reboilered or rebuilt; and had been re-classified as "small. or -large boiler," although the difference originally had actually referred to the Drummond rebuild and the class 29 boiler respectively, by : the end of 1920 the classes as such had in reality disappeared and the variation or description meant boilers with safety valves on the dome and over the firebox respectively. Just before the end of WW1 the class came off the branch working and was put to station pilot and other sundry duties at Perth, Glasgow and Edinburgh, replacing the 2-4-0 engines. Just about the time of the amalgamation three went to Arbroath, two to Carlisle, two to Hamilton, while two went to Irvine to work the branch passenger traffic . Nos. 1716 to 1718 were the Glasgow pilots. Hamilton in all had Nos. 675, 676, 711 and 705 in rotation. No. 717, while stationed at Edinburgh in its final days, was not in traffic, and its. duty was to supply air for tube cleaning, which was done by connecting the tube cleaning rod to. the front hosepipe of the old brake system. No. 705 as L.M.S. 17003 was the last of the class to be regularly employed. Not long before it was withdrawn it was used on the Strathaven passenger train one evening. The rail motor (Sentinel) failed and a train had to be made up hurriedly, No. 17003, which was shunting the yard, was requisitioned and with two light bogie coaches set out upon its unusual job. When withdrawn, No. 706 and another, thought to be No. 704, had their original stovepipe chimneys; all the others had received the standard capped chimney at the re-boilering or rebuilding. The running plate of the class was swept over the driving axles to give clearance tothe coupling rod ends and bushes, and this feature gave the class a distinctive appearance. A noticeable feature of difference between the first batch and the later one was to be found in the size of the sandboxes, The first ten engines had a sandbox which at the top came flush with the top of the driving splasher, while the 1881 series had sandboxes with an increase in carrying capacity made possible by the sweeping upwards of the box from the driving splasher. The 1881 lot were ordered identical with the 1878 series, tanks on the Oban road were becoming very prevalent and the locomotive department decided to use the 0-4-2 type tender engines for the traffic on the section until a new engine was built, and this was the reason for the fitting of different styles of sandboxes to engines of the same class. The details of the class as built and rebuilt were:

Built Rebuilt
Cylinders 17in. x 24in 17in. x 24in
Driving wheels, dia. 5ft. 2in 5ft. 2in
Trailing wheels, dia 3ft. 8in. 3ft. 8in.
Coupled wheelbase 6ft. 5in. 6ft. 5in.
Total wheelbase 13ft. 9in. 13ft. 9in.
Heating surface
Tubes ... ... 1026.2 ft2 975.0 ft2
Firebox 91.9 ft2 110.9 ft2
Total 1118.1 ft2 1085.9 ft2
Grate area 13.48 ft2 17.0 ft2
Pressure 140 psi 150 psi
Weight in working order T. c. q. T. c. q.
Leading axle... 13 II 3 IS 2 2 ... 5 17 0 ... 34 13 11 3 13 15 3
Driving axle 15 2 2 15 9 2
Trailing axle 5 17 0 6 16 0
Total 34 11 1 36 1 1
Tender 4-wheeled 6-wheeled
Water capacity 1,540 galls. 1,840 galls.
Coal capacity 3.8 tons 4 tons
Tender wheelbase 8 ft 6 in 11 5½ in
Weight T. c. q. T. c. q.
Total engine and tender 57 0 0 64 6 0
Total length over buffers, engine and tender· 43ft. 6in 46ft. 3¾in

The block of No. 251 0-4-2 tender engine, rebuilt, shown on page 42, was accidently inserted instead of the one at the top of page 61 illustrating No. 126 4-4-0 rebuilt.

L.M.S.R. 62
The following new locomotives had been put into service: 4-6-0, Class 5, Nos. 4923 to 4930 (built at Crewe); Nos. 4947-9 (built at Horwich}: 2-6-4T, Class 4, Nos. 2219 to 2222 (built at Derby).

British Timken, Ltd. 62
Of Aston, Birmingham, publication (No. 403) dealing with the application of Timken axleboxes to rolling stock. Although barely 25 years have elapsed since this type of bearing was first employed in railway axleboxes, to-day there are many thousands in use. Details are given of some of the many applications, and the salient features of these bearings are outlined.

H. Fayle.  The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 62-4,  2 ilustrations 
Concluded from page 26. In 1905 two express engines of the 4-4-0 class were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. (WN 4645/6) for service on the mail trains between Bray and Wexford; they carried numbers 67 Rathmore and 68 Rathcoole; the boilers were similar to those fitted to the goods engines No. 65/6; cylinders 18 in. by 26 in., wheels 3 ft. 3 in. and 6 ft. 0 in., wheelbase coupled 8 ft. 10 in., total 21 ft. 7 in., boiler 10 ft. 3 in. by 4 ft. 8 in., heating surface 1,047.7 ft2 + 118.5ft2 = 1,193.2ft2, grate area 20.0 ft2., length of firebox 6 ft. 0 in., boiler pressure 175 psi, weight of engine 45¼ tons; tender, with 2600 gals. and 3½ tons of coal, 30.4 tons. No. 67 was rebuilt in 1922 and became G.S.R. No. 454 in 1925; it was fitted with a Belpaire boiler in 1935, which had been removed from a scrapped engine of the 451 class; the dimensions were 10 ft. 3 in. by 4 ft. 8 in., length of firebox casing 6 ft. 0 in., heating surface 1,047.7 ft2+118.5 ft2 =1,166.2 ft2., grate area 20.0 ft2., boiler pressure 160 psi., weight 49 tons 19 cwt. No. 68 was scrapped in 1925 as a result of damage received two years before during the Irish Civil War, having been in collision with No. 25 near Waterford.
Rail motor cars were rather in the news about this time, and the D.W. & W.R. obtained two cars in 1906, the engine portions of which were built by Manning, Wardle & Co. (WN 1692/3); the latter were of the 0-4-0 side tank type, with outside cylinders, Walschaerts valve gear and Belpaire firebox; the dimensions were: cylinders 12 in. by 16 in., coupled wheels 3 ft. 7 in., boiler pressure 175psi., tanks 500 gals., fuel 1 ton; the 1ength over frames, including the car body, was 65 ft. 0 in., and the total weight 42 tons. The car had accommodation for 16 first and 39. second class passengers, third class passengers being accommodated in an ordinary six-wheeled trailer coach. These cars, which carried the numbers 1 and 2, ran between Bray and Greystones, a special intermediate halt being provided at Bray but while building the failures of the 2-4-2 type Head the service connected with the ordinary trains from Dublin at Bray. From the first there was excessive vibration in the coach, so in under a year the engines were detached fro~ the carriage frames, ordinary bogies taking their places. The two engines, numbered 69 and 70, were rebuilt as 0-4-0 well tanks, the side tanks bemg removed, and in addition heavy weights had to be provided at the rear to compensate for the removal of the carriage. For a time the two units operated a push and pull service between Dublin and Kingstown, but were later withdrawn, and the engmes used for shunting purposes.
No. 69 was rebuilt in 1910 as a 2-4-0T; No. 70, still a 0-4-0, was sold in 1918 to the Dublin & Blessington Steam Tramway, but was found too heavy for that track, and the outside motion was inclined to foul the points; the latter company, therefore, exchanged it the same year for a 0-4-0ST named Cambria, which had worked on the Wexford & Rosslare Railway, coming into the possession of the G.S.W.R. in 1898. The G.S.W.R. did not number No. 70 in their stock, regarding it as a departmental locomotive, and it was allotted the name Imp; it was rebuilt at Inchicore in 1923, and scrapped in 1928, the Belpaire boiler being transferred to an ex-Timoleague & Courtmacsherry Light Railway engine named Argadeen, the latter being still at work.
No. 69 came into the hands of the G.S.R. with the D.W. & W.R. stock in 1925, and was reconverted at Broadstone the same year to a 0-4-0T bearing the name Elf without number; the boiler dimensions were 3 ft. 8 in. by 5 ft. 8 in., firebox length 3 ft. 1 in., pressure 160 lb., and the weight in working order 26.7 tons. After putting in some time shunting in Limerick yard, Elf was scrapped in 1931.
In 1911 a new design of 4-4-2 tank engine was built at Grand Canal Street, the cylinders, boiler and wheels being similar to the 4-4-0 class, Nos. 67/8; the engine carried the number 20 King George, and the boiler and mountings came complete from Kitson & Co.; the dimensions were: cylinders 18 in. by 26 in., wheels 3 ft. 3 in., 6 ft. o in. and 3 ft. 8 in., wheelbase coupled 8 ft, 10 in., total 28 ft. 3 in., boiler 4 ft. 8 in. by 10: ft. 3 in., firebox length 6 ft. 0 in., heating surface 1,075ft2 + 118.5ft2=1,194.2 ft2, boiler pressure 175 psu, grate area 20.0 ft2, tanks 1,700 gals.; coal 3 tons, weight, 'adhesive 31.5 tons, total 61.5 tons. Unfortunately the engme was none too successful, and its use was confined entirely to the Dublin local services in 1925 it became G.S.R. No. 455, with classification C2.· It was rebuilt at Inchicore the same year, and the boiler pressure lowered to 160 psi the heating surface was now 1,160ft2+118.5ft2=1,278.5 ft2, and the total weight 63.14 tons; the engine  was still at work, but was fitted with a 351 class boiler pressure 150 psi
No. 20 was the last engine built at Grand Canal Street; since 1841 , when the Princess was turned out for the Dublin & Kingstown Railway, about fifty engines had been built there, but none had appeared between 1852 and 1871, so the average was about one engine a year. The works continued in use for repairs up to 1925, when the G.S.R. took over, and after remaining closed for some time, are now in use by two commercial firms.
A 0-6-0 side tank engine,. carrying the name Blackburn, had been in use in connection with the construction of. the diversion line at Bray Head; It had been built by Manning, Wardle & Co. in 1888 (WN 1099) for the contractor of the Manchester Ship Canal, who sold it to Naylor Bros., Huddersfield. The gauge was altered to 5 ft. 3 in. when the latter firm undertook the Irish contract andthe engine was taken over by the D.S.E.R. 'in Apnl, 1916. It was considered as a departmental locomotive, and was never numbered in the stock being .in use for ballast trains and tunnel work. In 1925 it was removed to Inchicore and sold for scrap.
In 1917 Richard Cronin retired from the office of locomotive superintendent and was succeeded by George F. Wild, who occupied the post down to .the time of fusion WIth the G.S.R.; from about this time the nammg of locomotives was discontinued and most of the existing names were removed. ' Two goods engines of the 2-6-0 type were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1922 (6112/3) at a cost of £19,326; the numbers carried were 15 and 16; the design was an enlargement of the standard goods type, brought up-to-date with piston valves, superheater and Belpaue firebox; incidentally, these were the only superheated engines the company ever possessed, WIth the exception of the temporary fitting to No. 36 in 1911 the dimensions were: cylinders by 26 in., wheels 3 ft. 0 in. and 5 ft. 1 m., boiler 4 ft. 10k in. by 10 ft. 3 in., length of firebox 6 ft. 0 in., heating surface 952ft2 + 162ft2 (superheater) + 124 ft2(firebox) = 1,248 ft2, grate .area 20.0 ft2., boiler pressure 175 psi, weight, adhesive 42.05 tons, total 48.5 tons. Tender wheelbase 12 ft. 0 in., tanks 2,600 gals., coal 5 tons, weight 32~· tons; total, engine and tender, 81 tons. It WIll be noted that the length of the boiler and fi.reJ;>ox, and diameter of the coupled wheels Were similar te:> the standard goods class. These engines were mamly employed on the night goods trains between Dublin and Wexford, and were still on that duty; the G.S.R. numbers were 461/2, and the classification K3.
The last two engines built for the company were supplied by Beyer Peacock & Co. in 1924 (6204/5) at a cost of £10,752; they were of the 4-4-2 tank type carrying the numbers 34/5, the design being similar to that of No. 20 of 1911, with the exception of a Belpaire firebox. The dimensions were: cylinders 18 in. by 26 in., wheels 3 ft. 3 in., 6 ft. 0 in. and 3 ft. 8 in., wheelbase coupled 8 ft. 10 in., total 28 ft. 3 in., boiler 10 ft. 3 in. by 4 ft. 8 in., length of firebox 6 ft. 0 in., heating surface 1,065 ft2+ 128ft2= 1193 ft2, grate area 20.0 ft2, boiler pressure 175 psi, tanks capacity 1,700 gals., coal 3 tons, weight in working order adhesive 35.4 tons, total 64.65 tons. These engines became G.S.R. Nos. 456/7 with classification C 2, but the boilers were changed from time to time'; No. 456 was fitted with a G.S.W. 351 class round-topped boiler in 1935 having the following dimensions: barrel 10ft. 3¾ in. by 4 ft. 5¼ in., length of firebox 5 ft. 10 in., heating surface 1129ft2 + 118ft2 = 1247 ft2 , grate area 20.4 sft2 , boiler pressure 150 psi, weight in working order 64.8 tons, in 1938 this engine received a 351 Belpaire boiler pressure 160 psi, weight in working order 67.3 tons. No. 457 was rebuilt in 1936 with a 442 class round-topped boiler 10 ft. 3 in. by 4 ft. 8 in., length of firebox 6 ft. 0 in., boiler pressure 175 psi, heating surface 1065ft2 +118.75ft2 =1183.74 ft2 , grate area 20.24 ft2 ., weight· in working order 63 tons 16 cwt. Both engines were still at work on their original duties on the D.S.E.R. section.
Though D.S.E.R. locomotives were numbered up to 70, when taken over by the G.S.R. in 1924 the authorised stock was 61, and this included No. 48 which had been scrapped in 1914, though retained in the stock book; the following numbers were vacant: 23, 31, 37, 59-63 and 70, while Nos. 19, 25, 39, 51 and 68 were casualties of the Irish Civil War, and only fit for scrap. The G.S.R:- removed the few remaining names from the locomotives and proceeded to scrap the following numbers: 1, 2, 6, 19, 22, 26, 32, 38, 41-44, while Nos. 5, 7, 10, 13, 17, 24, 36, 50, 55-8, 64 and 69 had since followed. This leaves but 29 ex-D.S.E.R. engines running at the time of writing, and, no doubt, the number will very soon be further depleted.
The author would like to acknowledge the help given in the preparation of this account by Messrs. K.A. Murray and C.J. Coghlan.

Reviews. 64

Great Eastern locomotives, past and present, 1862-1945. C. Langley Aldrich. 112 pp.
In our April, 1944, issue we reviewed Aldrich's earlier book on the G.E.R. engines. He has now published a revised edition considerably enlarged and copiously illustrated on art paper and bound in cloth. Numbers, dates of building and withdrawals from service, with the leading dimensions, are given, the whole comprising a useful outline of the G.E.R. locomotives from 1862 to date.

Narrow gauge railways of Ireland. H. Fayle. Greenlake Publications.
'When so many of the smaller Irish railways have been closed of recent years, it is fitting that the full description of them should be put on record before they are forgotten. Who more fitted to do the job than Mr. Fayle, who is so well known as an authority on the railways of Ireland? He has covered the ground thoroughly and in an excellently produced volume of 200 pages describes the various lines, their rolling stock, gradients and even their tickets. There are no less than 177 half-tone illustrations and 17 maps, besides line drawings, etc. Printed in Gill type throughout, the book evinces well thought out planning.

Number 645 (15 May 1946)

"Liberation" locomotives. 65
UNRRA design

"Liberation" 2-8-0 locomotives. 65-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
110 being built by Vulcan Foundry for UNRRA plus a further ten for the Duchy of Luxembourg

A Current Mental Attitude. 68
Some years ago a transient literary fashion produced a convenient but hypothetical man from Mars and, before him, there was Macaulay's extremely knowledgeable schoolboy. Perhaps their present counterpart, differing only in that he is a sentient being, is the demobilised ex-Serviceman, returned to his home after many years' overseas service. He has come back to a very strange homeland. He feels somewhat out of tune, but, knowing that his own mental processes have been conditioned by a long period of Service life, and realising that long absence may have made him unduly idealistic and very uninformed on the details of current events, he hesitates to criticise. Yet he sees at once that there is something. seriously wrong with many of his countrymen. The returned ex-Serviceman knows there are extenuating circumstances to explain this state of affairs: war weariness (and he will be the first to admit that many civilians have had far more 'ex- perience of front line conditions than he), shortage over a long and weary period of necessities, and absence or excessive cost of the little luxuries which conspire to make life so much more pleasant: the continuance of controls which, necessary as they may be, are none the less irritating; the weary queueing up for this, that and the other: a general monotony and greyness of life. If these are a few of the causes, what of the effects? Some of the visible signs are lack of cour- tesy, of a sense of duty, .30 tendency to demand one's privileges, entirely unmindful of the duties which must go. hand in hand with them. Trains have been cancelled because train crews were not prepared to' work even a small amount of overtime, with little or no thought to the passenger who may have urgent" business to transact, involving the employmentof many others, or is visiting a friend or relation who is seriously ill: road transport staff took the law into their own hands on the subject of the maximum permitted number of standing passengers: there has been a wave of unofficial strikes: canteen and other amenities (many of them non-existent before the war) in factories are being abused.
The root cause of these surface disturbances appears to be an emergence, individual and collective, of that spirit of grab and selfishness, so rightly detested in the Services, where it is generally known as " [expletive] you, Jack, I'm all right," and it must be exorcised. Deep down in the hearts of the great majority of our countrymen is a fine patriotism which far transcends any flag-waving ingoism. But if this country is to regain its material prosperity and resume its. rightful place in the cornitv of nations—and both must be done soon if at all—there must first be discipline in the nation and, before that, self-discipline of the individual.. The sound of the word discipline is anything but popular in many ears at the moment connoting as it does that variety, harsh but unavoidable, which is essential for civilians and Services alike when a nation is totally at war. But, on consideration,' it will be agreed that discipline of a certain kind, properly administered, is always essential arid not necessarily irksome to the conscientious. True freedom, be it remembered, is always conditional; one's own must not interfere with another's.
Yes, our ex-Serviceman knows that this country is very sick mentally, that the period of convalescence must be accelerated and that anv drastic treatment which may be necessary must be administered. We must turn our minds back for a moment to the time of Dunkirk and the spirit which then swept through the country like a flame, transforming it and sweeping away in a flash apathy, self-interest, half-heartedness and many another mental and spiritual defect. Once again that spirit must be revived and put to the even nobler purpose which awaits it now and needs it urgently.

Southern Railway. 68
On 15 April the Golden Arrow was re-instated with seven first and second class Pullman Cars and a new bar-car. This car, named the Trianon Bar, is available to all passengers on the train irrespective of class. The Golden Arrow leaves Victoria. at 10.00 each morning arriving Dover Marine at 11.40. Passengers will then transfer to the S.S. Canterbury which will cross the channel in just over one hour. The French portion of the Golden Arrow"—the Fleche d'Or—leaves Calais at 14.45, and is due in Paris at 18.45. The journey throughout therefore occupies 8¾ hours.

Stephenson Locomotive Society.68
At a meeting in Glasgow, Sir Malcolm Barclay Harvey, K.C.M.G., gave an interesting talk entitled "Some Aspects of the Railways of Australia," in which he stressed the geographical difficulties and great distances, the reasons that led the respective States to adopt different gauges, the present proposals to standardise the gauge. Traffic problems, track, gradients, the main types of locomotives were all touched upon, followed by a display of films. Other papers presented at provincial centres have included:  "The Southern Railway and Eastleigh," by R. Howard, at Leeds; "The Locomotives of the Middle East," by . G. Harrop at Manchester.Sir Malcolm Barclay-Harvey

Skefko Ball Bearing Co., Ltd., of Luton, 68
To distribute a £10,000 Victory Day Bonus to 3500 employees and a number of former workers. The first big post-war factory extension will be doubling their Sundon works. This factory, covering 100,000 square feet, was provided as a dispersal unit during the war and has ample space for development.

English Electric Company. 68
A tribute to the reliability of  English Electric Diesel engines is contained in a letter from A.T. Allen, of Alderney, Channel Islands,  to the English Electric Company: "In 1938 you installed for the Channel Islands Granite Company, Alderney, to the order of S.H. Heywood, Manchester, two 6K 350 hp. 600 r.p.m. Diesels, and I assisted in their erection and afterwards ran them until the evacuation in 1940 . During the occupation they have been run by the Germans with very little attention and no spares. It might interest you to know that one of the engines, No. IH 762, ran for two years without stop."

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways (II). 69-72. 4 illustrations, 2 plans
Concluded from page 60. The Blakesley Hall Miniature Railway (15 in. gauge) was built by the late C.W. Bartholomew on his estate at Blakesley Hall, near Towcester, Northants, early in the twentieth century. It was between half a mile and three-quarters of a mile in length, and was laid with flat-bottomed rails clipped to iron sleepers, resembling somewhat the Duffield line. The main line stretched from the Hall to the Blakesley station of the East & West Junction Railway (later the Stratford-on-Avon & Midland Junction Railway) and was roughly a quarter of a mile in length. This part was practically straight and had easy grades, but the continuation had a climb as steep in places as 1 in 24. Originally there was a circle commencing at the Hall terminus and a line running from the top of this circle to join the main line about 200 yards from the Hall. At the junction a third line was laid to form a triangle for turning the
The station at Blakesley adjoined the main line company's station, with which it was connected, and consisted of a platform and booking office. There was a; line leading into the goods yard for transferring goods from the standard to narrow gauge trucks. The railway was correctly signalled with Sykes electric signals and was equipped with telephones and electric light.
The original steam locomotives (see Locomotive. 12. page 78) were 4-4-0's of  American type built by the Miniature Railway Corporation, of 301, Broadway, New York. A very similar locomotive is owned by the Rothesay Tramway Co. and was described in the article which dealt with that lif\e.For goods work . Bartholomew designed a petrol locomotive which was built under his supervision. The engine, named Petrolia, had a single 4 in. x 8 in. cylinder. Considering its small size, this locomotive was very powerful, and could haul six loaded hopper wagons of coal or coke quite easily. Being more readily available than a steam locomotive, it was sometimes used for passenger work. It must have been this use of the Petrolia which made Bartholomew conceive the idea of building a locomotive combining the attractive outlines of the scale steam locomotive with the availability of the petrol machine. The upshot of the idea was a neat 4-4-4 locomotive of tank design propelled by a petrol engine cleverly concealed in the boiler and tanks. The builders were Bassett-Lowke, Ltd., Northampton, from whose shops the engine emerged in 1909 illustrated). It was the first locomotive for a miniature railway in which the features of steam stock. design and petrol propulsion were combined, and was thus the forerunner of the virtual army of such machines at work to-day. The miniature railway was sold some years after the death of Bartholomew and continued its career afresh. Readers may recall the miniature railway mentioned during the comparatively recent trial for fraud of a colliery company's secretary. The locomotive involved was this one. At the sale of the property, it was purchased by Younger, of Newcastle, by whom it has been reconditioned.
The passenger rolling stock of the line consisted originally of twelve four-wheeled passenger cars built by the same makers as the locomotive. They were not a very great success in this form, so they were stripped of their wheels and longer frames constructed on which three of the wheel-less bodies were mounted. These were then mounted on four- wheeled bogies, utilising the wheels removed. The surplus wheels were used for the construction of a bogie trolley for freight. The goods wagons of the line were of the steel hopper type, as used by contractors, and flat platform wagons.
The Crowthorne Farm .Miniature Railwajl (9½in. gauge) was laid by the late V. Burgoyne on his farm at Crowthorne, in Berkshire, and used, apart from amusement purposes, for hauling materials required on the estate. Burgoyne performed most of the construction with his own workmen and built some of the rolling stock and locomotives. Being both designer and builder, he was able to experiment to a considerable extent in his endeavour to find the correct balance of fac- tors in miniature locomotive design. The main difficulty in designing true to scale locomotives, especially those following standard gauge practice, is that standard gauge locomotives are limited as to loading gauge by factors which do not apply to a miniature railway, so that when the scale machine is produced its dimensions by no means reach the limit to which a locomotive might have been built, had the restrictions of scale not been enforced. Burgoyne solved this problem in a very neat way. Instead of comparing his 9½ in. gauge to standard, he chose instead the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, on which, there are some very large locomotives at work in proportion to the gauge. The scale thus arrived at was about 1:4.25, and the resulting scale model stock, while satisfying the requirements of the scale enthusiast, were also powerful. The track was of the usual type found on 9½ in. gauge lines, i.e., flat-bottomed steel rails on wooden sleepers. The maximum gradient was 1 in 50., and there were also stretches of 1 in 60./65.
The four engines included some interesting examples of the modeller's art. The most powerful . locomotive on the line was a 0-8-0. built to Burgoyne's own design in his workshop about five years ago. It is one of the most powerful locomotives on this gauge in the country. The leading dimensions are: diameter of wheels, 9 in. (third pair flangeless for ease on curves) ; cylinders, 2¼in. by 4 in.; boiler pressure, 160. lb.; overall length, including tender, 11 ft. 6 in.; total width, 24 in.; height, 32 in. The 14 in. diameter boiler is built of 5/16 in. plate and contains 32 ¾ in. tubes. Steam brakes are used on all wheels. The locomotive can haul six tons on the level and two tons up a grade of 1 in 50.. Another locomotive on the line was a Garratt type articulated machine. This had four cylinders (3½ in. by 5 in.) which gave it the high tractive effort at 80 per cent. boiler pressure of 1050. lb. Other dimensions were: length, 19 ft.; width, 24 in.; heght, 2,6 in. One of Burgoyne's locomotives, a small 4-4-2 tank, was probably the first locomotive in Europe to have the Southern radial valve gear.
The passenger stock was modelled on old type South African Railways main line stock. Each coach was 14 ft. long by 24 in. wide and seated six children or twelve small children. They were seldom used for adults as the roof was too low for them to ride in comfort. Other rolling stock included steel hopper wagons carrying ½ ton, and a number of steel vans, all of bogie type. Burgoyne unfortunately died in 1943, and the line and rolling stock have been disposed of.
Hitherto these notes have been confined to miniature railways in these islands, but the Geneva Railway (15 in. gauge) has been put in here as an exception, because firstly it was laid and equipped by a British firm, Bassett-Lowke, Ltd., and, secondly, it has very seldom been mentioned.
The line was built for the Exhibition which was held at Geneva in 1913, and was laid in the Parc des Eaux Vives. The total length was slightly over half a mile. In order to achieve this, a good deal of ingenuity had to be exercised, as the site on which the railway was laid was limited in extent. The layout adopted is shown in the plan, from which it will be seen that a good effect was achieved by masking parts of the line in a cutting and by utilising a screen of trees. There was a tunnel which carried the line for 170 ft. under a cart road and was about 18 ft. below the road. It was lined with pit-props and the entrances were designed in ferro-concrete. Another feature was a 100 ft. bridge over the Lake. This was built on concrete piers, in five spans, each of wooden construction, bolted into lattice girder form. In addi- tion, there were three overbndges.
The station had two platforms, as shown, and a wooden booking office was used. The signal box was, some distance away on the other side of the tunnel. The locomotive and carriage shed was on the bank of the lake. The roof of the shed covered the running line, thus providing a shelter, under which the rolling stock could be stored.
The line was laid with 16 lb. per yard flat-bottomed rails on wooden sleepers.
The locomotives used were of Bassett Lowke's Class 30. The dimensions were: cylinders, 41/8 in. by 6 in. driving wheels, 20 in. j leading and trailing, 9½ in. boiler, 19 in. diameter 1301b. pressure (superheated) length overall, 16 ft. 4 in. and weight in working order 2 tons 5 cwt. The engines had double bogie tenders carrying 50 gallons of water. The passenger stock was the maker's standard teak bodied four-wheeled type on oak frames and was fitted with vacuum brake.
The Belle Vue Miniature Railway (15 in. gauge) is probably one of the best known in the North of England, since it is situated in the well-known Zoological Gardens and Park at Belle Vue; Manchester, the grounds and buildings of which house from time to time so many. events ranging from boxing tournaments to band contests.
The grounds were first opened in 1836 and the railway is thus a comparatively recent addition to· the attractions. The line was completed in March, 1927, and was opened at Easter of that year. The total length is 505 yards. The track is composed of flat-bottomed rails weighing 16 lb. per yard, spiked direct to wooden sleepers.
The accompanying plan, shows a double track station leaving wliich the track becomes single and forms an elongated loop for the remainder of the distance, the meeting- point being a few yards out of the station'. The sharpest curve on the line is 105 ft. 0 in. radius. There is one tunnel, added to give variety to the journey. A shed is provided for the rolling stock at the beignning of the main curve.
The station is built in the formof a bay with a shelter on one side containing seats. A traverser is provided for running the locomotive round its train, and the operating. gear is placed at one end of the shelter.
As a correspondent mentioned in a letter to Looomotive Mag. , 1944, 50 80, the line has had three locomotives: King George V (4-4-2), Railway Queen (4-4-2) and No. 3 (4-4-2).
The passenger rolling stock consists of five open cars an articulated train of four covered coaches and' one bogie covered coach.
The open cars are carried on two four-wheeled bogies spaced at' 7 ft. 4 in. centre to centre. The bogie wheels are l0¼ in. in diameter and are spaced at 1 ft. 6 in. centres. The bodies are 2 ft. 11½ in. wide and 13 ft. 8½ in. long overall, the height to the top of the seats being 4 ft. 0 in. Each car seats 15 passengers. The seats have reversible backs so that passengers can face in the direction the train is going. The articulated set consists of four cars carried on five bogies. The internal bogies have 8t in. diameter wheels spaced at 2 ft. 8i in. centres, while the two end bogies are slightly smaller and have the axles spaced at only 1 ft. lit in. centres. Each coach is divided into two compartments, but the two end cars are slightly longer and have open observation platforms in addition. The main dimensions are as following:

Inner Cars. Outer Cars
Length 9ft. 11½in. 12ft. 3½in.
Width 3ft. 0¾in 3ft. 0¾iin.
Height 4ft. 10in 4ft. 10in

The remaining coach is very much larger. It is carried on two four-wheeled bogies with 10 in. diameter wheels spaced at 2 ft. 0 in. centres, the distance from centre to centre of the bogies being 14 ft. 0 in. The body is divided into four compartments and the main dimensions are: length (over.tbuffers) 18 ft. 5 in.; width, 3 ft. 3¾ in.; height, 4 ft. 8½in.
When the line is in operation the engine is run round the train after each trip by means of the traverser and the second line in the station, and thus runs funnel first and tender first on alternate Journeys.
The writer wishes to thank all those who have supplied material for these notes, and in particular the following:
G.J. Humbert, of Trentham Gardens, Ltd., for details of the'Trentham Miniature Railway. W.J. Bassett-Lowke, for details of the Geneva Railway and other useful information. Wm. Ray, of Belle Vue (Manchester) Ltd., for details of the Belle Vue Miniature Railway.

L.N.E.R 72
The North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. delivered the first of an order for 4-6-0s [KPJ corrected] of the Springbok class. It was No. 1040 Roedeer and  was working on tbe Great Eastern section. Four Class B2 4-6-0 rebuilds were running: Nos. 2871 (now 1671), 2816, 2839 and 2815.

G.W.R. 72
Four further 4-6-0 engines Nos. 1015 to 1018 and two 0-6-0PT engines Nos. 9640 and 9641 had been completed at Swindon. The following had been withdrawn: No. 819 0-6-0T (Cambrian No. 24), Nos. 2103 and 2729; No. 2983 Redgauiulet 4-6-0.

To services rendered . 72-3
The salaries offered to mechanical engineers by railways have never been high except In the cases of a few senior officers, and here, also, when due consideration 1S given to the num- bers of staff controlled by them and to the nature and extent of their responsibilities in other direc- tions, comparison with similar positions held in other industries is far from favourable as regards remuneration. It has always been accepted that railway employment is "safe," and this does not infer that many so employed are not of an adventurous nature. It is also undeniable that the life it ofters exercises a particular and very potent fascination. In the past it has attracted to its professional ranks many men with private incomes.' They belong, however, to a category which is doomed by current economic conditions to 'certain and rapid extinction. Further recruitment from this source is consequently stopped; In their time many of them have given good service to the railways, efficient because it was not affected by personal financial worries, and have enjoyed acareer of great worth in that it was congenial.
If an engineer goes overseas he commands up to roughly three times the salary for a given appoint- ment and, if he remains single, this represents a considerable but not proportionate' gain. But if he marries (a common and not unnatural fate) climatic and educational factors frequently demand that his wife and family be sent home sooner or later. He then finds himself in the posi- tion of having to maintain two establishments, with the ultimate result that he has no more half- crowns to jingle in his pockets at the end of the month than his confrere who has stayed at home and, further, his health may be impaired by an inclement climate.
At home, increases in basic salaries do not keep step either with increases in the cost of living (and there are disparities between those actually obtain- ing and as officially calculated) or of railway wage rates. In consequence it is by no means uncommon to find that the salary of a senior supervisor is lower than the actual average earnings of many of the junior grades he controls; the position is worsened if allowances be made for such factors as the provision of free uniform clothing. This state of affairs introduces a principle which, in -rnany other organisations, is regarded as so highly undesirable that it is not allowed to persist. Quite apart from any sense of grievance it may engender in the supervisors concerned, it is certainly not conducive to good discipline when this fact is known, as it almost invariably is, to the subordinate grades.
Direct comparison of the salary levels for traffic supervisors and for those who have been mechanically trained and are engaged in the operation of locomotives sometimes reveals ano- malies. In some cases the traffic man, whose period of training has been much shorter, cornmands a higher salary although he may control fewer and usually less skilled personnel and, in any event, is not responsible for the maintenance of locomotives and plant having a capital value of, perhaps, some hundreds of thousands of pounds. There are two explanations for this state of affairs. The first is purely historical, and any justification there may have been for it in the long ago has been cancelled by the vast changes in conditions which have occurred since. It dates back to the days when technical functions were rela- tively very limited in extent and the Superintendent of the Line a very great god wearing a top hat of the finest beaver. The second is a convention, equally hard to justify now, but beloved of a certain type of traditionalist, that salaries in the spending departments of a railway must always be less than in those which earn revenue. The fatuity of these premises is recognised on those railways which have adopted the divisional system and decreed that the superintendents may be recruited from both the operating and the motive power functions. Here it is necessary to add, but not in any carping spirit, that although it is possible to convert a locoman into a traffic man, the reverse does not hold good; at the same time, there is certainly no case for reducing existing traffic salary levels.
Much has been said of the advantages to the staff of pension schemes and free or cheap rail travel, but they do not bridge the gap in salary levels. Pension schemes are by no means confined to railways, and the actual extent of savings on travelling costs have frequently been over-estimated.
The engineering institutions have always adopted a sympathetic attitude towards the subject of adequate remuneration for their members, and not only for reasons of professional prestige, but it would be an extremely difficult matter for them to take action on general lines owing, amongst other things, to the many different varieties of specialisation embraced by their membership. It is, however, indicated that the anomalies on the railways should be removed. The necessary for ever greater efficiency and the committal, at home at least, to a policy of rapidly increasing mechanisation emphasises the need for engineers of the best type, not only highly qualified technically, but also leaders of men with training and ability in organisation and administration of a high order, the application of which need not be limited to their own specialised sphere. To attract men of this calibre to what is essentially a fine career is a question not only of the labourer being worthy of his hire, but equally of the hire being worthy of the labourer.

To services rendered. 72-3
Remuneration for railway mechanical engineers: salaries, pensions and fringe benefits, like free travel, See also letter from Norman Duncan on page 112

L.N.E.R. appointments. 73.
E. H. Baker, & District Locomotive Superintendent, Peterborough moved to District Locomotive Superintendent, Gorton where responsible for 484 locomotives and B. Adkinson formerly at Gorton moved to Doncaster

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 73-6. illustration. table
Further considering the question of working the line, the directors seem to have inclined favourably to the G. & S.W., especially as that company had now reduced its terms to 50 per cent. of receipts. With Scots caution, however, they decided, before closing, to approach the Caledonian Railway, which from 1864 had operated the Portpatrick Railway.
This was an unfortunate move. The Caledonian and G. & S.W. were on very bad terms. The Caledonian, after consideration, declined the offer, and the directors returned to the G. & S:W., to find that the terms had stiffened, and that the G. & S.W. were now prepared to work the G. & P.J. at nothing under cost price. Wheatley, convinced that the G. & P.J. would now revert to his scheme, went ahead with the purchase of the four North London engines, but to everyone's surprise the G. & P.J. continued negotiations with the G. & S.W.
The C.R. now became alarmed. They had probably thought that by declining to work the G. & P.J., they were aiding Wheatley, whose cause they favoured; now it appeared that they had only exposed their citadel of Stranraer to an invasion by their enemies, the G. & S.W. So began a grim campaign of opposition to the entry of the G. & P.J., a campaign which dragged on into 1877 and to which the Board of Trade unwittingly lent their aid by their decree that an additional running line and platform be provided at both Dunragit and Stranraer (Town) Stations for the accommodation of the additional G. & P.J. traffic. Matters became so difficult that early in 1877 it was seriously pro- posed that the G. & P.J. make its own line as far as Dunragit Station, and there hand over its traf- fic to the Portpatrick company, in fact for a time it seemed possible that the G. & P.J. might have to make an independent line right through to Stranraer. But wiser counsels prevailed, and early in the summer construction of the additional accommodation on the Portpatrick section began. In May, 1877, another Bill was passed through Parliament, the principal clause giving the G. & P.J. powers to borrow another £100,000.
All this time, Wheatley waited hopefully with his four North London engines. He had them fitted, presumably at Bow Works, with the extremely attenuated cab favoured by him on the  N.B., the bunkers appear to have been enlarged and the engines repainted in black with boiler-bands picked out in red, a livery just adopted by the N.L. for their duplicate stock and in which they were probably the first engines to appear. But Wheatley's hopes were vain, for on July 24 an agreement was signed whereby the G. & S.W. undertook to staff, maintain and work the G. & P.J.
On 24 July 1877 Col. Hutchison inspected the line and the line opened officially on 1 October 1877....
Change of engine was necessary at the shore end of Stranraer Pier, this being presumably included in these schedules. The pier was then of wood, and nothing heavier could be allowed upon it than a four-wheeled tank engme.
No local manager was apparently appointed for the G. & P.J., but the secretarial duties were carried out by W. Graham, at first with an office at Stranraer, but later from a Glasgow office. Then, in accordance with a clause of the 1872 Act, three directors from the G. & P. J. and three from the Portpatrick Railway were formed into a Committee, the Portpatrick and Girvan Joint Committee, to look after the working on the section of line from Challoch Junction to Stranraer jointly owned by the two companies and thereafter known as "The Stranraer Section." Robert Beattie, previously stationmaster at Motherwell, was appointed Secretary and Manager to this Committee. Through various vicissitudes of its two components the P. & G. Joint Committee continued to function until its abolition on January 1, 1895, and tickets printed in its name were issued up to the time of the grouping of 1923 and probably later. .
The disposal of the engines used in the construction has some points of interest. An auction sale of contractor's material was advertised for January 17-18, 1878, and two locomotives are listed. Hired engines being excluded; these would be Sambo and Duchess. Boulton evidently got Duchess, while it seems probable that Sambo was obtained by J. H. Riddell & Co., of Glasgow, dealers in engineering material. But very strangely, on March 8, 1878, there appears in The Engineer" an announcement that Riddell & Co. have for a sale a "tank locomotive engine called the Duchess, by Manning, Wardle & Co., 12 inch cylinder, 6-coupled," for the sum of £400. This 68-year-old conundrum is indeed hard to solve, but the writer would offer the opinion that when Riddell & Co. obtained Sambo, they also obtained Duchess's ornamental name-plates, which were placed on Sambo, or some other Manning, Wardle purchase. Duchess's cab, being of local material, was probably removed also, hence her appearance in Fig. 84 of Chronicles of Boulton's Siding (from a photograph taken at New Cross) nameless and cabless. There was a story on the G. & P.J. that Sambo went to colliery owners, and that Duchess went to "a small private line in Yorkshire." This may have been her ultimate disposal, but she had evidently been in the London area first. Amy and Black Knight went back to Boulton, Amy being sold by him in January, 1878. Wheatley removed Lochinvar, and one account says that she went to a purchaser in Kilmarnock, who fitted her with six-coupled wheels about 3 ft. 9 in. diameter.
Another story says that "N.B. No. 20" worked at a Fife coal-pit. The stories may be complementary. Bradb y , however, remained after the opening. Some parts of the line, notably a slipping bank above; New Luce, were giving trouble, and apparently the contractor agreed to retain the engine until matters had been put right. There was a ballast quarry at Milepost 30¼ north of Challoch Junction (the excavation can still be seen) and in a siding there Bradby and some wagons were stationed, and made ballasting journeys up the line. Three of the ballast wagons had brake-man's cabin at one end in Continental fashion, brake-blocks operating on one side of the wagon only. Bradby remained till the summer of 1878, when she was removed by Wheatley, and is believed to have gone, like Sambo and Lochinvar, to colliery work. She reappeared on the Wigtownshire Railway in 1884. The Challoch ballast quarry continued in use by G. & S.W. engines until about 1882-3, when the siding was removed.
Two G. & S.W. tender engines of James Stirling's design were the first to be stabled at Stranraer, a 2-4-0 believed to be No. 71, and a 0-4-2, No. 240. 71 worked the morning passenger train as far as Ayr, did a trip to Kilmarnock, and returned with the 4.15 p.m. ex Glasgow. 240 worked a through goods to Eglinton Street, Glasgow. The morning boat train to Stranraer was run by Glasgow men, with similar 2-4-0s, and in 1877-8 these were returning on the 8.20 p.m. (nick-named "The Paddy") from Stranraer Harbour, though by 1879 the return trip was made on the 11.15 a.m. from Stranraer, continuing from Girvan on the 3 p.m. to Glasgow. 2-4-0 No. 83 was on this job- in 1879, and when she was laid up for six weeks' overhaul, her crew received as a modest substitute a small 0-4-2, No. 188. The boat trains, however, were very light. When "The Paddy" was in collision with a goods at Barassie on November 18, 1878, the load was given as three small- coaches and van. Girvan men had at least one passenger turn to Stranraer.
-Photograph by H. C. Casserley: G. & S.W.R. No. 637 (formerly No. 240)

Post-War locomotive design: Central Uruguay Railway. 76-8. illustration, 2 diagrams. (side and front elevations & plan)
Includes detailed drawings

L.M.S.R. 79
The following new engines had been put into service: 4-6-0 Class 5, Nos. 4931, 4967 and 4968 (built at 'Crewe); Nos. 4953 to 4955 (built at Horwich); 2-6-4T class 4P, Nos. 2223 and 2234 (built at Derby).
The following locomotives had been withdrawn: 4-4-0 Class 3P, No. 760 (Midland Rly.); 0-4-4 Class 2PT, Nos. 15120, 15163, 15205 {Caledonian Rly.); 0-4-4 Class 1PT, Nos. 1294, 1395 (Midland Rly.); 0-6-0 Class 3F, Nos. 3768 (Midland Railway), 12187, 12206, 12295, 12367, 12424, 12550 (L. & Y .R.), 17248 (Caledonian Rly.); 0-6-0 Class 2F, Nos. 3139, 3649 (Midland Rly.), 28209, 28347, 28410, 28533 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT, Nos. 7763, 7827, 27605, 27609 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT, No. 1864 (Midland Rly.); 0-4-0 Class 0FT; No. 16009 (Caledonian Rly.).
Altered Motive Power Classification. 0-8-0 Class 6F, Nos. 9189 and 9202 to Class 7F

L.N.E.R. 79
Facilities for coaling, turning and servicing engines at Dunfermline Upper Locomotive Depot were being improved. New equipment included a mechanical coaling plant of 250 tons hopper capacity and a 70ft. articulated turntable capable of dealing with modern locomotives. In addition to an improved track layout, an existing building will accommodate workshops and stores, whilst staff amenities will be improved by the erection of a new building. During 1946 579 miles of L.N E.R. lines were to be completely or partially renewed. Over 300 passenger stations. goods depots and other buildings were to be repainted. Roofing glass removed soon after the outbreak of war is to go back, and work is in progress at King's Cross and Edinburgh (Waverley).
A plan to improve Newcastle Central Station included the conversion of four of the bay platforms to two through platforms, the provision of an additional platform and of a passenger subway to replace the existing footbridge .and the replacement of the signalling by a modern installation.
The existing electro-pneumatic signalling installed in 1906, to be replaced by modern colour light signals controlled from one signal box in the Central station, this enabling the present Newcastle Nos. 1, 2 and 3 and Manors Junction boxes to be closed.

G.W.R. 79.
St. Mellons, near Cardiff, one of the secret "inland" ports which during the war handled hundreds of thousands of tons of traffic passing between the South Wales ports and the rest of the country, had closed down. Vast tonnages of miscellaneous cargoes, representing all that goes to feed a nation, as well as to arm, equip .and maintain its fighting services, had commenced to pour into the ports of Cardiff, Swansea, Newport, Barry and Port Talbot, with the result that in 1941 a commencement was made upon the construction of the "Inland Port Sorting Depot" at St. Mellons. Four large transit sheds were constructed and extensive rail and road accommodation installed, the Depot extending over all to 85 acres. In the early part of 1942 the Depot was put into operation.

Correspondence. 79

Birkenhead, Lancashire and Cheshire Joint Rly. H.F. Hilton
I have a list of engines belonging to this railway about the year 1847, but it makes no mention of the builders. Perhaps some of your readers can add this information and complete the record. All were 2-2-2 and all had 5ft. 6in. driving wheels other than No. 9 (5ft.)
1 Wirral with 13 x 18in cylinders
2 Zillah with 12 x 18in cylinders
3 Touchstone with 12 x 18in cylinders
4 Commodore with 13 x 18in cylinders
5 Hirondelle with 12 x 18in cylinders
6 Lupus with 13 x 18in cylinders
7 Druid with 13¾ x 22in cylinders
8 Monk with 13½ x 22in cylinders
9 Victoria with 13 x 18in cylinders

St. Helens Railway Locomotives. C. Williams.
In the February issue of " The Locomotive," E. K. Kirby suggests that Baxter is wrong in assuming that the old U. & B. 2-2-2 Sharp locomotive, L.N.W. No. 419, was taken over by the St. Helens Railway, and adds that this engine was renumbered 1174 in 2/65, and later 181A (? 1814) . As a matter of fact these particulars refer to another engine bearing L.N.W. No. 419, which replaced the one mentioned by Baxter. It came from the Birkenhead Railway, and was a 0-4-2 built by Stephenson. According to official inforrnation , this- engine was renumbered 1814 in 1872 and scrapped in 9/79.
The evidence so far submitted has not, in my opinion, proved the case that U. & B. No. 419 was purchased by the St. Helens Company. Data in my possession shows that when replaced by the Birkenhead engine in 1860, it became No. 419A. Later, in 4/62, following the abolition of the letter" A " for duplicates, it was allotted No. 1125 in the new duplicate list. This number the engine retained until early in 1863, when it was taken from stock, and, as far as is known, was then broken up.
A former correspondent, Abbott, has wrongly stated that St. Helens No. 28 was broken up in 1868; this was given correctly as 1864 by Marshall , Of the other St. Helens engines, No. 4 and 23 had 4ft. 6in. wheels and were 0-6-0T type. No. 10 was scrapped in 4/64 (not September) and No. 13 on 17/1/65. The L. N . W . R. official stock totals as at 31 /8/64 i nclude 24 St. Helens engines, four having then apparently been disposed of. These were Nos. 3, 8, 10 and one other, probably No. 2.

Compound locomotives. Henry W. Davis. 80
There is a misprint in line 17 of my letter on page 32 of your February issue. I stated: "it will be found necessary on a six-coupled engine to offset the axes of the connecting rods from the axes of the piston rods (on the L.M:S. Pacifies the centre line of the coupling rods is l07/8 in. from the frame) ... " If you will refer to my letter as published you will see that in line 17 "coupling rods" has been inserted in place of "connecting rods." The reference to "coupling rods" in that part in parentheses in the next line is correct. I shall be obliged if you will have the error corrected.

C. M. Keiller. 80
I am afraid Henry W. Davis is quite incorrect in asserting that my suggested arrangement would necessitate the outside connecting" rods being offset from the piston line. I think he must have overlooked the fact that in my arrangement the inside cylinders are at 1ft. 5in. centres instead of 1ft. 9in. as on the L.M.S. design thus allowing the wheel boss to be moved 2in , towards the centre line of the loco. without altering any bearing or wheel seat length, and as the outside cylinders are also the same distance nearer together, 6ft. 8in. instead of 7ft. 0in., the piston line would automatically come into line with the new position of the outside crank pins and of course no offsetting would be needed. The essential thing is that there is the same distance between the inside and outside. cylinders on each 'side as on the L.M.S. design, the only difference being that the driving wheel centres would be flat instead of dished and the centre portion of the crank axle shorter.
As regards power output., the cylinder volume is certainly less than that of the L.M.S.7 P class but if the Chapelon efficiency were realised, and this is the chief reason for the compound cylinders, then the I.H.P. should be around 3500 which is quite as much as the above class have so far produced. I do not think it can be contended that the balance should give trouble, after all there have been quite a lot of two cylinder locos on express service with 22in. by 28in. outside cylinders and in this case the outside reciprocating weight would be at least 75% balanced by the inside motion.

L.M.S. signalling demonstration. 80
At a public exhibition of modern signalling and communications equipment held in the Shareholders' Meeting Room, Euston. Alfred Barnes, Minister of Transport, performed the opening ceremony.
The layout of the demonstration was supervised by W. Wood, signal and telegraph engineer, (retired at that time?) in conjunction with W. K. Wallace, Chief Civil Engineer and Jos. O'Neill publicity officer.

Railway history. 80
Two well-known collectors, Messrs. J. Phillimore and C. F. Dendy Marshall, both assembled important collections, consisting mainly of pictures, documents and medals relating to railways. Since their death, however, these collections have been dispersed, and the Science Museum and Science Library have been able to acquire many interesting items which, together with examples previously in the National Collections form a most valuable reference collection.

G.W.R. 80
Two new 3,000-ton cross-Channel passenger and cargo ships were being built to replace the S.S. St. Patrick and the S.S. St. Andrew lost during the war and are expected to be in service in about 15 months' time. The Cornish Riviera non-stop between Paddington and Plymouth and the Torbay expresses have been reinstated, also several additional main-line and local trains have appeared in the summer-time tables issued this month.

Reviews. 80

The Paget locomotive. James Clayton. The Railway Gazette.
Hitherto very little has been known of this exceptionally interesting departure from orthodox locomotive design. This reprint from The Railway Gazette, to which has been added an article from the Stephenson Locomotive Society's Journal, is profusely illustrated and contains much information previously kept behind a veil of secrecy. The engine concerned was certainly one of the most outstanding experi- mental locomotives ever built and this account of its design, construction and performance is a welcome—if belated—addition to locomotive literature.

Unsere lokomotiven: Zurich: Orell Fussli Verlag
The increasing interest 'in railway matters by the general public is not confined to Great Britain and the U.S.A. for the Swiss authorities have published the first of a series of booklets dealing in semi-technical manner with their locomotives. It is written in the German language and well illustrated.

The duplicate locomotives of the L.S.W.R. Published by Railway Hobbies Ltd.
A booklet of nineteen interesting photographs by Casserley together with the numbers of the duplicate stock of the old South Western line taken over at the grouping; building and withdrawal dates are given; there is no reading matter.

Tube Investments Limited. 80
Production started on a contract for 5,000 tons of locomotive boiler tubes placed by the French Government in connection with the rehabilitation of the French State Railways. Production is being undertaken at Birmingham, Walsall and Jarrow.

Number 646 (15 June 1946)

L.M.S. locomotive improvements. 81.

2,000th loco. built at Doncaster. 82. illustration
Thompson Pacific No. 500

Recent developments in L.M.S. locomotive practice. 82-5. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams.
Rocking grates and self-cleaning smokeboxes

Arthur L. Stead. French rail re-equipment. 85-7. 2 illustrations

Arthur G. Wells. The paper railway. 87-90. 7 illustrations
2ft 6in gauge railway owned by Edward Lloyd Ltd (better kown by later name of Bowater's) at Sittingbourne on the Swale.

Southern Railway. 90. illustration
Lighting installation over the Golden Arrow continental platform at Victoria Station using ninety-six Osram fluorescent tubes giving an intermediate white quality of light (i.e., midway between the "daylight" and "warm white" colours) are arranged in two lines each covering 250 feet of platform. They are spaced 8 feet apart and mounted under a canopy I4 feet high. One line of tubes is positioned near the edge of the platform to provide adequate lighting for passengers getting in or out of trains, while the other line gives general illumination on the platform and lights the benches used by the customs offices.
This system gives even illumination, with minimum shadow, over the whole of the platform and is proving a great help to the railway staff. The scheme was prepared by the Illuminating Engineering Department of The General Electric Co. Ltd., to the requirements of A. Cunnington, Southern Railway Lighting Engineer. Photograph of Bulleid Pacific with Golden Arrow insignia with lighting.

L.M.S.R. 90
The formation of new Motive Power Districts for Bletchley and Blackpool is a feature of a partial reorganisation of Motive Power Districts. Bletchley District, formed of Bletchley (2B). Oxford (2B), Newport Pagnell (2B), Cambridge (2B), Aylesbury (2B), and Northampton (2C). Until this reorganisation, Northampton came within the Rugby District. Rugby District, comprising Rugby (2A), Market Harborough (2A), Seaton (2A), Nuneaton (2D), Warwick (2E), and Coventry (2F). Blackpool District, formed by depots transferred from the Accrington District, namely, Blackpool Central and Blackpool North (24E), and Fleetwood (24F). Accrington District. formed by Accrington (24A), Rose Grove (24B), Lostock Hall (24C) , and Lower Darwen (24D) . Bank Hall District, consisting of Bank Hall (23A)', Aintree (23B), Southport (23C) and Wigan Central (23D).

L.N.E.R. B1 class 4-6-0 No. 1040 "Roedeer", built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. 90. illustration

The first 8-coupled locomotive in Europe. 91-3. 3 diagrams (side elevations)
John Haswell 0-8-0 designed for Semmering trials. Vindobona. It was fitted with counter pressure braking.

L.M.S.R. Advertising and Publicity Department. 93
Why? The L.M.S Answers your Questions: pamphlet explaining why services were neither fast nor punctual.

L.M.S.R. appointments. 93
J.E. Wood appointed District Locomotive Superintendent Leeds in place of A.W.F. Rogerson who had retired; N.R. Peach appointed District Locomotive Superintendent Kentish Town; D.D. Scott appointed District Locomotive Superintendent Plaistow, and A. Jeffrey appointed Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent Carlisle (Kingmoor).

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 93-6. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Continued page 120. The report to the shareholders' meeting on 30 April 1878, therefore, could express satisfaction with the rolling-stock provided, and with the traffic returns, which during the year increased from 1s. 10¾d. to 2s. 2½d. per train mile. But with the charges for working it was far otherwise. These were simply enormous, amounting to over 90 per cent. of the gross receipts. To go on under these conditions was ruinous. Again the possibility of working the line with stock of their own was canvassed, and again it was discarded. But no time was lost in drafting a new agreement with the G. & S.W. This was signed on 18 March 1879, for one year from 31 January previous, and amended the working charges to the following figures: For all services, 10d. per train mile; for all goods and mineral trains, 1s. per train mile; mixed trains, 11d.
This promised to be more reasonable, but it seemed as if relief was coming too late. Difficulties were accumulating thick and fast. Mr. Miller, original engineer of the G. & P.J., was claiming a large sum due to him for his services; Lloyd's Bank and other creditors were clamouring, while over all loomed the shadow of that huge debt owiog to the Portpatrick Railway for interest on cost of the Stranraer section. So on 3 July 1879, on petition of the creditors, the Court of Session appointed Mr. James Haldane, C.A., Edinburgh, as judicial factor, to manage the undertaking of the G. and P. J. in lieu of the directors.
Mr. Haldane's task was not enviable. The working agreement of 1879 had produced no improvement. There was, it is true, a saving of £1,075 in locomotive expenses during the half-year to 31 January 1880, but this had been more than offset by the G. & S. W. spending £1,606 more in maintenance. On 11 June 1880, Sir Thomas Bouch issued his award on the question of the sum due to the Portpatrick Railway under the Act of 1872, assessing that sum at £47,017 7s. 9d. The payment of this simply had to be tackled. The biggest drain on the company's resources was obviously the working agreement with the G. & S.W., and Mr. Haldane gave notice to terminate this at  31 January 1881. His action was at once questioned by the shareholders, and Mr. Haldane had to fight an action in a court of law in order to establish his authority to manage the affairs of, the G. & P.J. A later action between the judicial factor and the shareholders gave to the former the power to sell the line. Meantime the working agreement had expired, but no better arrangement having been made, the G. & S.W. continued working the line on the same terms on a month-to-month basis. The G. & S.W. wished to renew the agreement for a period of six years, but Mr. Haldane would not agree,and the directors, with whom the G. & S.W. subsequently negotiated, had no powers of management. So matters dragged on throughout 1881, and at last, on January 6, 1882, a meeting was -called at which the shareholders were asked to give their support to one of three Bills which it was proposed to present to Parliament. These were:
(1) A Bill, promoted by the judicial factor, to sell the line.
(2) A Bill, promoted by the shareholders, to raise £50,000 in order to pay the Portpatrick Company's claim, and to provide plant and rolling-stock.
(3) A Bill to incorporate a new company.
At a further meeting on 24 January it was :resolved to give support to (2)
This promised at last to overcome the difficulty with the Portpatrick Company, but it was .only a promise. The Portpatrick people had had enough of promises. They had waited ten years for their money, they would wait no longer. On -February 1, 1882, they had an interdict served 'upon the G. & P.J., preventing them from using .the Portpatrick Railway after February 7. On this date traffic upon the G. & P. J. came peremptorily to a stop.
It was a terribly heavy blow, and the G. & P.J. might well have abandoned the struggle as hopeless. 'But these dour men of Galloway refused to be beaten. Arrangements were hurriedly made, the 'G. & S.W. brought its Stranraer passenger engine, Stirling 2-4-0 No. 59, back to New Luce, stabled it in the goods shed there, and for the next eighteen months Driver Peter Carruth and Fireman Torn Barry ran a passenger service twice a day each way between New Luce and Girvan. This involved .running no fewer than 50 miles each day, tender first, over these high moors, as cruel a job in a 'winter as men ever tackled. These trains worked to and from the Old Station at Girvan, the New Station being closed for a period. Additional sidings were laid in at New Luce on each side of the line to the south of the station, and passengers .and goods conveyed thence to Stranraer by the road over the hill to Castle Kennedy, Goods trains were worked to New Luce by Girvan men with two Stirling 0-4-2s, 145 and 148 of the 1865 batch with Allan valve-motion, and farmers living adjacent to the line between New Luce and Challoch could usually get a wagon delivered to a convenient point in their section by private payment of whisky to the train crew! Later this traffic was conducted officially at level crossings.
But the G. & P.J. could not exist on its local traffic. At all costs the line must be re-opened to Stranraer. The Bill promoted by the shareholders was now submitted to Parliament in 1882, and when passed on 18 August of that year, gave permission for the borrowing of £30,000,. to be applied to the paying of the debt to the Portpatrick Railway and to the purchase of rollingstock. Of this sum the G. & S.W. agreed to contribute £20,000, on condition that the remainder be subscribed by land-owners adjacent to the line. A clause also provided that, four years from the passing of the Act, the holders of £40,000 worth of G. & P.]. debentures might apply for the appointment of a judicial factor, who would have power to close the line for six months and thereafter sell it for a fraction of its cost as a monbund concern.
There was concluded, also, with the G. & S.W., a new working agreement which gave promise of more reasonable conditions. Under it, the G. & S.W. were to staff, work, manage and maintain the G. & P.J. as formerly, collecting all tolls and charges and applying them as follows:
(1) Pay all rates and taxes.
(2) Pay each year, to the Portpatrick Company, £9,765 17s. 9d. in settlement of claim.
(3) Retain for themselves, in payment of working, etc., a sum varying from 75 to 55 per cent. of the gross receipts, according to the amount of said receipts, the remainder to go to the G. & P. J. for distribution to shareholders.
The agreement was signed on 26 May 1883, to expire at 30 September 1885. These new conditions were apparently satisfactory to the Portpatrick Railway, the interdict was withdrawn, and the full Glasgow-Stranraer train service recommenced on 1 August 1883. Mr. Beattie, Secretary and Manager of the Portpatrick & Girvan Joint Committee, having obtained another post, these duties were thereafter performed by the Stranraer stationmaster, Mr. Fred. W. Hutchinson, in addition to his own. And now for a brief period fortune smiled upon the little G. & P.J. The directors resumed control, and on 31 October 1884, were able to announce the payment to the holders of A debenture stock a dividend of 1 per cent. It was very small, but it was the first in the history of the line, and they were rather proud of it. But their satisfaction was short-lived.
On 19 August 1885, the G. & S.W. gave notice that they would terminate the working agreement in six months from that date, and intimated the withdrawal of the £20,000 advanced under the Act of 1882, on the grounds that the remaining £10,000 had not been subscribed. The Portpatrick & Wigtownshire Joint Railway was then in process of constitution, and the G. & S.W. was. about to establish itself at Stranraer, not as a timidly sponsored guest, but as a working partner. In view of this, and of the unfortunate clause concerning the selling of the line, the G. & P.J. shrewdly suspected that the G. & S.W., having got them hemmed in, was now manoeuvring towards a closing of the line and its purchase at a disastrously low figure. The G. & P.J., therefore, took immediate counter-measures.
A Bill was drafted for presentation to Parliament. This provided for (1) The acquiring of running powers over the G. & S.W. from Girvan to Ayr and thence to Kilwinning and Kilmarnock. At these places contact could be made with the Caledonian, who, if they saw a chance of thus running a Caledonian Glasgow-Stranraer service, might be induced to work the G. & P.J. (2) The acquiring of additional ground at Guvan G: & P.J. Station, on which to erect a goods station, independent of the G. & S.W. (3) The borrowmg of a sum not exceeding £25,.000 for the purpose of working the line. (4) The repeal of the 1882 clause, the power of selling the line to be solely m the hands of the directors.
It was resolved, also, to appoint for the first time a General Manager, and early m 1886 approach was made to one whose name was destined to be associated with this railway long after the other sturdy pioneers had been forgotten. This was Mr. William Thomas Wheatley, who had succeeded his father in 1883 as lessee and manager of the Wigtownshire Railway. After the absorption of that system by the Portpatrick & Wigtownshire Joint Railway, Mr. Wheatley was glven the post of locomotive foreman at Stranraer, which post he now relinquished to take the helm of the sorely-tried G. & P.J.
By this time it was becoming increasingly clear that the G. & S.W.' s threat to discontinue the working was no idle one. The G. & P.J. inquired the reason, and were informed that the line was unsafe—the lining of Pinmore tunnel and one of the piers of the Stinchar viaduct being cited as particular examples. There was some truth m these assertions, but as no previous complaint had been made on the subject, the present attitude was only that of seeking an excuse. By the end of February the G. & S.W. refused to continue further working, but on appeal from the G. & P.J., consented to hire rolling-stock. This proved to be of the poorest description, and a full service could not be maintained. Meanwhile, the G. & P.J. Bill was being passed through Parliament, and in early April was being examined by a select committee of the House of Lords. On April 13, 1886 it was passed in all clauses except that referring to running powers. But the previous day, after six troubled weeks of working, the train service had come to a stop, and the G. & P. J. again closed. But this time there was bold, independent action; no more treaties; no more compromise. At once the new General Mariager embarked upon the formidable task of providing engines, coaches, wagons and an entire staff. In a remarkably short time an order was placed with Neilson & Co., Glasgow, for two 0-6-0 tender engines. The design was partly due to Mr. Wheatley, but the use of existing patterns was permitted in order to expedite delivery. At best, however, this could not take place before late autumn and Mr. Wheatley would not be content with that. So from some unknown hiding-place, believed to be in London, Mr. Wheatley produced three 4-4-0 side-tank engines, none other than three of the four that his father, Mr. Thomas Wheatley, had purchased from the North London Railway in 1877.
What had happened to Thomas Wheatley's North London tanks during the years 1877 to 1886 is an almost complete mystery. The four engines had certainly been replaced on the N. L., No. 34 in 1874 and Nos. 30, 31 and 32 in 1875, and all had been placed at least nominally in the N.L. duplicate list, either the "A" list of 1870-5 or the "101" list which succeeded it, and in which Nos. 30, 31, 32 and 34 were allotted duplicate numbers 101, 102, 103 and 105.
The three which reached the G. & P. J. in 1886 bore Slaughter Gruning's Nos. 439, 440 and 442, and were therefore the N. L. 31, 32 and 34. The G. & P.J. renumbered them 1, 3 and 2 respectively. They seemed little changed from 1877, being still in their black paint and red lining, with their very high blast-pipes, and with condensmg gear either still fitted or but recently removed. Presumably Mr. Wheatley hired them out. during the intervening nine years, but of their domgs we have only the vaguest of rumours. There is a story that a bogie tank engine worked at a colliery of Colin Dunlop, near Glasgow during this penod. Now, apart from Mr. Drummond's new engines on the N. B., the N. L.s could be the only bogie tanks then in Scotland. There is a story, too, that a similar engine worked at Solway Colliery, Seascale, Cumberland.
These were presumably the Wheatley engines, for the remaining four of the eight Slaughter, Gruning engines are fully accounted for, No. 35 (then No. 106) being sold by the N.L. in 1880 to the Joint Committee of the Cowes & Newport & Ryde Railways, Isle of Wight, while Nos. 33, 36 and 37 (104, 107 and 108) were sold to the Marquis of Bute Railway in 1880-2.
Of the history of No. 30 (later No. 101) we have some curiously disjointed fragments. In Locomotive Mag. of September, 1943, page 134, it is stated that she was sold by Mr. Wheatley in 1877 to the Ebbw Vale Steel & Iron Co. Then in 1889 she appeared on the Golden Valley Railway, and for a very short time worked passenger trains on the newly-opened Dorstone-Hay extension. She was then in her livery of black with red lining, and still carried her N.L. number-plate 101, together with the plate of her owner, C. Chambers, contractor, London. Mr. Chambers had constructed the Dorstone-Hay section, and then apparently undertook its working. Then, for no less than twenty years, history is silent regarding 101, till in the year 1909 Mr. A.C.W. Lowe, on a visit to the works of Messrs. Guest, Keen & Nettlefold at Dowlais, was shown what he called the "ruins" of a 4-4-0 tank engine,. still recognisable as a North London of the Slaughter batch, and there is a recollection that a blank number in the Dowlais stock was once fined by an engine from the Golden Valley Iine, . .
These ex-North London 4-4-0s were quite substantial engines. Inside cylinders were 16½ in. by 22 in., coupled wheels 5 ft. 3 in., bogie wheels 3 ft. 0 in. Heating surface was made up of tubes, 888ft2.; firebox, 81ft2; total, 969 ft2. Grate area was 14ft2. and working pressure 120 psi. Tanks contained 850 gallons of water, and nearly two tons of coal could be squeezed irito the bunker. Weight in working order is given as 37 tons: The engines were not repainted on coming to the G. &, P.J., and bore their livery of North London black with red lining to the end of their career. All these carried the sandbox on top of the boiler, but soon after arrival on the G. & P.J. No. 3 'had her sandbox violently rernovqd by collision with a clumsily-swung coal- bucket, after which No. 3's sand was-contained in more lowly but more British receptacles, A fourth engine was purchased from Boulton, but she was very small, a 0-4-0 saddle-tank called Nantmawr, a little thing with cylinders 10 in. by 15 in. and wheels 3 ft. 0 in. Nantmawr, illustrated on page 164 of The Chronicles of Boulton's Siding, had been built, probably about 1864; by Hughes & Co., of Loughborough, and had belonged originally to the ill-fated Potteries, Shrewsbury & North Wales Railway. Being found too small for useful work, she was sold in 1873 to Walker Brothers, engineers, Wigan, and by devious routes reached Boulton's hands in 1877.
Eight third-class carriages, six composites and four luggage vans were purchased second-hand, mostly, if not all, ex-North London stock, of their usual four-wheeled type, equipped with the Clark & Webb chain-brake. Some miscellaneous coaching vehicles and a quantity of ,goods rolling-stock were also purchased, and a start was made with a train service on June 14, 1886. lIllustrations: G. and P.J.R. No. 1 (Ex-N.L.R. No, 31),; : G. & P.J.R. No. 4 Nantmawr.

Correspondence. 96

Geared locomotive, Russell's Timber Line, Gembrook, Victoria. James. C.M. Rolland. illustration
Greater part of the Eastern half of state of Victoria is mountainous and mostly covered with eucalyptus forests, which include some of the highest trees in the world. The timber to be won from the trees is all what we call "hardwood" as contrasted with pine and oregon for instance, but the most varied use is made of it in anything from handsome figured and highly polished office fittings to massive joists and piles. Licences to cut out various areas are granted to saw millers and all through the forests there are, or were, to be found little narrow gauge lines of very primitive and tortuous and steeply graded type and early in the century there might have been reaped quite a harvest of snapshots of small steam locos, horse haulage also doing a part. As time went on internal combustion tractors of all sorts and manageable by all sorts of staff took the place of the old steam engines and more recently still heavy road and caterpillar haulers have largely put to flight even the primitive lines. Besides many small tank engines of ordinary types and mostly extremely second hand, a few strange special designs were to be found, including "Shays" and a "Climax" or two imported from the States, but also several very queer local productions.
One of these is the subject of the photograph. It was locally (in Melbourne) designed by the Day Engineering Works, South Melbourne about 14 years ago for Mr. Russell, sawmiller at Gembrook, which is the terminus of one of the narrow gauge (2 ft. 6 in.) lines of the Victorian Railways. Though in the picture escaping steam rather masks the cylinders, it will be seen that the design was on the Heisler principle, with the two 8 in. cylinders set "V" style one on each side of the boiler and both driving the one longitudinal shaft, which in turn was extended to engage through gears the nearest axle. The two sets of wheels, six in each bogie, are coupled in their own groups and are 20½ in diam. :rhe boiler was designed for 145 lb. pressure and the total weight when at work was 16½ tons. A notable feature both to the eye and the ear was the big steam siren stretched longways ahead of the dome and said to have come off a steamer. In its daily journeys it use4 to run some twelve miles East in heavy forest and the big siren was a most striking announcement of its approach or its returun. After some years it was replaced by an internal combustion affair on railway wheels, chain driven. The gauge was 3 ft. More recently still and perhaps only because of war difficulties, the whole working was stopped and the engines stored away m a shed at Gembrook.

Number 647 (15 July 1946)

"Statesmen" class locomotives Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac R.R. 100. illustration
At end of March, 1945 the first of the new 4-8-4 Statesmen class locomotives was put into service on the Capital Cities Route. Ten were constructed in 1945 for the R.F. and P.R.R. Co. by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and the first engine, No. 613 John Marshall (illustrated) was the 71, 992nd locomotive manufactured at the Baldwin Works. The ten locomotives which have been named after notable Virginia statesmen have all been assigned to regular passenger service between Richmond and Washington and are a worthy addition to the five Genera" and twelve Governor class 4-8-4 locomotives supplied by The Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1937 and 1938-42 respectively.

L.M.S.R. 100
The following new locomotives had been put into service: 4-6-0 Mixed Traffic, Class 5, Nos. 4969, 4970, 4971, 4972, 4973 (built at Crewe); Nos. 4956, 4957, 4958 (built at Horwich ) ;2-6-4 Tank, Class 4, Nos. 2225, 2226, 2227, 2228 (built at Derby).
The following locomotives had been withdrawn: 0-6-2 Class 2PT, Nos. 6866, 6935 (L. and N.W.R.); 2-4-2 Class 2PT, No. 10878 (L. and Y.R.); 0-4-4 Class 2PT, No. 15128 (Caledonian); 2-4-2 Class 1PT, No. 6741. (L. and N.W.R.), 0-4-4 Class 1PT, Nos. 1277 and 1407 (MIdland); 4-6-0 Class 4F, No. 28786 (L. and N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F, No. 12332 (L. and ·Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2F, No. 12025 (L. and Y.R.), No. 28226 (L. and N.W.R.); 0-8-4 Class 7FT, No. 7934 (L and N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2FT, No. 11434 (L. and Y .R.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT, No. 1681 (Midland).

L.N.E.R. 100
A branch line specially to serve Butlin's holiday camp at Filey was being constructed about halfway between Filey and Hunrnanby Sta.tions on the Hull and Scarborough line. The new camp station. is to be provided with four platform lines and sidings, engme pits and water columns.

G.W.R. 100
No. 1019 County of Merioneth was a recent addition to the new 4-6-0 1000 class. Four further 0-6-0 tank engines Nos 9642-9645 were in service. The following engines had been withdrawn: 0-6-0T No. 1287, No. 1585 and No. 1624; 2-6-0 No. 2677 and 4-4-0 No. 3313 Jupiter.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.101-4. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation), table
Table lists building, rebuilding and withdrawal dates for Brittain 670 class 0-4-2s

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Co. 104-7. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams (side elevations)

R. Opie. Locomotive power, performance and rating. 107-10.

P.C.D. The earliest loco. in Paraguay. 110.  illustration

Institute of Transport. 110

2-8-2 locomotives for France. 111. illustration
The French Railways suffered very severely during the war in all ways, by no means least in the locomotive department where more than 80 per cent. of the stock was destroyed. Realising that the basic requirement of recovery was trans. port the French Provisional Government arranged for the production of these engines early in 11944, some 700 being ordered from America. The design was based by the French on the 2-8-2 type, known as the 141 P, already in extensive use, as this machine had displayed its ability to handle mixed traffic at comparatively high speeds.
The contracts have been awarded to the American Locomotive Co., the Baldwin Locomotive Works and the Lima Locomotive Co. and we are in- debted to the last mentioned for their kindness in furnishing us with the reproduced photograph and particulars of these useful engines. Although delivery only commenced in November, 1945 it is anticipated that the whole 700 will be delivered before the end of this year. These locomotives have been designated the Liberation. Class—an appellation calculated to lead to confusion with the engines constructed for U.N.R.R.A and described in our May Issue; the classification is 141R.

Correspondence. 111

The first locomotive in Natal. John Poole.
G.V. Bulkeleys letter in February Issue, throws an interesting light on the early history of the Natal Rys. It has been accepted by many that the only 4 ft. 8½ in. locomotive to work in Natal was the 4-4-0T, Kitson's No. 2037 (1875), Cyls. 14 x 20 and 4 ft. 3in. coupled wheels. However, the Point line was opened in 1866, and in Kitsons list, No. 1271 of 1865 is. given as for Natal: 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge, Cyls. 12 x 18, and 4 ft. coupled wheels, which would appear to tally with the illustration, which moreover shows certain Kitson characteristics.
It would be of interest if Bulkeley could discover anything about a locomotive said to have been built at Durban in the early days of the N.G.R. An old four wheeled tender lying at Greytown in 1908 was said to have belonged to this engine, about which little seemed to be known. See letter from M.M. Loubser on page 194

St. Helens Railway locomotives. R. Abbott
The error which called forth the letter of Baxter in the December, 1945 and that of Kirby in the February, 1946 issues was that in my notes on the St. Helens Railway locomotives, the Works No. of  Trent was given as Sharp, Roberts' 193 instead of 199. Trent was originally one of four 0-4-2 locomotives built in 1842 for the Manchester and Birmingham Railway and numbered 21-24 on that line. Of these Nos. 21-23 became Northern Division Nos. 421-423 in 1857, when the North-Eastern Division of the L. and N.W. was absorbed into the Northern. No. 423 was renumbered 423A in March, 1860 and was sold to the St. Helens Railway later in the same year, and became their No. 2 Trent. On being again acquired by the L. and N.W. in July, 1864 it was allotted the number 1368 and sold during the same year to I.W. Boulton of Ashton-under-Lyne.

The Dublin and South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. John Carr. 112
Re the concluding article and the statement that No. 20 (King George) was not a success. As a retired driver of 46 years' footplate experience, and who has worked this Engine over all the various sections of the old D.S.E.R. with very heavy trains, I can confidently say that No. 20 was the most successful and economical loco. on coal and water that was ever turned out of Grand Canal Street works.
Proof of this lies in the fact that George H. Wild, when Loco. Superintendent ordered two identical engines from Beyer, Peacock and Co. in 1924, except that they were fitted with Belpaire boilers, and these. two, with No. 20 (now 455 with reduced pressure) work daily the crowded express trams of seven bogie coaches between Dublin and Greystones without any trouble and in spite of the very inferior fuel. Thus No. 20 has been constantly running for 35 years and is still a splendid machine. Also, the author's statement was not quite correct about the working pressure which was 160 lb., not 175.

Services rendered-traffic versus loco. Norman Duncan
As a railwayman of 38 years' experience in the Goods Manager's and Operating departments (formerly Goods Manager's Dept., Hull 1946. and Barnsley Railway, Hull).  I do not agree with the dictum that it is possible to convert a Loco. man into a Traffic man, but not the reverse. I would very much like to know of a single instance where a Loco man has emerged into a successful traffic officer. It is not necessary really to argue about the reverse for so far as a traffic man becoming a loco. man is concerned, the beginning and end of that is the Loco. Dept. wouldn't have them at any price, On the other hand, however, it is a fact that Loco. men have been appointed to posts in the Traffic Departments under a new "Joint organisation" or co-ordination of departments tried out on certain systems but the only result I have seen is that the traffic office in question under a Loco. chief speedily becomes "locomotivised" and after a bit you would have to go round with a large magnifying glass to discover any traces of its former Traffic "glory". The title of the office would be the same but the atmospherics entirely different. I worked in such an office for two and a half years of late and saw that transition take place, but it wasn't good for the traffic man.
Take the case of the larger railways of India. Before the introduction of the Divisional system of organisation in that country after the 1914-18 war it was a common enough thing for Engineers (but not Loco. men) to be appointed Traffic Managers and Agents of the largest lines, it being generally laid down in that country that a man with engineering experience was superior to any other for the purose of filling any high executive post. That many of these men did well is indisputable hut none the less for the occupancy of such responsible posts as those which were formerlv known under the titles of Chief Supt. of Transportation ard General Traffic Manager respectively of the big broad gauge lines. the best remembered names to this day are those of the men holding those posts for very often lengthy periods and who were Traffic born and bred. They were big noises whose equal was not to be met in any other depaitment and they know their jobs from A to Z. Now, to-day, in this country we are grappling with tt. problem of co-ordinating Locomotive Running Superintendents, Goods Managers and Passenger Managers into one harmonious whole. But until the Traffic men get their rightful bite of the apple and fill the responsible posts for which they have worked from their earliest years of service, the scheme, admirable though it may be in theory, will in practice fall short of ·expectations. Knowledge of rates and fares, general railway classification, canvassing, development and train and traffic control involves to my way of reasoning just as much skill as that implied by the term "mechanical training".
It is true we are living in the present and not the past but your mention of the Superintendent of the Line of by-gone days with his very special top hat rather makes me wistfully wish once again for the days of the big bearded giants who as Goods Managers and Superintendents ruled the roost in days of yore and were allowed to manage their own departments to the best advantage, ,untrammelled by the interference of other departmental chiefs. . . Without wishing to belittle the present style of executive railway officials, I would like to ask where to-day are the Scotters, the Nicholls, the C.T. Smith's, the L.W. Horne's, the Finlay Scott's and F. H. Dent's of bygone days .. Gone but not forgotten.

Reviews. 112

Building the Inner Circle Railway.The Railway Gazette
A series of pictures of very great interest (to Londoners in particular) were published in the Railway Gazette during the latter part of last year illustrating the construction of the Praed Street-Mansion House section of the old Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways. These have. now been reprinted in book form together with a few brief particulars of the contracts, etc. The "cut-and-cover" method of construction is very clearly shown and the brochure is well worth acquiring as a. memento of what was then a novel system of construction.

The 2-8-0 and 2-10-0 locomotives of the War Department 1939-1945. Published by the Railway Correspondence and Travel Society;
Technical descriptions and illustrations of these engines have appeared in our pages, but in this brochure we find chronicled a com- plete list of numbers, builders, dates, where employed and present whereabouts of all the tender engines built in this country for war service overseas during the late war, together with all other known facts-a complete historical record in fact; and one regrets that no similar record appears to have been made of the engines similarly employed in the 1914-18 campaign. The only criticism we have to offer is the use of the term A.F.V. which, together with a large number of other combinations of initials, gained currency during the war years and which are as Greek to the uninitiated.

The story of British Railways by Barrington Tatford, London; Sampson Low,
The author presents a general survey of the British railway system, but as the foreword states it is intended to be only a very rough sketch. The illustrations are numerous. [Ottley 116: who mentioned 24 colour plates]

Name plates of the Southern: by Frank Burridge. Published by Sydenham and Co. Ltd.
A list of all the Southern named engines detailing the style of name plate fitted to each together with dimensions. It is copiously illustrated.

Superheater Co , Ltd. 112
Closed their temporary wartime offices at Altrincham, Cheshire, and have moved to 53, Haymarket, London

Number 648 (15 August 1946)

The written word. 113.
Editorial criticism of standard of railway letter writing

L. Derens. Three-cylinder passenger locomotives, Netherlands Railways. 114-16. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Supplied by Nydvist & Holm (ordered by Dutch Government in exile) and similar to locomotives supplied to Berslagernas Railway

Swedish steam locomotives. 116
For the first time in twenty years new steam locomotives were being built in Sweden for the Swedish State Railways, on which 86 per cent. of the traffic is now hauled electrically. Nydqvist and Holm were building 10 large three-cylinder 4-8-0 engines, and the tenders were being built at Fahen works. The weight in working order is given as 74 tons for the locomotive and 116 tons for engine and tender; maximum axle load is 12.8 tons.

Argentine fuel. 116
According to the chairman of the Buenos Ayres Pacific Railway, that company had been burning as locomotive fuel during the past four or five years maize, linseed oil, sludge from oil refineries, and many other combustibles; but the mainstay was firewood, some hundreds of thousands of tons of which had been secured.

L.M.S.R 116
New locomotives in service were: 4-6-0 Mixed Traffic Class 5 (built at Crewe) Nos 4974, 4975, 4976, 4977, 4978; (built at Horwich) Nos 4959, 4960, 4961, 4962; 2-6-4 Tank Class 4 (built at Derby) Nos 2229, 2230, 2231, 2232.
The following engines had been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 5P. No. 10446 (L. & Y.R.); 4-6-2 Class 4PT. No. 15358 (Caledonian); 2-4-2 Class 2PT. No. 10881 (L. & Y.R.); 2-4-2 Class 1PT. No. 6755 (L. & N.W.R.); No. 12838 (L. &Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F. Nos. 12282, 12614 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2 F. Nos. 28186, 28303 (L. & N.W.R.); No. 22979 (Midland); 0-8-2 Class 6 FT, No. 7891 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2 FT. No. 27624 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2 FT. No. 11448 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class I FT. No. 1871 (Midland).
All locomotives were to be painted black, and with the exception of the Pacific, Royal Scot, Patriot and Jubilee classes, would be unlined. These express passenger classes will be painted black and lined-out in maroon and straw colour. Carriage stock to be painted maroon instead of a shade often described as Midland red, with straw coloured lining. Gill Sans lettering to become standard.

L.N.E.R. 116
0-6-0 saddle tanks, built to the order of the Ministry of Supply and not required for overseas, were being taken over by the company for shunting in colliery sidings and similar duties.

Loco. modernisation on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 117-19. 4 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
History of the locomotives of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway published in Locomotive Mag, Volumes 32-35 (beginning April 1926 page 110). This article mainly describes the Class XA light Pacific built by Vulcan Foundry in 1929: they had 16 x 26 in cylinders, 5ft 1½ coupled wheels, a total heating area of 1747ft2 including 348ft2  superheater. The grate area was 32ft2 . A Belpaire firebox was fitted. One photograph shows an XA Pacific being unloaded at Bombay from the SS Belray. The larger XB Cllass Pacific is illustrate, but was described in Locomotive Mag, Vol. 33, p. 375 and 34, p. 240 The XD Class is also illustrated and was described in Locomitive Mag., 1928, 34, 376

G.W.R. new engjne:s. 119
4-6-0 No. 5098 Clifford Castle; No. 5099 Compton Castle; No. 7000 Viscount Portal; No. 7001 Denbigh Castle; 0-6-0 Nos. 9646 to 9648.
The following engines have been withdrawn: 2·6·0, No. 2639 and No. 2673; 0-6·0 No. 876 (ex Cambrian); 0-4-2T No. 1163; 2-4-0T No. 1499; 0-4-0T No. 13.

Furness Railway. 119
At the time of its opening the Furness line was not connected with any other railway system, and the first engines supplied to the line had to be brought from Liverpool to Barrow by sea. These locomotives were built by the firm of Bury, Curtis and Kennedy and were known as the Coppernobs; one of them was exhibited as an historic relic at the Empire Exhibiton, Wembley, in 1924, and after being bombed out of Barrow during WW2, was still preserved at the L.M.S. Locomotive Works at Crewe, whence it would shortly be sent to Horwich Locomotive Works pending its return to its original site at Barrow. (See Locomotive Mag, Vol. V, The Locomotive History of the Furness Railway).

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 120-2
Previous part began page 93. Neilson supplied 0-6-0 WN 3584-5: they had 5ft 1½ coupled wheels, 17 x 26in cylinders, total heating surface of 1065ft2, grate area 16.5ft2 and 150 psi boiler pressure. These received running numbers 4 and 5 and were painted dark green. No. 7 was an 0-4-0 tramway engine of the Wigan type with vertical boiler with water tubes and 7 x 12in cylinders. It was built by the Yorkshie Engine Co. Wheatley took it from Challoch Junction to Girvan and back where it remained for nine years. The line was taken over by the Ayrshire & Wigtownshire Railway which had been incorporated on 23 May 1887. The Chairman was James H. Renton and the Directors were Colonel Barnett and Duncan McCallum. The Secretary was James Fulton Jackson who later steered the North British Railway. Two locomotives orrdered by the oldrer company were not delivered until after the take-over . They came from the Clyde Locomotive Co. in its brief separate existence and were WN 12 and 13 of 1887 and became Nos. 6 and 7. It is noted that No. 1 was worked very hard and relied upon the Clark & Webb chain brake.

Centenary of the Edinburgh-Berwick line, N.B.R. 122-3
An important event in the history of British Railways took place on r Sth June, 1846, when the first section of line laid down by the North British Railway was formally opened. This was the Edinburgh to Berwick line which formed the first railway to run over the Border between Scotland and England and by joining up two years later with the York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway the through- out East Coast route between Edinburgh and London was completed.
On that memorable day 100 years ago crowds of spectators lined the North Bridge and the slopes of the Calton Hill, Edinburgh, to witness two trains, made up in all of 38 carriages and 9 locomotives, depart from the station which was situated on the east side of the North Bridge. These trains conveyed 700 guests to Berwick who, on the return journey, were entertained at Dunbar on the lavish scale customary at that period. A few days later, on zznd June, 1846, the line was opened to public traffic. The Act incorporating the North British Railway received the Royal Assent in July, 1844, and construction commenced on 12 August of the same year. The work was entrusted to 12 contractors each with a separate section to complete and the construction, which was on boldly conceived lines, did not present the difficulties later to be encountered in bridging the Rivers Forth and Tay. Nevertheless, the building of the steep bank culmmatmg at Grantshouse Station, approximately 385 feet above sea level, was not easily achieved.
The North British Station in Edinburgh in 1846 was an unpretentious affair not to be compared with the present Waverley Station. It had only been open for some six weeks when the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, whose management, foreseeing the advantages to be gamed from .the building of the new railway, had obtained powers sometime previously to construct an extension from. their terminus at Haymarket to link up with the North British, brought the line into use, thus enabling passengers to travel between Glasgow and Berwick without changmg stations. From that time onwards the station was shared by both companies and was designated the General Station. The following year saw the advent of yet a third railway company, which opened Canal Street Station adjoining the General Station. This was the Edinburgh, Leith and Granton which wIth its system of drawing trains through the steep incline of Scotland Street tunnel by means of statIonary engine and cable formed an unusual feaure of travellmg in the capital for a number of years. A brief span of time had elapsed and there were thus three railways occupymg one site now contained within the boundaries of the Waverley Staion. By 1869 the growth of traffic necessitated the provision of improved facilities for these these railways, the Edinburgh and Glasgow and Edinburgh, Leith and Granton havmg by now been absorhed by the North Bnhsh.
The opening of the Forth Bridge and the expansion and popularity of railway travellIng heralded the projection of plans for a new station to be built upon this site, and thus evolved the Waverley, largely as it is today, at a cost of £1.5 million. Until the building of Waterloo Station m London,. Waverley enjoyed the distinction of being the largest station m the British Isles. It is still the largest on the L.N.E.R.
From its inception the North British pursued a progressive .polIcy and, through fluctuating fortunes, eventually became the largest railway in Scotland With the two famous bridges over the Forth and Tay giving it further distinction. The building of new lines and the absorption of other cornpanies gave the North British access to Hawick and later to Carlisle and Silloth, whilst it penetrated England at other points to Hexham, Rothbury and Morpeth. Stirling, Perth and Dundee were reached in the north and, by running powers over the Caledonian Railway, access was gained to Aberdeen. To the north west the lines to Fort William, Fort Augustus and Mallaig were acquired and it may be said, hat the North British had attained a solid position in the economic life of Scotland.

L.N.E.R. 123.
Edward Thompson, Chief Mechanical Engineer, retired on 30 June, after a career which has included service on the Midland, North Eastern, Great Northern and London and North Eastern Railways. A.H. Peppercorn appointed as his successor. Peppercorn started as a premium apprentice at Doncaster in 1905, and after gaining experience in the running sheds at Colwick he was appointed District Locomotive Superintendent at Ardsley and later at Peterborough. After serving with the Royal Engineers in the 1914-1918 war, he became District Locomotive Superintendent at Retford and subsequently returned to Doncaster where in 1923 he became Carriage and Wagon Works Manager. In 1933 he was appointed Assistant Mechanical Engineer at Stratford and in 1937 became Locomotive Running Superintendent of the L.N.E.R. Southern Area. A year later he was promoted to Mechanical Engineer, North Eastern Area, Darlington. Peppercorn returned to Doncaster again in 1941 as Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer.

L.M.S.R. 123
During WW2 there were 2,063 occasions on which bomb damage was caused, and running lines were obstructed 725 times causing blockage. One hundred passenger, goods and engine depots were severely damaged. Seventeen passengers and 51 L.M.S. staff were killed, 138 passengers and 567 staff were injured. 2,000 vehicles, including one locomotive were destroyed and 11,000 vehicles, including 73 locomotives were damaged. Poplar L.M.S. Goods Depot was the most bombed station, receiving 17 major attacks and many other minor incidents. Three large warehouses containing huge quantities of flour, grain, wool and crockery, were completely destroyed.

Forth Bridge repairs. 123.
Major work on the Forth Bridge was in progress and will continue for some time. The ends of all the main girders of the approach viaducts were being given attention. The work consisted of reconditioning the girder bearings and strengthening them in accordance with modern practice, as well as replacing the cast iron bedplates on the tops of the piers with cast steel bed plates of modern design. It is hoped that the work will be completed before the end of 1947, the southern approach being dealt with this year, and the northern approach next year.
The execution of the work has been so arranged as to cause the minimum of interference with rail services, but the lines over the Bridge will have to be closed to traffic from 12.01 to 10.00 each Sunday and for two periods of four hours in mid-week. At all. times trains will require to pass over the portion of the Bndge under repair at a greatly reduced speed.

L.N.E.R. appointment. 123
J. Blundell appointed District Locomotive Superintendent at Peterborough in succession to E. H. Baker who was recently appointed 'District Locomotive Superintendent, Gorton.

R. Opie Locomotive power, performance and rating. 123-5.
American Boiler House Power formula, also calculations of train resistance. Continued Volume 53 p. 73.

J.T. Clarke. Further French recollections. 126. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Refers back to late 1890s and motive power used from Gare St. Lazare in Paris to Gisors via Pontoise. Outside cylinder 0-4-2 built at Chartreux in 1847. The Dieppe boat trains were powered by 2-4-0 built by Fives-Lille in 1888. Also refers to Paris Exhibition of 1900.

R.B. Fellows. The Granville Express. 127-8
Postulates that Granville Express noted in the official timetables in was the first train to receive an official title. It ran from Charing Cross to Ramsgate.

Correspondence. 128
A  modern locomotive history. G. Carpenter
Re article entitled "A Modern Locomotive History" [based on Cox ILocoE Paper 457] was of special interest in that it divulged full details of the various designs produced by the earlier Chief Mechanical Engineers of the L.M.S.R., and which never appeared in traffic, for the first time. The publication of this information, on which considerable speculation and rumour has occurred from time to time, makes one realise how the various restricting influences which caused the non-appearance of these machines retarded locomotive development in the pre-Stanier era.
Perhaps the most interesting of these projected designs were the four cylinder compound 4-6-2 and 2-8-2 machines, whose dimensions are such that they appear to effectively dispose of the oft repeated argument that four cylinder compound machines of maximum dimensions cannot be constructed within the confines of the British loading gauge, as did the construction of the larger Great Western Atlantics Alliance and President some years earlier. It may be noted that the cylinders of the proposed Fowler Pacific are not greatly dissimilar in dimensions from those of the P.O.-Midi 4-8-0s of Chapelon design and that the ratio between the high and low pressure cylinder volumes is practically the same. From the cross-sectional drawings of the cylinders given in your article it would also appear that adequate bearing surfaces were obtained without the necessity for offsetting the axes of the coupling and piston rods, which is strictured as being bad practice. It would be highly interesting to know how one of these projected machines would compare with, say, one of the latest Duchess Pacifies on the same railway, of roughly comparable dimensions. This unfortunately can only be a matter for conjecture, but one would imagine that the absence of independent valve gears for the high and low pressure cylinders, whilst having the advantages of simplicity and economy in weight, would.prevent the most efficient use being made of compound workmg m conjunction with a high working pressure and modern front end design. The efficiency of the Midland compounds with this arrangement may of course be cited against this argument, but these engines do not fulfil either of the conditions mentioned and the inflexibility of the Deeley design with fixed relative cut offs, whilst admirable for fast passenger working with moderate loads, has. been reflected in their lesser success on duties of a more intermediate nature.
Both from the aspects of power output and thermal efficiency the most modern types of compound express locomotive, such as the Paris-Orleans 4-6-2 and 4-8-0 designs appear to have a considerable advantage .over British simple types of similar dimensions. Sir William Stanier has stated that the closest approach to the overall thermal efficiency of 14%, claimed for the Chapelon 4-8-0s, is that of 11% in the L.M.S.R. Pacifies of latest type and of greater weight than the French engines menboned. Similarly no British design has, on published performance, equalled or closely approached the maximum power output of the French 4-8-0s which is in the region of 4000 i.h.p. One would imagine that compounding would produce similar results if applied to locomotives used on main line freight and mixed duties and the Fowler 2-8-2 design seems to confirm possibilities in this direction.
Whilst it seems reasonable to assume from the large Fowler designs referred to in your .article, and the dimensions of the earlier Great Western De Glehn Atlantics, that there is no serious constructional difficulty in producing compound machines of almost equal power and efficiency within the British loading gauge, there would have to be a drastic revolution in driving method to produce the best results from such machines unless the fixed ratio of cut off and Derby regulator of Midland design was used. Unless adequate theoretical instruction in compound design and handling were given, as is the case on the Continent, it is likely that results similar to those which attended the introduction of engines with modern front end arrangements on lines where conventional driving methods prevailed would occur again. Shed staff would also need special instruction for maintenance of the rather more complicated mechanism of compound engines although neither of these difficulties should be insurmountable.
Present day conditions of maintenance would also hamper the compounds which would seem more susceptible to the effects of poor maintenance in particular valve setting and receiver leakages. Here again, however, the present difficulties should only be temporary and can hardly be the basis of locomotive design which otherwise would be re- stricted limits of extreme simplicity for easy maintenance. Whilst all the foregoing conditions can only be accurately assessed by those in possession of detailed information it does, however, seem regrettable that no attempt has been made to incorporate compounding as applied .so successfu.lly to leading designs abroad in modern Bntish locomotive construction for comparative purpose with existing designs. This makes it the more regrettable that neither of the large Fowler designs mentioned materialised, but even the published details of their design show conclusively that there is no unsurmountable constructional difficulty if it is ever desired to introduce engines of this type.

L.M.S.R. appointments. 128
E.C. Watson Assistant Superintendent, Motive Power, Derby; W.H. Ensor Assistant Superintendent Motive Power, Watford; J.W. Phillips, District Locomotive Superintendent, Derby; A. Udell, District Locomotive Superintendent, Blackpool; F.M. Binns, ;Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Accrington; W.J. Legg, District Locomotive Superintendent, Bletchley, J.A.W. Knapman, Assistant Locomotive Superintendent, Kentish Town, V.W. Furber Assistant Locomotive Superintendent, Wellingborough.

Number 649 (14 September 1946)

Preservation of historic locomotives. 129-30
Editorial prompted by reprieve of Midland Railway No. 158 (Kirtley locomotive built in 1866). Notes importance of public access and cites Darlington station and dangerws of open air display and cites Invicta. Questions whether restoration to tyhe original state should be attepted and cites Aerolite.

New saloons for the Royal Train. 130-2. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations and plans)
The King and Queen's saloons are illustrated, but not the power car (electricity generator) and staff accommodation car. All ran on six wheel bogies, had Pullman gangways and Buckeye couplers. The sallons were fitted with armour plated glass and had steel shutters. Wide double doors enabled regal entrances and exits. Rubber bushes were fiited to reduce vibration. Asbestos insulation was widely used.

L.M.S.R. 132
At Euston Station, locomotive No. 5633 Jubilee Class, was formally named Aden by Lt.-Col. Sir Bernard Reilly, K.C.M.G., C.I.E., O.B.E., who was the first Governor of Aden when it became a Colony in 1937. Sir Robert Burrows, Chairman of the L.M.S. Railway, presided, and was supported by other L.M.S. officers. The guests included J. M. Martin, C.B. C.V.O., Assistant Under-Secretary of State, and Trafford Smith, Head of the Middle East Department, Colonial Office.
The locomotive Aden is one of 189 units of the L.M.S. Jubilee class, a large number of which are named after Dominions, Colonies and Mandated Territories of the British Empire. It was a red-letter day for Driver A.T.W. Castle, for not only was he selected to man No. 5633 for the ceremony, but it was also his 44th birthday. Driver Castle entered the railway service in 1917 and has been a driver for ten years; in September, 1945, he returned to the L.M.S. after 6 years Army service, in the course of which he became C.S.M. of an Indian Railway Operating Unit, and spent some time at Aden on his way to India. Assisting Driver Castle was Fireman J. Page, who entered the railway service in 1934 and became fireman in 1937. He served in the Army from September, 1939, until June of this year, being a Driver Instructor in the South African Royal Engineers. The flag covering the name-plate was the Blue Ensign, with the Union Jack in the left-hand upper corner. The badge is a circle, the background of which is sky blue. A dhow with two sails is superimposed on six wavy lines in alternate blue and white lines.

L.M.S. and L.N.E.R. Testing Station. 132
D.W. Stanford appointed Superintending Engineer of the locomotive testing station at Rugby: entered the Midland Railway works, Derby, in 1912, and later became chief draughtsman there.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.135-7. 4 illustrations
Brittain 0-6-0STs supplied by Neilson & Co. in 1881 (WN2697-2702; RN 486-491) were known on Clydeside as steamboats due to their large hand brake. They had 18 x 22in outside cylinders, 4ft coupled wheels; 1050ft2 total heating surface and 14.75ft2 grate area. Three were rebuilt with a lightly larger boiler (1090.7ft2 total heating surface) and for a time higher (150 psi) boiler pressure. These were Nos. 486, 487 and 489. In 1913 Nos. 486 and 487 were sold to United Collieries Ltd for use at Quarter Colliery where they became Nos. 10 and 11. No. 10 received a new firebox in 1929 at Arnott & Co.'s works in Airdrie, No. 489 was kept at Motherwell shed as a spare and became LMS No. 16150, but this number was never carried: it was scrapped in 1928, but the other two lasted until 1935 and 1938.
The Brittain Oban Bogie or 179 class and were built by Dubs & Co. in 1882 (WN 1672-1681; RN 179-188). When built they were fitted with Stirling's steam reversing gear. They had an axle load of only 14½ tons and were fitted with four-wheel tenders as only 40ft turntables were available. Originally they had a small enamelled medallion with the Lion of Scotland rampant fixed on the cab side sheet. The class both as built and rebuilt presented a very neat and singular appearance and were never heavy on maintenance. This was the last passenger class to have outside cylinders until Pickersgill brought out the 60 class of 4-6-0 in 1916, thirty-four years later. They had 18 in. by 24 in. cylinders; 5 ft. 2 in. coupled wheels; 1146.42ft2 total heating surface and 14.4ft2 grate area. They were rebuilt between 1898 and 1901 with new boilers with 1085.9ft2 total heating surface and 17ft2 grate area with the boiler pressure raised to 150 psi, from 130psi. Folloowing the introduction of the McIntosh 4-6-0s to the Oban line the class was moved to working branch lines, such as the Blairgowrie, Moffat and Solway Junction lines. Eight survived to enter LMS stock and three carried LMS livery: the last were withdrawn in 1930.

G.W.R. 137
New engines in service: 4-6-0 No. 7002 Devizes Castle; No. 7003 Elmley Castle; No. 7004 Eastnor Castle; No. 7005 Lamphey Castle; No. 7006 Lydford Castle. 0-6-0T Nos. 9649-9651.

L.M.S.R. 137
New locomotives in service: 4-6-0 Mixed Traffic, Class 5 (built at Crewe) 4979, 4980, 4981; (built at Horwich) 4963, 4964, 4965, 4966; 2-6-4 Tank, Class 4 (built at Derby) 2233, 2234, 2235. The following engines have been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 3P 14686 (Highland); 4-4-0 Class 3P 755 (Midland) 14442 (Caledonian) ; Class 2P 14332 (Caledonian); 4-6-2 Class 4PT 15357 (Caledonian); 2-4-2 Class 3PT 10935, 10941 (L. & Y.); Class 2PT 10787, 10809, 10871, 10874 (L. & Y.); Class 'PT 6607 (L. & N.W.); 0-6-2 Class 2PT 6893, 6925 (L. & N:W.); 0-4-4 Class 1PT 1286 (Midland); Class 2PT 15131 (Caledonian); 0-6-0 Class 2F 3055, 3056, 3121, 3352, 3416, 3518, 3695, 22928 (Midland). 12039 (L. & Y.), 28420 (L. & N.W.); Class 3F 12143 (L. & Y.); 0-8-4 Class 7FT 7950, 7955 (L. & N.W.); 0-8-2 Class 6FT 7897 (L. & N.W.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT 27571, 27662 (L. & N.W.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT 1751, 1771, 1876 (Midland).

R.A.S. Abbott. The broad-gauge locomotives of the Vale of Neath Railway. 140-1. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
According to RCTS. Locomotives of the Great Western Railway. V. 2 this account contains some inaccuracies. Two wheel arrangements: 4-4-0ST for passenger work and 0-6-0ST (both illustrated, but other drawings, also by Abbott in RCTS publication!).. Also refers to Locomotive Mag., 1902, 7, 18.

Number 650 (15 October 1946)

Influence of the rear truck. 145-6
Feature of Great Northern Railway, notably the Ivatt Atlantics which permitted a greater grate area and firebox volume; but led to some loss of adhesion; although gave comfort to the footplate crew through better ride and possibly less harm to the track.

L.M.S. No.6254 "City of Stoke-on-Trent". 146. illustration, diagram. (side & front elevations)
Ceremony held at Stoke-on-Trent station on Friday, 20 September 1946, the new 4-6-2 locomotive No. 6254 was formally named City of Stoke-on-Trent by the Lord Mayor (Councillor Percy Williams, J .P .). Sir Francis Joseph, a director of the L:M.S., presided and was supported by T. W. Royle (Vice-President), H. G. Ivatt (Chief Mechanical Engineer) and other officers of the Company, whilst the guests included a number of prominent representatives of the civic and industrial life of Stoke-on-Trent. The locomotive was manned for the ceremony by Driver Henry Brindley and Passed Fireman Clive Robinson of Stoke-on-Trent, both of whom have distinguished records of public service in the city. Driver Brindley was a City Councillor 1919-22; he has been in the railway service since 1899 and a driver for 27 years. No. 6254 was one of three Class 7P 4-6-2 express passenger engines which are being constructed at Crewe Works in 1946.

Lancaster and Carlisle Railway. 146
The opening for traffic of the first completed section of the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway between Lancaster and Oxenholme, a distance of 20 miles, took place on 22 September 1846. There was brought into use the first 2 miles, between Oxenholme and Kendal, of the Windermere branch, which was constructed by the Kendal and Windermere Railway Company. With the opening of the railway from Lancaster to Oxenholme, what is now the main L.M.S. West Coast route to Scotland, was brought to within 50 miles of the Border City of Carlisle, to which the railway was extended in December 1846. At the time of the opening of the L. & C.A., Carnforth which has since become one of the most important junctions on the West Coast, was merely a wayside halt. The principal engineering feature between Lancaster and Oxenholme was the bridge carrying the railway 60 ft. above the River Lune immediately North of Lancaster. The Lancaster and Carlisle Railway began at a junction with the Lancaster and Preston Junction Railway about one mile south of Lancaster (Castle) Station, and with the opening of the latter, passenger traffic ceased to use Lancaster's original railway station—the terminus of the Lancaster and Preston Junction Railway, opened in 1846. It has since been used as a goods station.

New saloons for the Royal Train. 147-50. 7 illustrations, diagram (side elevation and plan)
Illustrations show the King's bathroom and bedroom, the Queen's bedroom and both of their lounges, and the exterior of the staff car cum brake van and generator car, and the interior of the last. Text describes air conditioning and services.

Tractors at Crewe Works, L.M.S.R. 150-1. 2 illustrations
Lancing Bagnall Ltd. tractors with petrol engines

Shoe beams on London Transport rolling stock. 152. illustration
Steel used in place of teak. Sp ring suspension see 53., 12.

Loco modernisation on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 153-5. 3 illustrations, diagram. (side elevation)

High frequency generator. 155. diagram

David L. Smith. The Girvan and Portpatrick Junction Railway. 156-8. 3 illustrations

L.M.S.R. 158
New locomotives in service: 2-6-4 Tank —Class 4 Nos. 2236, 2237, 2238, 2239 and 2240 (built at Derby). The following engines had been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 4P No. 25818 (L. & N.W.R. Prince of Wales Class; 4-4-0 Class 3P No. 25277 Oberon (L. & N.W.R. Precursor Class); 2-4-2 Class 1PT Nos. 6652, 6713 (L. & N.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2PT No. 6936 (L. & N.W.); 0-4-4 (class 1PT No. 1253 (Midland); 0-8-0 Class 7F Nos. 12920, 12981, Class 6F No. 12790 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-0 Class 2F No. 17376 (Caledonian), Class 3F Nos. 12257, 12375 (L. & Y.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT Nos. 7778, 27631 (L. & N.W.R.).
A steelwork contract in connection with the renewal of engine-shed roofs at Cricklewood (N.W. London), Belle Vue (Manchester), Saltley (Birmingham), and Stourton (Leeds) had been placed with a Henley-in-Arden (Warwickshire) firm.

Personal. 158
C. A. Lyon appointed Press and Publications Officer to the London Passenger Transport Board.

Cecil J. Allen, F.R.S.A., retired from the L.N.E.R. Chief Engineer's Department after a railway career of 43 years. Allen will be known to many readers as an author on railway subjects.

A delegation of five representatives of the Danish State Railways recently visited England to confer with L.M.S. technical experts regarding smoke abatement and disposal at locomotive sheds.

The Institute of Transport. 158
Railway Companies Association 1946 Awards (f designor Graduates and Students). 1. To E.S. Hutchins (Graduate), Buenos Aires Great Southern and Western Railways. 2. To A.R. Smith (Graduate), L.M.S. Railway, Manchester.

Obituary. 158
We regret to record the death of Malcolm Patrick of the L.M.S. (N.C.C.) Belfast. Patrick was appointed locomotive superintendent of the Northern Counties Committee in 1933.


The Granville Express. Vickery
See  also letter from Reginald Fellows

Number 651 (15 November 1946)
Reconstructed from index

Bedford's first railway. 166

A proposed constant adhesion articulated locomotive. 167

Centenary of the East Anglian Railway. 169-70
Illustrations: 2-2-2 Kite and 0-4-2 Lion

Northampton & Banbury Junction Rly. 171. illustration
Towcester station and 2-2-2ST illustrated

American-built 0-6-0 tank locomotive. 175. illustration
No. 1417 illustrated

Correspondence. 176

Dutch State Railways. Keelhoff. 176
See letter from L. Derens in Volume 53 page 13

Girvan and Port Patrick Junction Railway. 176

Reviews. 176

The "Liberation" locomotive.

The L.M.S. at war.

The early history of the locomotive.

Number 652 (14 December 1946)

The L.M.S. turbine locomotive. 177-8.
Editorial comment on the Bond ILocoE Paper. Main observation was that a higher steam temperatures and pressures were essential

German 2-10-0 locomotive. 178. diagram (side elevation)
Class 50 design modified to become the Class 52. Production times reduced: 8000 man-hours achieved. Increased reliance on welding. Low axle loading and ability to negotiate sharp curves.

Loco modernisation on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 179-82. 9 illustrations
D/3 and D/4 4-6-0 classes modified with poppet valve gear. Five D/3 fitted with Lenntz poppet valves and ten D/4 fitted wth Caprotti valve gear. Experiments were also made with feedwater heating. Dabeg, Heinl and ACFI were tried but the ACFI was found to be the best, but required sensible management by the footplate crews. Coal consumption could be reduced by 13%. Grease lubrication improved performance,

Lnstltutlon of Locomotive Engineers. Presidential Address. 182
On 16 October F.S. Whalley , at a well-attended meeting of the above mentioned Institution held in London, delivered his Presidential address which he entitled "The Work of Their Craft." This address dealt with the evolution and design of the Liberation locomotives built by the Vulcan Foundry for use on the Continent and traced their derivation from Sir William Stanier's 2-8-0 locomotives and on through the Ministry of Supply engines of the same wheel arrangement. The story was exceedingly well told and was illustrated by exceptionally goorl lantern slides.
As we dealt at some length wi th the "Liberation" locomotive on page 66 et seq of the current volume we refer readers to that article for particulars of these fine engines.

Atmospheric railways. 182
On 18 October L.P. Walter read a paper to the Junior Institution of Engineers, in London, on this subject. The author had obviouslv gone to considerable trouble to collect a large amount of informa- tion and this, in conjunction with numerous interesting illustrations, resulted in a comprehensive paper on a comparatively little known page of railway history.

Newcomen Society, 25-139, 182
At a meeting held in London. Mr. E.W. Swan. O.B.E., read a paper on "Nicholas Woods' MS. Report Book." The volume consists of about 600 pages 16¼ x 10¼ inches. An item of the greatest interest is the Liverpool and Manchester Railway Competition report which includes the "Stipulations and Conditions" of the Competition.

Welded boilers. 182
Robt. B. McColl, president of the American Locomotive Company, says that the company's new facilities at Schenectady enable a completely welded locomotive boiler of any size to be built. The first ever welded locomotive boiler, on the Delaware and Hudson 2-8-0 locomotive, has been in successful service since 1937.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 183-4. illustration
On 6 August 1882, Dugald Drummond became Locomotive Superintendent at St. Rollox. Brittain was retiring but had offered to remain in the post until a suitable suocessor had teen found, although his health would let him act little more than in an advisory capacity. It is probably not so well known out of Glasgow that Drummond was not happy at Cowlairs during the seven years he was there. The men regarded him as a "rough" man after the more friendly type of Tom Wheatley and at times there were crises. By force of circumstances or the man manipulated hand of fate, Drummond found himself staying at the same hotel in the Midlands as were two directors of the Caley. According to legend agreement about the post at St. Rollox was amicably settled ere the first course had been completed.
On taking over, Drummond became custodian of a good but rather antiquated design of locomotives. The average load of the passenger trains was in keeping with the power available even if the main line trains were hauled by Conner's "eight feet" singles. There were plenty of secondary train locomotives and the only need was for a larger passenger design to permit of heavier passenger train loading but there was no need to rush a design. When Brittain resigned there was a scheme design out for a 4-4-0 tender engine which was a cross between the Dundee and the Oban bogie classes and in a way, not dissimilar to the Adams' engines of the London and South Western Rly. built about 1880 by Neilson and Co, The coupled wheels were 6 ft. 6 in. Drummond cancelled all further work on the design and his first job was the rebuilding of several 2-4-0 tender engines of class 417 with 6 ft. wheels. These were to amplify the pilot engine stock on the main line and secondary services. Whether or not this rebuilding was really necessary is doubtful, but the rebuilding certainly made better engines of those treated although the frames broke on many owing to the higher pressure of the boiler. The bell topped chimney and boiler with safety valves on the dome appeared with this rebuilding and after the stovepipe regime the effect was very pleasing. Details of the rebuilding are to be found on page 250, Locomotive,' December,1941. The road numbers of the locomotives so treated were: 420, 423, 427, 432, 1883; 422, 428, 429, 431, 433, 435, 1884; 419, 421, 424, 425, 426, 430, 473, 476, 479, 480, 483, 1885; 475, 477, 478, 484, 1886.
After the rebuilding the class became known as the Rebuild to all and this moniker remained until the last one had gone, and was used semi-officially. The greatest urgency was for a goods engine of ample dimensions which would permit ot heavier loadmg and the removal ot double-heading. The few six coupled engines on the system were mainly mineral engines on short distance traffic in the coal field areas, so that the main line trains had to be hauled by 2-4-0 and 0-4-2 classes, a goodly number of which were on the small side for the requirements of the traffic.
The first new design by Drummond was the 294 class goods six coupled engine which, with a few minor alterations was to become the largest class, numerically, to run on the Caledonian Rly. system. The design was a complete breakaway from Crewe or Allan tradition and was based on the 18 inoh goods engines built for the North British Rly. to his design in 1876 and 1877. The cylinders were inside the frames and were 18 inch diameter by 26 inch stroke. The valves were operated by Stephenson link motion and these were placed between the cylinders. In the engines built between 1884 and 1886 the exhaust was split, part going round the cylinders before escaping up the blast pipe. The intention was to keep the cylinders warm and prevent heat losses by radiation. The cost of maintenance of these steam jacketed cylinders was rather heavy and all the engines fitted with them had new cylinders fitted in course of the next few years. The wheels were 5 ft. 0 in. diameter spaced at 7 ft. 6 in. plus 8 ft. 9 in. centres, making a wheelbase of 16 ft. 3 in. The boiler barrel was 10ft. 31/8 in. long and 4 ft. 51/8,. in. minimum inside diameter, and the centre line 7 ft. 3 in, from rail level. The distance between the tubeplates was 10 ft. 7 in. There were 242 tubes 1¾ in. diameter giving a heating surface of 1,089.68 ft2. The firebox added a further 112.62 ft2., making a total of 1,202.3 ft2. The grate area was 19.50 ft2 and the working pressure 150 psi. The safety valves were 3 in. diameter and were located on the dome. The safety valves were of Ramsbottorn pattern and this type of safety valve was used by Drummond on aill the engines he built' for the Caledonian Rly.
Weight of engine in working order was 41 tons 6 cwt., made up as follows: leading coupled axle 14 tons 5 cwt. 3 qrs., driving axle 15 tons 2 cwt. 1 q r. , rear coupled axle 11 tons 18 cwt. The weight of the tender in working order was 34 tons 17 cwt., made up as follows: leading axle 10 tons 9 cwt. , middle axle 13 tons 6 cwt. I qr., rear axle 11 tons 1 cwt. 3 qr. The total wheelbase of the engine and tender was 37 ft. 4½in., total length over buffers 49 ft. 10¾in.
The tender had a toolbox placed at the rear of the frame.
The Drummond type fender had underhung springs, and the tank plates are little higher than the door, only the coping being above. The Lambie tender introduced with o. 199 had the springs above the axleboxes and were otherwise similar. Shortly afterwards a further tender was introduced with a register of 2,800 gals. of water. This tender was much higher in the tank sheets Image and the framing was cut like the original Drummond one,. that is with the large slots, but was much deeper. This tender was attached to passenger and goods engines. These engines were referred to as "maids of all work," "dividend earners" or either Blue Jumbos or Black Jumbos accarding to the colour of paint applied to them. At their introduction the habit of painting the coupling rods of all engines stationed at Motherwell a red lead colour was adapted and up to the date of the amalgamation of the railways a Motherwell engine wa:s easily located. Similarly Perth used a lighter shade of blue on passenger engines. Apart from the adoption of the divided blast cylinders in the earlier engines the only change made by Drummond was to fit, shortly before leaving the Caledonian Rly., the last six with the Westinghouse pump and brake equipment for passenger train working. The engines so treated were as. 410 to 415. These were turned out double lined black, but afterwards were painted blue. When Smellie succeeded Drummand he ordered twelve identical engines, Nos. 372 to 379, and 540 to 543, and these were fitted with the steam brake only like the Drummond built lats (with the exception of the six engines referred to already). The Smellie engines were only being laid down when Lambie became the Locomotive Superintendent, and all were finished similar to' Drummond's.
The steam brake handle for engines so fitted, was placed on the right hand side of the foot- plate, and the fireman then had to crass the cab and attend to the reversing lever if any shunting was being undertaken.
Lambie laid dawn identical engines, Nos. 544 to 563 whioh he fitted with the steam brake, and Nos. 691 to 6196 which were fitted with the Westinghouse brake and pump far passenger warkings. The class began to make a name for itself on passenger workings and some tests were undertaken on the Gourock and Edinburgh "roads." The engine established its claim ta be regarded as a mixed traffic one and from then on, the class took its share in excursion working, regular Coast traffic bookings and as pilot on trains to the North from Glasgow (Buchanan. Street Station) and also Stirling. One point which showed itself in the trials was that the boiler was over-tubed for really good steaming on passenger work and with the Drummond type of reversing handle it became the established system of working, to set the reversing lever back about three notches and to drive from the regulator. Pyrotechnic displays were provided thereby, and jn the darkness of an evening the class of engine hauling a passenger tram was never uncertain if " the sparks were flying." Lambie redesigned the boiler and shifted the safety valves from the dome too over the firebox for further engines of the class built, and reduced the number of tubes. The Larnbie boiler shell was of the same dimensionsas that of Drumrnond, but there were now only 218 tubes l¾in. diameter with a heating surface of 1,056.8 ft2. The fire- box still gave 112.62 ft2 of heatmg surface making a total of 1169.42 ft2. The boiler pressure and grate area were unaltered. The weight in working order became 40 tons 6 cwt., made up as follows: leading coupled axle 14 tons and 1 qr., driving axle 14 tons 17 cwt. 3 qr., rear coupled axle 11 tons 8 cwt.

Proposed double deck sleeping car.. 184
A new type of 3rd class sleeping car has been designed by Misha Black. and W.G.V. Vaughan, of Design Research Unit. The new design of car provides twenty private cabins, fourteen two-berth and six single-berth. This compares with provision for 32 passengers in four bunk compartments now normal in 3rd class sleeping cars and the 8-10 passengers in single-berth cabins in 1st class sleeping cars, built within the limits imposed by the British main line loading gauge. An excellent model made by Messrs. Bassett-Lowke, Northampton, on a scale of 2-inch to the foot is on view at the "Britain Can Make It" exhibition in London.

R.A.H. Weight. The Kent and East Sussex Railway in 1946. 185-6. 4 illustrations
Includes details of proposed extensions: to Tovil on outskirts of Maidstone, upon which some work had started: severe gradients led to purchase of 0-8-0T. Othe proposed extensions included Tenterden to Appledore; Northam to Rye and Robertsbridge to Pevensey. Lists loccomotive stock and liveries applied

London Transport. 186.
Conversion of boilers at Neasden Generating Station from pulverized coal to oil firing: initially oil was to be delivered by road but with full operation would be delivered by rail from Purfleet to a modified goods yard at Neasden

R.C. Bond. Ten years' experience with the L.M.S. 4-6-2 non-condensing turbine locomotive, No. 6202. 187-9. 3 tables

L.N.E.R. 189
Appointments within Chief Mechanical Engineer's Department: S. King Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer (General) to be Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer (Cost Control); R. Hart-Davis moved from Doncaster to be Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer (Locomotive and General) and W. Featherstone, formerly Assistant Works Manager, Doncaster to be Head of the C.M.E.'s Section, Purchasing Agent's Office

L.M.S.R. 189
New locomotives into service: built at Crewe class 7P passenger tender No. 6255 City of Hereford, at Derby 2-6-4 tank class 4P Nos. 2246 to 2252; and at Horwich Class 5 4-6-0 No. 4986. Also retirement of Driver L.A. Earl of Camden MPD.

L. Derrens. The Dutch State Railways Co. 190-3. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Trains from Utrecht to Amsterdam used to arrive at the Weesperpoort Station and reverse before going forward to Central Station. There was a stop signal on the sharp curve at Muiderpoort station where trains were liable to stall and in 1915 nine locomotives were obtained from the Hohenzollern Company of Dusseldorf. These were outside cylinder 0-6-0Ts. This first batch was numbered 221-9. In 1920 six further engines, Nos. 230-5 were obtained from Henschel of Kassel. Five outside cylinder 0-10-0Ts were obtained from the Hohenzollern Company. They were numbered 9501-5 and employed for hump shunting at Susteren in South Limburg. The first and fifth axles were Golsdorf sliding axles with water lubricated flanges. The cab was totally enclosed and provided with tip up seats and fascilities for warming food.

News of the month. 193

Luxembourg locomotives. 193
The Luxembourg railway administration received five new 2-10-0 steam locomotives from the Belgian National Railways in May, 1946, and another four later in the summer. Of the 40 steam locomotives of the old Prince Henri Railway removed by the Germans, 18 had been returned by last summer. At that time the Luxembourg motive power stock stood at 126- engines (10 of them foreign-owned), of which 47 were under or awaiting repair.

Polish locomotives. 193
At the beginning of the summer the locomotive stock of the Polish State Railways totalled 5,975, but of these only 2,608 Polish-owned plus 576 foreign-owned engines were in service; 223 of them were of 5 ft. gauge.

Italian electric locomotives. 193
The latest returns indicate that 768 electric locomotives are actually in service on the Italian State Railways, and that 32 of these are foreign-owned. Another 698 are under or awaiting repair, including 22 that are foreign-owned.

Norwegian locomotive statistics. 193
Retums for mid- summer, 1946, show that the Norwegian State Railways then had in traffic 268 steam locomotives (38 foreign-owned), 48 electric locomotives, 25 electric motor coaches and 22 other railcars. Corresponding totals for stock under repair were 227 (69), 11, 11, and 49: The foreign locomotives were all German. Total daily locomotive kilometrage amounted to 79,658 km.

American-built locos for U.S.S.R. 193
Up to well on in 1946 powerful steam locomotives were still being built for the U.S.S.R. by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. They were of the 2-10-0 type with two 25 in. by 28 in. cylinders, 52-in. wheels, 180 lb. pressure, and 218,500 lb. weight,. of which 192,500 lb. was on the coupled wheels. Mechanical' stokers were standard equipment. The American Locomotive Company also has delivered 13 locomotives of the 2-10-0 type to the U.S.S.R. during 1946.

Biggest diesel locomotive. 193
The Kansas City Southern Railroad had put into traffic in a steeply-graded division a four-unit diesel electric locomotive of 8,000 b.h.p., the power units being four 2,000 b.h.p. Fairbanks-Morse oil engines. The locomotive is 259 ft. 4 in. long, weighs 560 tons, and has a top speed of 65 m.p.h.

Chilean locomotive order. 193
The Chilean State Railways placed an order with the Baldwin Locomotive Works for 12 steam locomotives of the 4-8-2 wheel arrangement for the 5 ft. 3 in. gauge lines.

Egyptian proposals. 193
In addition to the orders placed in England for about £1 million worth of diesel locomotives and diesel trains, the Egyptian State Railways had been enquiring for eight 2-4-2 steam locomotives, two of the- 2-8-2 type. and from 10 to 30 of the 4-6-0 type.

Correspondence, 194

R.O.D. reminiscence. N. Duncan.
Arthur L. Stead's "Light Railway Memories" brought home to me very vividly certain memories of my own regarding the R.O.D. in WW1. On the docks at Le Havre an old friend of mine was the Baldwin 0-4-0 saddletank No. 97 which alternated with the French Etat shunting engines in the task of shunting that portion of Havre Docks under British Military control. No 97 with its outside cylinders and brown ochre livery was a noisy, good natured little engine which. if it did n?t display the hauling capacities of its very much older French confreres, made up. for its deficiencies by a " We must win the war" complex. With its clanging bell it was at its best when careering along the dockside at top speed with one or two large four-wheeled French box cars. Later, in 1918, a Baldwin 0-6-0 outside cylinder side tank No. 115 R.O.D. appeared but I believe this engine was stationed at Gare Maritime.
Apropos the light railway organisation it was a common sight on Havre Docks in those days to see two of the 4-6-0 side tanks for the 60 centimetre lines " going up the Ime" loaded two apiece, standing chimney to chimney, on a large bogie flat wagon such as were used for conveying tanks to. the front line. I echo Mr. Stead's remarks re the good fellowship which prevailed amongst all ranks in World War 1 and only wish we could recover it today.

The first locomotive in Natal. M.M. Loubser
In reply to John Poole's letter which appeared in July Issue I have to state that the first locomotive to work in South Africa was the Natal engir:e. This little engine, of approximately 24 tons in full working order, was purchased by the Natal Railway Com:pany (private enterprise) in 1860. The cylinders, 10 inch diameter by 16 inch stroke, were arranged at an angle and fitted outside the 5/8 in. thick plate frame. An interesting feature of the Natal is that the Stephensou's link motion was arranged between the driving wheels and axleboxes.
The second engine purchased by the Company was named Persever:ance and worked the extension of the 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge line between Durban and the Umgeni River, a distance of approximately four miles. This engine had a wheel arrangement of 4-4-0 type and driving wheels 4 ft. 3 in. diameter. The cylinders were 14 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke. During 1876 the Natal Government Railways purchased all assets of the Railway Company and replaced the 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge with 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. The Perseuerance engine was. later converted into a stationary engine and used for driving machinery and plant in the Durban Workshops (N.G.R.) being finally scrapped in 1887. The small four-wheeled tender referred to was built in the Durban Workshops (N.G.R.) during 1887 for the Havelock. engine. This engine was the first designed and built in South Afnca. The small tender was later used at Greytown to hold bunker coal for a stationary pumping plant at that station. . I shall be glad to know the name of the makers of the Natal engine

Reviews. 194

Furness railway: its rise and development, W. McGowan Gradon
A history of the Furness Railway from 1846 up to the groupmg of the railways in 1923. There are in all 14 chapters and a number of illustrations, largely of different locomotives, and several maps, indicating different stages of development of the line and proposed routes. On the whole, the author has succeeded in putting together a very interesting account of the history of this railway, which was one of the more important of the smaller companies which now go to make up the London Midland and Scottish undertaking. Here and there in the course of his narrative there are some slight mistakes; for instance, A. Aslett went to the Furness line from the Cambrian not as Secretary but as General Manager; the position of General Manager and Secretary was not assumed till later. Further, . W.F. Pettigrew went to Barrow in 1897 to take up duties of Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent, thus taking the place of R. Mason, who formerly had charge of the locomotives, and Sutton, who had been Carriage and Wagon Superintendent.
In general, the locomotive history of the Furness and of the small West Cumberland lines which ultimately became part of the Furness line is well told. Here again, however, there are one or two slight mistakes. As a case in point, the 4-4-0 engines of 1901, Nos. 126, 127, 128 and 129, had 6 ft. 6 in. driving wheels and were built by Sharp, Stewart and Co., Ltd., Glasgow, not by the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd., which, at that date, had not been formed; further, the 4-4-0 engines of the 130 class had 6 ft. 0 in. coupled wheels.

The Hull  and Barnsley Railway. G.D. Parkes. Oakwood Press,
A well-produced booklet (based on a lecture given to the Oxford University Railway Society) which recapitulates succinctly the history of this railway during the forty-two years of its separate existence. Particulars of the locomotives are included.

L.M.S. Advertising and Publicity Department 194
Attractive folders on the Barrow Harbour and Docks, Fleetwood Harbour and Wyre Docks, Grangemouth, and the Harbours of Ayr and Troon. Each folder includes a large scale map showing port accommodation, cranage equipment, etc., also text and illustrations describing their main features.

Trade news and notes. 194

British Timken Ltd. 194
Films exhibited by British Timken Ltd. which dealt with slipping tests of locomotives, conducted on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincey Railroad, the application and assembly of Timken bearings on locomotives of the same road and research in the fatigue of metals-the last mentioned being based on work carried out in the Timken Research Laboratory. Clifford L. Eastbury of the Railway Division of the Timken Roller Bearing Company, of Canton, U.S.A., has played a leading part in the development of Timken bearing applications, was present and in addition to add- ing considerably to the interest of the films—themselves of very great interest—by his explanation of various matters, also dealt with various points afterwards raised by the many locomotive engineers present.

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